主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

大河奔流 导读 复 64 阅 14953

全看 分页 树展 一览 主题

2019-12-10 04:07:50
4452141 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`238`25631`188000`正五品下:朝议大夫|宁远将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
复辟了个啥?讽刺与科学以及英国政坛的诞生4 1

科顿难免令笔者联想到名气更大的诗人威廉.柯珀——我们接下来还要与他打交道——以及更加显赫的安德鲁.马维尔。上文我们提到在克伦威尔的葬礼上有三位诗人出席(科顿肯定得不到出席许可),其一是马维尔,其二是勇敢的弥尔顿,其三则是出身于某清教农户家庭、远比两位诗坛前辈更年轻的约翰.德莱顿。在共和派与保皇派的斗争当中,弥尔顿坚持原则绝不动摇,马维尔左右逢源八面玲珑,德莱顿则干脆转换了门庭。查理二世刚刚复辟,德莱顿就立刻跪舔了上去。他抛弃了为已故护国公撰写的相当蹩脚的颂词,又写了一首略微高明一点的新诗来庆祝君主制的回归。这首《正义女神再临》(Astraea Redux)将针对君主制的共和派起义当成了不折不扣的灾难:

The vulgar, gull'd into rebellion, arm'd;

Their blood to action by the prize was warm'd.

The sacred purple, then, and scarlet gown,

Like sanguine dye to elephants, was shown.

Thus when the bold Typhoeus scaled the sky,

And forced great Jove from his own Heaven to fly,

(What king, what crown from treason's reach is free,

If Jove and Heaven can violated be?)

The lesser gods, that shared his prosperous state,

All suffer'd in the exiled Thunderer's fate.

The rabble now such freedom did enjoy,

As winds at sea, that use it to destroy:

Blind as the Cyclop, and as wild as he,

They own'd a lawless, savage liberty;

Like that our painted ancestors so prized,

Ere empire's arts their breasts had civilized.

How great were then our Charles' woes, who thus

Was forced to suffer for himself and us!

He, tost by fate, and hurried up and down,

Heir to his father's sorrows, with his crown,

Could taste no sweets of youth's desired age,

But found his life too true a pilgrimage.

粗鄙贱民遭到哄骗投入叛乱,操刀弄枪,

丰厚的战利品温暖了他们的血浆。

绛紫丹朱,双色的神圣皇袍,

恰似招惹蠢象发怒的红布招摇。

狂妄的堤丰巨人攀爬上了天空,

迫使伟大的朱庇特逃离天国暂避其锋。

人间国王的冠冕怎能躲过叛国者的魔爪

要是连朱庇特的天国都难免遭受侵扰?

与雷霆之主共享天国的次等神灵

也遭受了被放逐的厄运,只得流落飘零。

暴民们终于可以自由地肆无忌惮,

恰似海上的狂风,将一切掀翻砸烂:

恰似盲目的独眼巨人,狂暴则不遑多让,

他们就是一群无法无天的凶恶混账。

我们的先祖也曾看重这样的自由,

直到帝国的艺术将他们教化怀柔。

我们的查理,他的苦痛沉重如山,

为了自己与我们,不得不独自承担。

大起大落,遭受命运的恣意玩弄,

继承了父亲的王冠,以及他的哀痛。

甜蜜的青春他却无缘度过,

他的人生是一场朝圣跋涉。

德莱顿最出名的作品自然是政治与文化讽刺诗,这些诗作将当时英国的最高层政客以及他本人的诗坛对手们都当成了活靶子。对于当代读者来说这些诗歌往往很不好懂,因为诗文内容与当年的时事联系太紧密了,但这一点正是德莱顿当年走红全国的原因。如今的德莱顿看上去就像老报纸的头版那样泛黄失色。今天的读者并不关心托马斯.西德维尔这样的次一等诗人有什么怪癖,或者蒙莫斯公爵其人如何失败,因此德莱顿的讽刺诗读起来未免有些干涩。这实在是太可惜了。他的讽刺诗虽然乍一看去不像威尔莫特的作品那样锋芒毕露,但却依然如同剃刀一般犀利。今天的我们依然会因为政客们的一意孤行而绝望,也依然会因为自欺欺人的明星而解颐,因此德莱顿的诗歌今天依然很值得欣赏。以下是他最著名的讽刺诗《押沙龙与亚希多弗》(Absalom and Achitophel)的选段。诗人讽刺了查理二世国王对于包养情妇的高涨热情,以及他的私生子蒙莫斯公爵(“押沙龙”)如何发动注定失败的叛乱来反对自己的叔伯,查理国王的兄弟兼继位者詹姆斯二世:

In pious times, ere priest-craft did begin,

Before polygamy was made a sin;

When man, on many, multipli'd his kind,

Ere one to one was cursedly confin'd:

When Nature prompted, and no Law deni'd

Promiscuous use of concubine and bride;

Then, Israel's monarch, after Heaven's own heart,

His vigorous warmth did variously impart

To wives and slaves: and, wide as his command,

Scatter'd his Maker's image through the land.

Michal, of royal blood, the crown did wear;

A soil ungrateful to the tiller's care:

Not so the rest; for several mothers bore

To god-like David, several sons before.

But since like slaves his bed they did ascend,

No true succession could their seed attend.

Of all this numerous progeny was none

So beautiful, so brave, as Absalom:

Whether, inspir'd by some diviner lust,

His father got him with a greater gust;

Or that his conscious destiny made way,

By manly beauty to imperial sway.

Early in foreign fields he won renown,

With kings and states alli'd to Israel's crown:

In peace the thoughts of war he could remove,

And seem'd as he were only born for love.

Whate'er he did, was done with so much ease,

In him alone, 'twas natural to please:

His motions all accompani'd with grace;

And Paradise was open'd in his face.

With secret joy, indulgent David view'd

His youthful image in his son renew'd:

To all his wishes nothing he deni'd;

And made the charming Annabel his bride.

What faults he had (for who from faults is free?)

His father could not, or he would not see.

Some warm excesses, which the Law forbore,

Were constru'd youth that purged by boiling o'er:

And Amnon's murther, by a specious name,

Was call'd a just revenge for injur'd fame.

Thus prais'd, and lov'd, the noble youth remain'd,

While David, undisturb'd, in Sion reign'd.

But life can never be sincerely blest:

Heav'n punishes the bad, and proves the best.

在虔诚的世代,教士这一行尚未出现之际,

那时候一夫多妻依然天经地义。

一名男性与多名女性繁衍族群,

然后才有了该诅咒的限制,婚姻只限两人。

天性的怂恿,外加并无法律禁止

淫乱的手段,同时享有妾室与妻子。

于是以色列的君主体察上天心意,

四处分发他那火热的精力,

撒向妻妾与婢女,上帝旨意牢记心上,

要让这大地布满造物主的形象。

头戴宝冠的米甲公主虽是前朝皇家血脉,

却是一片忘恩的土地,辜负了耕者的厚爱。

其他妾室可不像她这样泄气,

为威严的大卫王将许多子嗣孕育。

但是她们地位卑下,只能负责暖床

她们承载的种子成不了真正的国王。

众多此类子嗣当中有一位押沙龙,

俊美又英勇,当真堪称人中之雄。

或许是受到了高尚渴望的激励,

他的父亲对于他可谓格外中意。

又或者他的宿命有意显露分晓,

俊美的外貌令全国为他而倾倒。

他杀出国门,东征西讨,立下赫赫战功,

异邦君主纷纷成为以色列王冠的附庸。

和平时期他全然不想兵戈纷争,

乍一看去他似乎只为爱情而生。

无论何等事功他都能轻松做好,

无论谁见了他都夸他人才一表。

他的举手投足总是端庄舒展,

要想窥见天堂,只需看他的脸。

宠溺儿子的大卫王不免心中暗喜,

在儿子身上看到了年轻时的自己。

他总是让儿子的一切心愿得偿,

还让美丽的安娜贝尔成为儿子的新娘。*

他身上的弊病——话说世人谁能无过?

——他父亲没能看见,或者宁愿错过。

他有些鲁莽之举虽然为法律所不容,

却被诠释成少不更事,就此得到纵容。

尽管他谋杀了暗嫩,但却巧言令色地声辩

他妹妹的名节遭到玷污,他这才要了结仇怨。

这高贵的青年依然受到赞美爱护,

大卫王在锡安的统治也依然稳固。

但是他的生活得不到真正的庇佑,

上天认可善人,坏人必将受罚获咎。

*【安娜贝尔并非圣经人名,而是蒙莫斯公爵妻子的名字。】

接下来德莱顿又将一双毒眼转向了沙夫茨伯里侯爵(“亚希多弗”),此人在政坛素来惯于搞事,德莱顿对于他的描写简直与弥尔顿笔下的撒旦有一拼。沙夫茨伯里侯爵安东尼.阿什利.库珀这个名字如今或许只有历史学家才听说过,但可悲的是他这路人物在二十一世纪的威斯敏斯特也并不少见:

Of these the false Achitophel was first:

A name to all succeeding ages curst.

For close designs, and crooked counsels fit;

Sagacious, bold and turbulent of wit:

Restless, unfixt in principles and place;

In pow'r unpleas'd, impatient of disgrace.

A fiery soul, which working out its way,

Fretted the pigmy-body to decay:

And o'er inform'd the tenement of clay.

A daring pilot in extremity;

Pleas'd with the danger, when the waves went high

He sought the storms; but for a calm unfit,

Would steer too nigh the sands, to boast his wit.

Great wits are sure to madness near alli'd;

And thin partitions do their bounds divide:

Else, why should he, with wealth and honour blest,

Refuse his age the needful hours of rest?

Punish a body which he could not please;

Bankrupt of life, yet prodigal of ease?

And all to leave, what with his toil he won

To that unfeather'd, two-legg'd thing, a son:

Got, while his soul did huddled notions try;

And born a shapeless lump, like anarchy.

In friendship false, implacable in hate:

Resolv'd to ruin or to rule the state.

To compass this, the triple bond he broke;

The pillars of the public safety shook:

And fitted Israel for a foreign yoke.

Then, seiz'd with fear, yet still affecting fame,

Usurp'd a patriot's all-atoning name.

So easy still it proves in factious times,

With public zeal to cancel private crimes:

How safe is treason, and how sacred ill,

Where none can sin against the people's will:

Where crowds can wink; and no offence be known,

Since in another's guilt they find their own.

在这伙叛逆当中,亚希多弗是第一名,

后世之人将永远诅咒他的姓名。

满腹鬼蜮盘算,他献上阴险的奸计,

心思深沉,胆大包天,兴风作浪的智力。

无视原则,不守本分,一刻也不能安顿,

权力无法满足他,失宠更令他愤懑。

毒焰熊熊的灵魂,从里向外焚烧,

将他那矮小的身材烧得肉烂骨销。*1

这具卑下的泥胎,上蹿下跳不顾深浅,

他这位领航员最爱铤而走险,

风高浪急的险境最能为他带来快感。

他追逐暴风雨,风平浪静却让他烦乱,

故意冲向浅滩,只为炫耀行船的手段。

越高超的智力越与疯狂如影随身,

纤细的界线难以将两者明确区分。

不然怎么解释,他的生活原本富贵优渥,

但却不顾年岁已高,竟然不肯消停片刻?

他为何要惩罚自己的老朽皮囊?

早就该一命呜呼,却依然东奔西忙?

一辈子辛苦挣下的家业只能留给

不成器的儿子,身上无毛,蹬着两条腿:

这个废物在他盘算奸谋时配种受孕,

生下来就是一堆烂肉,简直无法辨认。

他的友情全是虚妄,他的仇恨时时牢记,

铁了心要统治国家,或者将其夷为平地。

为了满足野心,不惜冲破三重束缚,*2

动摇了维护公共安全的一根根支柱,

还要用外国的轭将以色列禁锢。

尽管满心恐惧,依然还要谋求名声,

假借爱国之名,浑身罪孽一扫而空。

在四分五裂的时代,行恶事多么容易,

公众的热情总能将私下的犯罪遮蔽,

叛国多么安全,作恶多么崇高,

任谁也抵挡不住群情汹涌民意滔滔。

向群氓抛个媚眼,罪行就再无人提起,

因为这罪行让广大民众想到了自己。

*1【沙夫茨伯侯爵身材不高,德莱顿曾在另一首诗里讽刺他“只能与鹳鸟作战”。】

*2【所谓三重束缚指的是1667年英国、瑞典与荷兰结成的三国反法同盟。1670年英国与法国结盟,反法同盟随即告终。沙夫茨伯侯爵是促成这一事件的主要推手之一。】


2019-12-10 04:07:50

全看 分页 树展 一览 主题