主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

2019-11-12 21:24:49万年看客
只要大笑就好吗?英国的毛拉与快感问题2

不过在这个宗教大辩论与爱情诗歌的时代,我们却很难听到女性的声音。现代英国初期的厌女风气尤其在清教革命期间得到了强化,因为当时人们广泛地将原罪与夏娃联系在一起。因此接下来的情况就很有趣了:在凤毛麟角的几位最早将诗作付梓的女性英国诗人当中,有一位的最成功诗作的主题正是为夏娃——换句话说就是女性的整体地位——进行辩护。这位艾米莉亚.拉尼尔也是当时汇聚在宫廷的艺术精英阶层的一员。她的父亲是伊丽莎白一世女王从威尼斯招来的乐师,她本人与一位年长的贵族公开维持了多年恋情,然后不太幸福地嫁给了一位表亲,最终高寿而亡。有些学者相信拉尼尔一家是犹太人,而且她本人就是莎士比亚在十四行诗里提到的“黑肤女郎”,不过这方面的证据很稀少。对于我们来说远远更加重要的她本人的诗作。在她的名作《万福上帝,犹太人的国王》(salve Deus Rex Judaeorum)当中,她辩称亚当要为背叛上帝与原罪承担比夏娃更大的责任:

Till now your indiscretion sets us free,

And makes our former fault much lesse appeare;

Our Mother Eve, who tasted of the Tree,

Giving to Adam what she held most deare,

Was simply good, and had no powre to see,

The after-comming harme did not appeare:

The subtile serpent that our sex betraide,

Before our fall so sure a plot had laide.

您的失察倒是让我们得到了解脱,*

极大地遮掩了我们曾经的过失;

我们的母亲夏娃,品尝了禁果,

觉得是至上的宝贝,才叫来亚当同吃;

她用心纯良,不知已闯下大祸,

后患尚未显露,日后结果她无力预知;

阴险的蛇背叛了我们全体女性,

在我们堕落之前就将毒计敲定。

*【“您”在上文中指代彼拉多。“您的失察”指的是彼拉多处死耶稣。】

That undiscerning Ignorance perceav'd

No guile, or craft that was by him intended;

For, had she knowne of what we were bereavid,

To his request she had not condiscended

But she (poore soule) by cunning was deceav'd,

No hurt therein her harmelesse Heart intended:

For she alleadg'd Gods word, which he denies,

That they should die, but even as Gods, be wise.

纯真的夏娃尚且不知区分善恶,

毫无机心,怎能看穿蛇的满腹奸计?

若是她早知道我们将会被剥夺什么,

绝不会听从蛇的佞言如蜜。

但她那可怜的灵魂终究被狡诈骗过,

尽管她心里从没有害人之意。

她引用了上帝的训诫,却被蛇驳斥,

“你们不会死,而是会像上帝一样明智。”

But surely Adam can not be excus'd,

Her fault, though great, yet hee was most too blame;

What Weaknesse offerd, strength might have refus'd,

Being Lord of all, the greater was his shame:

Although the serpents craft had her abus'd,

Gods holy word ought all his actions frame:

For he was Lord and King of all the earth,

Before poore Eve had either life or breath.

但是亚当在这件事里也难辞其咎,

她的过错虽大,他却更加值得责备;

弱者动摇之际,强者兴许不会被左右

他既是万物之主,理应更加感到羞愧。

诚然,她没能经得起蛇的巧言劝诱,

可他的一切举止更不该将上帝圣言违背。

当上帝封他做地土的主宰与君王之际,

可怜的夏娃还未得生命,未曾喘一口气。

...And then to lay the fault on Patience backe,

That we (poore women) must endure it all;

We know right well he did discretion lacke,

Beeing not perswaded thereunto at all;

If Eve did erre, it was for knowledge sake,

The fruit beeing faire perswaded him to fall:

No subtill serpents falshood did betray him,

If he would eate it, who had powre to stay him?

……这样说来,莫不是老实人多受欺负,

我们可怜的女性必须独自受过?

我们知道他心里其实也是一团糊涂,

甚至都不用蛇出面来将他诱惑。

夏娃犯错是为了获得知识的缘故,

他的堕落却是因为果实味道不错。

他可没有受到阴险之蛇的诡计蒙蔽,

他自己非要吃,谁能从他口中夺去?

...If any Evill did in her remaine,

Beeing made of him, he was the ground of all;

If one of many Worlds could lay a staine

Upon our sexe, and worke so great a fall

To wretched Man, by satans subtill traine;

What will so fowle a fault amongst you all?

Her weakenesse did the serpents words obay;

But you in malice Gods deare sonne betray.

若是有任何邪恶在女性身上残存,

根源也在男性,因为男性是造女性的材料。

若是大千世界之一能将女性染上污痕,

在撒旦的筹划之下布设了层层圈套,

这才导致了堕落,坑害了可悲的男人;

你们当中最肮脏的过错又有谁知道?

她因为软弱才受到了蛇的巧言欺骗,

你们却出于恶意将上帝的爱子背叛。

仅就文采节律而言,这几段诗文并不算特别朗朗上口。但是诗文内容却堪比短兵相接,直接挑战了伊丽莎白时代英国将女性贬斥为原罪容器的男性意识形态。除了本诗以外几乎再没有其他作品发起过类似的挑战。接下来拉尼尔更是勇敢地得出了她自己的结论:

Then let us have our Libertie againe,

And challendge to your selves no sov'raigntie;

You came not in the world without our paine,

Make that a barre against your crueltie;

Your fault beeing greater, why should you disdaine

Our beeing your equals, free from tyranny?

If one weake woman simply did offend,

This sinne of yours, hath no excuse, nor end.

所以让我们夺回自由,大胆发声,

且看你们有何颜面继续将我们辖制;

若非女性承受痛苦,男性怎能降生?

你们的残忍理应因此受到限制。

凭什么鄙视我们,你们的过错远远更重,

我们只想与你们平等,摆脱暴政统治。

若是一名弱女子的过错要被反复批判,

你们的罪孽更没有借口,更加长流不断。

就算拉尼尔平生仅仅写了这一首诗,她也完全有资格成为这一时期最值得研究的诗人之一——她的作品显然极大地动摇了我们对于伊丽莎白时代以及詹姆斯一世时代的固有理解。但是在同一部诗集的先前篇章里,拉尼尔还写了一首献给金主多赛特女伯爵的诗,在诗中将批判矛头指向了贵族阶级与贵族出身。请看《致多赛特女伯爵安妮女士》(To The Lady Anne, Countess of Dorset)的节选:

Greatness is no sure frame to build upon,

No worldly treasure can assure that place;

God makes both even, the cottage with the Throne:

All worldly honours there are counted base …

显赫的血统绝非稳固的地基,

人间的财宝买不到天堂的位置;

在上帝看来,农舍与王座平等如一,

人间的尊号在天堂一文不值……

Titles of honour which the world bestows

To none but the virtuous doth belong;

As beauteous bowers where true worth should repose,

And where his dwelling should be built most strong.

But when they are bestowed upon her foes,

Poor Virtue’s friends endure the greatest wrong;

For they must suffer all indignity,

Until in heaven they better graced be.

人间的头衔在天堂并无一席之地

唯有德行才能在那里放心安度;

恰似美丽的树荫下,真正的价值得以休憩,

他也要在那里将住宅修建得最为坚固。

但是各种头衔时常被赋予美德的仇敌,

伤害了美德的朋友,真是最为可恶。

他们在人间不得不蒙尘纳垢,

到了天堂才能将恩典享受。

What difference was there when the world began;

Was it not virtue that distinguished all?

All sprang but from one woman and one man;

Then how doth gentry come to rise and fall?

创世之初,人与人哪里有贵贱之分,

还不是靠德行高低区分贤与不肖?

既然世人都源自一个女人与一个男人,

士绅们凭什么冒出来将家世夸耀?

在拉尼尔看来,就算某人生为贵族,也无法说明此人的老祖先就一定比别家高贵。因此假如他们表现得残忍贪婪,就理应失去一切贵族出身赋予他们的权利:

Nor is he fit for honour, or command,

If base affections over-rules his mind;

Or that self- will doth carry such a hand,

As worldly pleasures have the power to blind

so as he cannot see, nor understand

How to discharge that place to him assigned:

God's stewards must for all the poor provide,

If in God's house they purpose to abide.

他不适合尊号加身,不适合发号施令,

若是卑劣的欲念掌控了他的心灵;

又或者自以为是,终日任意而行,

俗世的享乐确实能遮蔽人的眼睛,

让他既不能理解,也无法看清

如何履行上天托付给他的使命:

既然身为上帝的仆役,为上帝看家守门,

理应遵从上帝号令,照顾好天下穷人。

艾米莉亚.拉尼尔确实是个心中藏着惊涛骇浪的女性。她的诗文虽然明面上是献给伊丽莎白女王与各路贵族女性金主的效忠诗,但是今天的读者们甚至无需细品就能察觉到诗行之间蕴藏着终将推翻斯图亚特王朝的革命精神。不过话又说回来,拉尼尔兴许的确是这一时期最特别的女性诗人,但却绝不是唯一一位。玛丽.罗斯夫人的出身要远比拉尼尔更高——她是西德尼家族的一员,家里出过不止一位相互纠结的诗人与政客——而且她的生平大部分时间都在伊丽莎白女王与詹姆斯一世国王的宫廷里度过。她作为舞者参加过本.琼森排演的假面剧,当时的顶尖诗人都与她交情颇深。她的丈夫罗伯特.罗斯爵士是詹姆斯国王的宠臣,但是在个人生活方面既不忠于婚姻又有酗酒的恶习。玛丽与自己的表亲、莎士比亚的金主之一、第三任彭布罗克侯爵威廉.赫伯特维持了多年的婚外恋关系,但是尽管他远比罗斯家更有钱,却始终没有娶她。

玛丽.罗斯创作了一系列惊艳的十四行诗,此外他也是第一位出版散文作品的女性作家。在古典隐喻的轻薄掩饰之下,她的诗歌与散文都直面了身为女性在男性主导的世界里遇到的各种问题。她的十四行诗乍一看去与众多男性诗人们在十四行诗最火爆的时代创作的大量作品并没有多少区别,但是仔细品一品就会发现她对于爱情以及自由的看法与男性诗人们大相径庭。比方说她的第六十八首十四行诗,将自己比作了受困海滩的船只。古德温海滩是当时英国臭名昭著的船只触礁地点:

My pain, still smothered in my grieved breast,

Seeks for some ease, yet cannot passage find

To be discharged of this unwelcome guest;

When most I strive, more fast his burdens bind,

我的痛苦,依然将悲哀的胸口死死压住,

想要寻求解脱,但却找不到出路。

我不欢迎这位恶客,却又无法将他驱逐,

我越是挣扎,就越受到他的沉重禁锢。

Like to a ship, on Goodwins cast by wind

The more she strives, more deep in sand is pressed

Till she be lost; so am I, in this kind

Sunk, and devoured, and swallowed by unrest,

就像狂风里的船只,在古德温的浅滩上困住,

她越是挣扎,就越陷进沙子的深处,

船只已经无法脱身,我也已经走投无路

沉默,沦陷,被动荡吞进了肚腹。

Lost, shipwrecked, spoiled, debarred of smallest hope,

Nothing of pleasure left; save thoughts have scope,

Which wander may: Go then, my thoughts, and cry

船只迷失搁浅毁坏,最小的希望也被夺走,

只剩下胡思乱想,一丁点快乐也无法拥有,

任你流浪到何方吧,我的思绪,去痛哭流涕。

'Hope's perished; Love tempest-beaten; joy lost

Killing despair hath all these blessing crossed.'

Yet faith still cries, 'Love will not falsify.'

希望夭折,爱火熄灭,喜乐丧尽,

杀人的绝望扫清了一切福分。

但是信仰依然叫嚷:“爱不会扯谎做戏。”

在第九十首十四行诗当中,罗斯将同时受到多位相互嫉妒的廷臣的追求比作深陷迷宫:

Except my heart which you bestowed before,

And for a sign of conquest gave away

As worthless to be kept in your choice store

Yet one more spotless with you doth not stay.

除去我的心,此前你曾经给与过我,

以此作为我被你征服的象征

你觉得这是一件贱物,不值得留在店里,

可是送你一件无瑕珍宝你也只会乱扔。

The tribute which my heart doth truly pay

Faith untouched is, pure thoughts discharge the score

Of debts for me, where constancy bears sway,

And rules as Lord, unharmed by envy's sore.

我的心及时奉上从未被染指的信念

作为贡品,纯净的思想清偿了我的债务

此后忠贞再也不会遭受嫉妒的憎厌,

在那个让它称王且一言九鼎的国度。

Yet other mischiefs fail not to attend,

As enemies to you, my foes must be;

Curst jealousy doth all her forces bend

To my undoing; thus my harms I see.

但是其他的不幸依然不肯退场,

你的仇雠自然也是我的死敌;

可恨的嫉妒使尽了浑身伎俩

来加害我,我眼里看着心里着急。

So though in love I fervently do burn,

In this strange labyrinth how shall I turn?

尽管爱情烧得我如同全身着火一样,

在这奇怪的迷宫里我该往哪里转向?

罗斯显然是一位饱含激情的女性。在生前她就因为胆敢触犯宫廷隐私的惯例而饱受辱骂。但是对于罗斯与拉尼尔来说,真正的问题在于情欲与自由之间的长久角力。被爱情征服对于她们来说无异于一败涂地。请看罗斯的第十四首十四行诗:

Am I thus conquer'd? have I lost the powers,

That to withstand which joyes to ruine me?

Must I bee still, while it my strength devoures,

And captive leads me prisoner bound, unfree?

就这样被你征服?莫非我已丧失了力量,

无法抵御怎样的快乐会毁灭我?

任凭力气被吞噬,而我却只能像木石一样

沦为俘虏,失去自由,披枷带锁?

Love first shall leave men’s fancies to them free,

Desire shall quench love’s flames, spring hate sweet showers,

Love shall loose all his darts, have sight, and see

His shame, and wishings hinder happy hours;

想让我束手,除非爱不再打扰男人们想入非非,

除非欲望能熄灭爱火,除非春天憎恨雨露的甘甜,

除非爱射光箭矢,解下眼罩,不再两眼一抹黑

好让他看清自己的耻辱,将快乐时光向后拖延;

Why should we not Loves purblinde charmes resist?

Must we be servile, doing what he list?

No, seeke some host to harbour thee: I flye

半瞎的爱情,你的魔咒我们凭什么无法抵御?

凭什么我们必须听你差遣,当牛做马低声下气?

不,你去另寻栖身之处吧,我要逃离。

Thy Babish tricks, and freedome doe professe;

But O, my hurt makes my lost heart confesse:

I love, and must; so farewell liberty.

你的伎俩多么幼稚,假装不会将自由侵犯;

但是啊,我如此痛苦,因此还能怎么办:

我爱,而且不得不爱,因此只得与自由别离。

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