主题:女真的汉化道路与大金帝国的覆亡 -- 欧麦嘉

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2003-05-04 06:51:33
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欧麦嘉欧麦嘉`361`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`0`146`2372`正七品上:朝请郎|致果校尉`2003-05-04 06:15:28`
女真的汉化道路与大金帝国的覆亡 15

北京大学中国古代史研究中心 刘浦江

   【提要】应当如何评价金朝的汉化程度,中外学者历来各执一词。本文认为金朝是一个典型的北方民族汉化王朝。与农耕民族生活方式的接近,女真人的大量移民汉地,政治制度上采取的汉制一元化,以及汉地本位的确立,是决定女真汉化的主要因素。

   金朝中期,世宗和章宗为了遏止女真人的汉化趋势,发起一场女真文化复兴运动,企图保存女真民族传统,但却未能达到其预期的目的,最终不得不放弃了对汉文化的抵抗。

   蒙元初期,人们曾以“金以儒亡”说来解释金朝的亡国原因。本文对此的理解是:其一,女真人的汉化改变了他们质朴的民族传统,养成懒惰奢靡的生活作风,使这个民族最终走向衰落;其二,女真人的汉化彻底销蚀了其传统的尚武精神,使得这个昔日强大无比的马上民族在蒙古人的铁蹄下变得不堪一击。

Sinicization of Jurchen and the Fall of Great Jin Empire

Liu Pujiang

Summary

Domestic and international scholars have held different views on the extent to which the Jurchen changed their social and cultural characters towards the Han Chinese. The present paper illuminates that Jin was a typical dynasty of the northern nationality assimilating itself to the Han culture. The main factors that determine Jurchen’s sinicization are reflected in several aspects, such as gaining access to agricultural livelihoods, a big amount of Jurchen migrating in Han areas, adopting the Han political system as unified, and establishing its governmental authorities among the Han people.

In the middle of the Jin Dynasty, Emperors Shizong and Zhangzong called for a campaign of the Jurchen cultural rejuvenation, in order to stop the sinicization and retain the Jurchen cultural tradition. But they failed and had eventually to give up the resistance of the Han culture.

In the early Mongol-Yuan Dynasty, some people construed the reason for the fall of the Jin Dynastry as the influence of Confucianism (“金以儒亡”). This paper understands the reasons as follows: 1) Jurchen’s sinicization changed its plain cultural tradition, and nourished a kind of lazy, sluggish, and extravagant life styles; such a common practice ultimately made it declined. 2) Jurchen’s sinicization totally corroded its traditional agile and valiant spirit, and that led the dynasty which once was very strong and powerful to failure under the Mongolian offensive.

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