主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

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2018-07-06 02:35:46
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万年看客万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`7`25625`186730`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
狂徒与廷臣4 3

上文当中描写的都铎时代伦敦未免太惨淡了一点。为了平衡起见,接下来我们要看一看另一位截然不同的女性的作品。这位伊莎贝拉.惠特妮是英国第一位出版作品的世俗诗歌职业作家。我们对于她的生平所知不多。她来自柴郡,后来来到伦敦帮佣。她的诗文简洁明快,具有明显的女性视角,与都铎时代更著名的男性诗人们笔下充满宫廷气派与性暗示的十四行诗相映成趣。在下面这段诗文当中,她警告恋爱当中的大户人家小姐以及女佣们,要当心男人们耍花样。诗中的“人鱼”一词原本是妓女的委婉语,作者颠覆了这个词的本意,在这里拿来代指放荡的男性恋人。笔者认为这个词还暗指了当时伦敦诗歌与剧作圈子的成员们经常光顾的人鱼酒馆。假如当真如此,那么惠特妮的诗歌就是在直接回应伊丽莎白时代的英国文坛浮华卖弄的风气。

Ye Virgins, ye from Cupid's tents

do bear away the foil,

Whose hearts as yet with raging love

most painfully do boil.

来自丘比特帐幕的姑娘们

要小心这些害人精,

全都憋了一肚子沸腾欲念

天晓得有多么烧心。

To you I speak: for you be they

that good advice do lack:

Oh, if I could good counsell get,

my tongue should not be slack.

这话说给你们听,因为你们

当前尤其缺乏良言规劝。

唉,其实我也不算洞明事理

只会喋喋不休惹人生厌。

But such as I can give, I will

here in few words express,

Which, if you do observe, it will

some of your care redress.

但是凭借我这点人生经验

总还忍不住要叨扰叨扰。

如果说你们还能听得进去

多少可以免除些许烦恼。

Beware of fair and painted talk,

beware of flattering tongues:

The Mermaids do pretend no good

for all their pleasant songs.

油头粉面之辈的甜言蜜语

他说你听一定要多加留神。

人鱼的歌声虽然美妙动听

心里想的却都是如何坑人。

Some use the tears of crocodiles,

contrary to their heart:

And if they cannot always weep,

they wet their cheeks by art.

有些人惯用鳄鱼的眼泪

无非为了掩饰那点花花心肠。

万一急切之间哭不出来

使些手段也能逼出泪水两行。

Ovid, within his Art of Love,

doth teach them this same knack

To wet their hand and touch their eyes,

so oft as tears they lack.

奥维德著有《爱经》三卷

记载了不少此类计策。

打湿双手再去使劲揉眼

就不愁眼珠时常干涩。

接下来诗人亮出了女性特有的视角。许多挺着胯下大器的十四行诗作家都喜欢美化男性恋人,但是伊莎贝拉却觉得他们笔下的大情圣们无非是一帮靠不住的花花公子。

Trust not a man at the first sight

but try him well before:

I wish all maids within their breasts

to keep this thing in store.

一见钟情绝对要不得,

事前考察不可缺少。

衷心希望各位姑娘们

进退取舍仔细想好。

For trial shall declare his truth

and show what he doth think,

Whether he be a lover true,

or do intend to shrink.

通过考察看清他的真心

将他的心思明白判断。

看他究竟是在寻求真爱

还是说随便玩玩就算。

约翰.邓恩与莎士比亚的笔下可不会出现这样的意象。在另一首更出名的诗歌当中,伊莎贝拉将自己数量不多的财产留给了伦敦市。安妮.阿斯科笔下的伦敦是道德冲突的阴森战区,伊莎贝拉笔下的伦敦却是贸易交流的热闹枢纽。

I whole in body, and in mind,

but very weak in purse,

Do make, and write my testament

for fear it will be worse.

我的身体与心智都很健全

唯一孱弱的就是钱包

谨在这里写下这份遗嘱,

以防情况变得更糟。

……

And now let me dispose such things

as I shall leave behind,

That those which shall receive the same

may know my willing mind.

现在我要处置身后之物

将赠与安排详细讲一讲。

接受了我的遗产的人们

应当知道我的所思所想。

I first of all to London leave,

because I there was bred,

Brave buildings rare, of churches store,

and Paul’s to the head.

我的遗产就是这座伦敦城,

因为我曾经在这里成长。

楼宇壮丽,教堂众多,

圣保罗占地最为宽广。

Between the same, fair streets there be

and people goodly store;

Because their keeping craveth cost, requires

I yet will leave them more.

同样宽广的漂亮街道

良善市民从事各行各业。

为了满足他们的需求

我愿意捐献出我的一切。

First for their food, I butchers leave,

that every day shall kill;

By Thames you shall have brewers’ store,

and bakers at your will.

为了三餐,我留下了许多屠夫

日复一日宰杀牲畜只是寻常;

还有泰晤士河沿岸的啤酒屋;

当然更不能忘记了面包作坊。

And such as orders do observe,

and eat fish thrice a week,

I leave two streets, full fraught therewith,

they need not far to seek.

既然国王颁布法令

每人每周都要吃鱼三次,

我留下了两条街道,

伦敦市民家门口的鱼市。

Watling Street, and Canwick Street,

I full of woolen leave;

And linen store in Friday Street,

if they me not deceive.

我留下了沃廷街与坎维克街

祝愿他们的羊毛生意越做越好。

我留下了礼拜五大街的亚麻店铺

希望他们今后莫要将尺寸短少。

And those which are of calling such,

that costlier they require,

I mercers leave, with silk so rich,

as any would desire.

也有些人生活较为富足

养成了更加高端的胃口。

我为你们留下丝绸商贩

各色奢饰品他们全都有。

In Cheap of them, they store shall find,

and likewise in that street,

I goldsmiths leave, with jewels such,

as are for ladies meet.

他们的店铺遍布在奇普赛德大街

街道位置就在圣保罗大教堂隔壁。

在那里我还留下了黄金珠宝匠人,

各种首饰保准让夫人太太们满意

And plate to furnish cupboards with

full brave there shall you find,

With purl of silver and of gold

to satisfy your mind.

要是嫌碗橱里面缺乏装饰,

这里还出售各种高档餐具。

金丝银线镶嵌出各色图样,

保证满足有钱主顾的心意。

With hoods, bongraces, hats, or caps, sunshades

such store are in that street,

As if on tone side you should miss,

the tother serves you feat.

要想采购兜帽、礼帽、便帽或者遮阳帽

也不妨在这条街道上转转。

细细走访,莫要心急,

这家没有就再去那家看看。

For nets of every kind of sort,

I leave within the pawn,

French ruffs, high purls, gorgets, and sleeves

of any kind of lawn.

女士们要想采买发网与其他女装饰品,

我留下了皇家交易所门口的走卒集市。

来自法国的飞边、流苏、护胸与头巾,

用料粗细不一,都是亚麻质地。

For purse or knives, for comb or glass,

or any needful knack,

I by the Stocks have left a boy

will ask you what you lack.

要是缺少钱包、小刀、梳子、镜子

以及各种日常用品,不必着忙

我在市中心的斯托克集市

为你们留下了一名百货郎。

I hose do leave in Birchin Lane,

of any kind of size,

For women stitched, for men both trunks

and those of Gascon guise

我将紧身男裤留在了桦树大道

各种尺码款式任君挑选。

无论是女士想要换换口味

还是男士想将个人风格展览。

Boots, shoes, or pantables good store,

Saint Martin’s hath for you;

In Cornwall, there I leave you beds,

and all that ’longs thereto.

长靴、便鞋以及鞋套

圣马丁教堂那边应有尽有。

我将床铺留在康沃尔广场周边

顺便还留下了被褥枕头。

For women, shall you tailors have:

by Bow, the chiefest dwell;

In every lane you some shall find

can do indifferent well.

为了各位女士,我在弓街留下了

女装裁缝的第一流行业翘楚。

不过要是对于手艺不太挑剔,

各条街道都有人擅长裁剪缝补。

And for the men, few streets or lanes,

but body-makers be,

And such as make the sweeping cloaks

with guards beneath the knee.

男装裁缝更是到处开张

随便走走就肯定能遇见。

最擅长制作拖地的斗篷,

花边装饰紧紧贴着脚面。

Artillery at Temple Bar

and dagges at Tower Hill;

Swords and bucklers of the best

are nigh the Fleet until.

要买枪支去圣殿酒吧

买匕首要去高塔山。

舰队街附近的武器市场

当真称得上剑利盾坚。

Now when thy folk are fed and clad

with such as I have named,

For dainty mouths and stomachs weak

some junkets must be framed.

既然通过上述提到的店铺

人们已经解决了穿衣吃饭,

有些人嘴巴挑剔肠胃娇弱

不妨来块牛奶布丁口味清淡。

Wherefore I apothecaries leave,

with banquets in their shop;

Physicians also for the sick,

diseases for to stop.

我还留下了若干药房

店里的药物五花八门

医生们既会调理保健

要紧时也能治病救人。

Some roisters still must bide in thee,

and such as cut it out,

That with the guiltless quarrel will,

to let their blood about.

伦敦城的流氓地痞当真不少

一天到晚咋咋呼呼。

全无根由动不动就与人动手

头破血流全不在乎。

For them I cunning surgeons leave,

some plasters to apply,

That ruffians may not still be hanged,

nor quiet persons die.

我为他们留下了高明的外科医生

往伤口上糊几把药膏,

免得他们活不到接受绞刑那天

就悄悄将这条性命报销。

For salt, oatmeal, candles, soap,

or what you else do want,

In many places shops are full,

I left you nothing scant......

食盐、燕麦、蜡烛、肥皂

以及各种日用百货,

街头巷尾到处可见

我这里就不再啰嗦……

物质生活极大丰富的商业化现代大都市的雏形在这段诗文当中已经可以窥见一二了。显而易见,伊莎贝拉.惠特妮的伦敦是一座充满挑战的快节奏城市,就像今天一样。


2018-07-06 02:35:46
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