主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

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2019-12-23 22:11:14
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万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`238`25651`188150`正五品下:朝议大夫|宁远将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
理性时代以及奴隶与污秽等等3 1

住在伦敦的斯威夫特身边有一个由托利党反对派组成的小圈子,亚历山大.蒲柏就是其中之一。蒲柏是一位罗马天主教徒,终日疾病缠身,而且身材矮小近乎侏儒。他是英雄双韵体这一体例的最主要拥护者,一方面继承了弥尔顿的诗风,同时又避免了亦步亦趋的陷阱。1734年他撰写了著名长诗《论人》(Essay on Man),在诗中他试图为上帝对待人类的方式辩护。这首诗的笔调明媚乐观,绝对超出了弥尔顿的想象。诗文当中体现的“存在即合理”式的唯理论世界观日后将会遭到法国哲学大家伏尔泰的嘲讽与排斥。就其本质而言,这一世界观与庞弗雷特的中庸生活之道如出一辙,只是在哲学方面拔高了一层。不过与此同时,虔信天主教的蒲柏也流露出了针对科学理性主义的怀疑:

Know then thyself, presume not God to scan

The proper study of Mankind is Man.

Placed on this isthmus of a middle state,

A Being darkly wise, and rudely great:

With too much knowledge for the Sceptic side,

With too much weakness for the Stoic's pride,

He hangs between; in doubt to act, or rest;

In doubt to deem himself a God, or Beast;

In doubt his mind or body to prefer;

Born but to die, and reas'ning but to err;

Alike in ignorance, his reason such,

Whether he thinks too little, or too much;

Chaos of Thought and Passion, all confus'd;

Still by himself, abus'd or disabus'd;

Created half to rise and half to fall;

Great Lord of all things, yet a prey to all,

Sole judge of truth, in endless error hurl'd;

The glory, jest and riddle of the world.

先了解自己吧,且莫狂妄地窥测上帝,

人的研究对象应该是人类自己;

他愚昧的聪明,拙劣的伟大,

位于中间状态的狭窄地岬;

他要怀疑一切,可是又知识过多,

他要坚毅奋发,可是又意志薄弱;

他悬持中间,出处行藏,犹豫不定,

犹豫不定,是自视为神灵,还是畜生;

犹豫不定,是要灵魂,还是要肉体,

生来要死,依靠理性反而错误不己;

想得过多,想得过少,结果相同,

思想的道理都是同样的愚昧荒懵;

思想和感情,一切都庞杂混乱,

他仍放纵滥用,或先放纵而后收敛;

他生就的半要升天,半要入地,

既是万物之主,又受万物奴役;

他是真理的唯一裁判,又不断错误迷离,

他是世上的荣耀、世上的笑柄、世上的谜。【吕千飞译】

Go, wondrous creature! mount where science guides,

Go, measure earth, weigh air, and state the tides;

Instruct the planets in what orbs to run,

Correct old time, and regulate the sun;

Go, soar with Plato to th’ empyreal sphere,

To the first good, first perfect, and first fair;

Or tread the mazy round his followers trod,

And quitting sense call imitating God;

As Eastern priests in giddy circles run,

And turn their heads to imitate the sun.

Go, teach Eternal Wisdom how to rule—

Then drop into thyself, and be a fool!

去吧,了不起的生物!跟随科学的引领向上攀登,

去丈量大地,去称重空气,去规定潮落潮升;

去指教各大行星沿着哪条轨道奔忙,

去矫正旧日时光,还要去管理太阳;

去吧,跟随柏拉图翱翔到最高天,

去置身于太初既有的尽善尽美之间,

或者踏入他的追随者曾经涉足的迷魂场,

舍弃理智的呼唤,一心将上帝效仿;

恰似东方的教士,不顾眩晕地绕圈,

终日摇头晃脑,模仿太阳行进高天。

去吧,去教训永恒智慧怎样将寰宇统治,

然后赶紧回来老老实实当个傻子!

蒲柏毕生都是个虔诚的基督徒,不过并不是一般人想象当中反宗教改革时期典型的天主教徒——面容死板,心怀狂热。面对弥尔顿的质问,他认为人类理解能力有限,因此应当无条件信任上帝的智慧——换句话说人生在世理应随遇而安:

Hope humbly then; with trembling pinions soar;

Wait the great teacher Death; and God adore!

What future bliss, he gives not thee to know,

But gives that hope to be thy blessing now.

Hope springs eternal in the human breast:

Man never is, but always to be blest:

The soul, uneasy and confin'd from home,

Rests and expatiates in a life to come.

怀抱谦卑的希望,展开战栗的双翼,尽情飞升,

静待死亡这位伟大的教师,将上帝放在心中!

未来有什么福祉,祂可不会向我们说破,

只会给我们希望,让我们静享此时此刻。

永恒的希望,源自于人类的胸腔,

人永远不会幸福,但幸福永在前方;

灵魂远离故乡,受到束缚,局促迷惘,

待到来生降临,尽管可以休憩徜徉。

不过蒲柏与弥尔顿的较劲还催生了另一部人气更旺且更机智的作品。《卷发遇劫记》(The Rape of the Lock)是一首恶搞版的英雄史诗,也是针对气势恢宏但却毫无幽默可言的《失乐园》做出的搞怪回应。本诗发表于1712年,诗文的原型事件是现实生活当中一对青年男女的争执。姑娘名叫阿拉贝拉.弗莫尔,小伙子名叫佩德罗勋爵,两人都出身于信奉天主教的名门望族,因此他们在生活当中就像蒲柏本人一样要收到圣公会英国社会的诸多严格限制。不过这首诗却未曾沾染一丁点阴霾与苦涩。简单说来:佩德罗未经阿拉贝拉许可就剪下了她的一缕秀发,致使两家人吵得不可开交。蒲柏抓住这点鸡毛蒜皮的小事大做文章,将矮妖、精怪与仙灵等等一干神话生物全都请了出来。这些生物就像弥尔顿笔下的天使军团一样缥缈,但是体格却远远更小,因此看起来也远没有那么吓人——实际上这些小家伙们根本就是从《仲夏夜之梦》的片场赶过来客串的。凭借着它们的法力,蒲柏将弥尔顿式的暗黑悲剧硬生生地搅和成了一出轻喜剧。尽管英国的音乐传统无法与欧陆相提并论,但是蒲柏却证明了自己是全英国最接近莫扎特的存在。就像莫扎特的歌剧一样,这首诗一方面跳脱搞怪,同时又洋溢着浓厚的人文精神。诗篇一开头读者们就能看到蒲柏怎样将英雄史诗的套路演绎出了喜剧效果。本诗女主贝琳达一登场就赖在床上不肯起来:

Sol thro' white curtains shot a tim'rous ray,

And op'd those eyes that must eclipse the day;

Now lap-dogs give themselves the rousing shake,

And sleepless lovers, just at twelve, awake:

Thrice rung the bell, the slipper knock'd the ground,

And the press'd watch return'd a silver sound.

Belinda still her downy pillow press'd,

Her guardian sylph prolong'd the balmy rest:

'Twas he had summon'd to her silent bed

The morning dream that hover'd o'er her head;

A youth more glitt'ring than a birthnight beau,

(That ev'n in slumber caus'd her cheek to glow)

Seem'd to her ear his winning lips to lay,

And thus in whispers said, or seem'd to say.

穿过乳白的窗帘,是太阳神的辉光温柔,

唤醒了那对令白昼黯然失色的眼眸。

叭儿狗们长伸懒腰,开始抖擞身材,

彻夜未眠的恋人们在十二点钟醒来。

更衣铃三声脆响,拖鞋踢在地上,

玉手按动报时钟,报时声音清亮。

贝琳达依然赖着枕头,迷瞪着不肯起床,

她的守护仙灵将温存休憩的时刻延长,

召唤一段迷梦,来到安静的床前,

清晨的梦境在她脑海里飞扬盘旋。

梦中的少年,比皇家生日舞会更加光彩照人,

(还睡着的她都不免脸颊飞起红云)

他那迷人的双唇凑到了她的耳际,

似乎对她说了一番耳语私密:

"Fairest of mortals, thou distinguish'd care

Of thousand bright inhabitants of air!

If e'er one vision touch'd thy infant thought,

Of all the nurse and all the priest have taught,

Of airy elves by moonlight shadows seen,

The silver token, and the circled green,

Or virgins visited by angel pow'rs,

With golden crowns and wreaths of heav'nly flow'rs,

Hear and believe! thy own importance know,

Nor bound thy narrow views to things below.

Some secret truths from learned pride conceal'd,

To maids alone and children are reveal'd:

What tho' no credit doubting wits may give?

The fair and innocent shall still believe.

Know then, unnumber'd spirits round thee fly,

The light militia of the lower sky;

“最美丽的凡人,汝可知自己受到周到照顾,

栖身大气当中的成千生灵将汝精心看护!

若汝曾在孩提时分想象过此等景象,

若是乳娘神父的教诲汝还放在心上,

若汝还记得月光投影下现身的缥缈精灵,

献给它们的祈福银币,它们留下的芳草环形,

又或者天使的权柄如何将处女访问,

天使头戴金冠与花环,天国的鲜花多么娇嫩,

那么汝当听当信!汝可知自己多么重要?

切勿被下界的狭隘眼光束缚圈套,

多少秘密隐藏在傲慢的饱学之士眼前,

只会向少女与儿童展现本源。

疑心重重的智慧对它们不屑一顾,

纯真之辈却依然相信是真实事物。

要知道,无数的精灵正在环绕汝飞翔,

天空之下的纵队正在轻盈巡航。”

这段诗文与莎士比亚的继承关系可谓一看便知。但是接下来,随着邪恶的男主即将拿起贝琳达的剪刀剪下她的卷发,诗文风格也变成了恶搞版的弥尔顿史诗:

Just then, Clarissa drew with tempting grace

A two-edg'd weapon from her shining case;

So ladies in romance assist their knight

Present the spear, and arm him for the fight.

He takes the gift with rev'rence, and extends

The little engine on his fingers' ends;

This just behind Belinda's neck he spread,

As o'er the fragrant steams she bends her head.

Swift to the lock a thousand sprites repair,

A thousand wings, by turns, blow back the hair,

And thrice they twitch'd the diamond in her ear,

Thrice she look'd back, and thrice the foe drew near.

Just in that instant, anxious Ariel sought

The close recesses of the virgin's thought;

As on the nosegay in her breast reclin'd,

He watch'd th' ideas rising in her mind,

Sudden he view'd, in spite of all her art,

An earthly lover lurking at her heart.

Amaz'd, confus'd, he found his pow'r expir'd,

Resign'd to fate, and with a sigh retir'd.

就在此时,克拉丽莎凭着诱人的姿态

将一把双刃兵器从精美盒子里拿出来,

满心浪漫的女士们协助她们的骑士,

向他献上长矛,鼓舞他的斗志。

他虔诚地接过赠予,然后轻轻操纵

两道青锋在指端交叠运动。

潜行到贝琳达脑后,他将利刃舒张,

趁着她正低头嗅闻香水的馨香。

一千位仙灵赶紧冲上来将秀发保护,

一千对翅膀轮流扇动秀发,免得被利刃攫住。

为了报示警,它们三次将她耳垂上的钻石转动,

三次她回头观瞧,她的敌人三次蠢蠢欲动。

就在此刻,焦急的爱丽儿想要

向这懵懂的少女发送危险信号;

随着她胸前的香气逐渐消退,

祂看到她心里另有念想,以至于丧失戒备。

突然祂看到,尽管她的头脑玲珑聪慧,

一位俗世情郎却已潜入她心房之内。

既惊又惑,祂的法力迅速消散,

只得听天由命,徒留一声长叹。

The peer now spreads the glitt'ring forfex wide,

T' inclose the lock; now joins it, to divide.

Ev'n then, before the fatal engine clos'd,

A wretched Sylph too fondly interpos'd;

Fate urg'd the shears, and cut the Sylph in twain,

(But airy substance soon unites again).

The meeting points the sacred hair dissever

From the fair head, for ever, and for ever!

贵族青年张开了剪刀,只见寒光湛湛,

一旦两刃咔嚓合拢,卷发就要一刀两断。

当此关头,眼看致命的利刃即将交叠,

一位焦急的仙灵想用身躯挡住这一劫。

可恨命运驱动的利刃,将仙灵活活腰斩,

好在气态身躯立刻复原,结果并不算惨。

可是在锋刃的汇合点,神圣秀发根根截断,

远离了美丽的头颅,永别了,再不相见!

Then flash'd the living lightning from her eyes,

And screams of horror rend th' affrighted skies.

Not louder shrieks to pitying Heav'n are cast,

When husbands or when lap-dogs breathe their last,

Or when rich China vessels, fall'n from high,

In glitt'ring dust and painted fragments lie!

寒光恰似活闪电,在她的眼前掠过,

恐怖的惊叫足以将畏惧的天空刺破。

还从没有更刺耳的惨呼曾向天国射去,

哪怕眼看着丈夫或者叭儿狗寿终断气,

或者眼看着华丽的中国花瓶自高处落下,

化作闪光粉尘,彩绘碎片,一堆稀里哗啦!

就像莫扎特与斯威夫特一样,蒲柏的诗句也在喜剧的表象下潜藏了更加严肃的信息。惯于批判奥地利贵族精英的莫扎特最终贫病而死,斯威夫特临终之前则丧失了神智。喜剧及其所必需的姿态为他们提供了暂且抵挡黑暗的手段。蒲柏的生活也很不容易。由于在政坛与文坛树敌太多,他在泰晤士河畔的推克纳姆兴建了一座精巧的石窟型住宅用来自保,平时出门的时候总是牵着一条大狗,怀揣上膛的手枪。蒲柏毕生都是个局外人,全靠机智的头脑来对抗人生的无意义。他之所以大力抨击各位诗坛庸才,是为了维护自己的理智。在他晚年的作品《与阿布斯诺博士书》(Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot)当中,蒲柏代表古往今来每一位遭到三流粉丝仰慕的明星作家们宣泄了一番怨气:

Shut, shut the door, good John! fatigu'd, I said,

Tie up the knocker, say I'm sick, I'm dead.

The dog-star rages! nay 'tis past a doubt,

All Bedlam, or Parnassus, is let out:

Fire in each eye, and papers in each hand,

They rave, recite, and madden round the land.

快关上,亲爱的约翰,快关上门!我疲惫地说道,

快去固定住门环,就说我病入膏肓,针石无效。

天狼星邪光大作!情况已经显而易见,

文坛群英集体出动,活像掀翻了疯人院;

一个个两眼冒火,两手紧攥着片片纸张,

或狂呼乱叫,或念念有词,在大地上纵横嚣张。

What walls can guard me, or what shades can hide?

They pierce my thickets, through my grot they glide;

By land, by water, they renew the charge;

They stop the chariot, and they board the barge.

No place is sacred, not the church is free;

Ev'n Sunday shines no Sabbath-day to me:

Then from the Mint walks forth the man of rhyme,

Happy! to catch me just at dinner-time.

哪有围墙能保护我,哪有阴影供我躲避?

他们穿过我家树篱,他们翻找我家垃圾;

水上与陆上,他们的攻势源源不断,

他们阻拦我的马车,还要登上我的驳船查看。

他们无视圣所,我在教堂也不得自由,

就连礼拜天也不得安息,让我多么发愁;

然后又有一位文人施施然来自敏特:

好极了!晚餐时分他非得上门做客。

Is there a parson, much bemus'd in beer,

A maudlin poetess, a rhyming peer,

A clerk, foredoom'd his father's soul to cross,

Who pens a stanza, when he should engross?

Is there, who, lock'd from ink and paper, scrawls

With desp'rate charcoal round his darken'd walls?

All fly to Twit'nam, and in humble strain

Apply to me, to keep them mad or vain.

Arthur, whose giddy son neglects the laws,

Imputes to me and my damn'd works the cause:

Poor Cornus sees his frantic wife elope,

And curses wit, and poetry, and Pope.

一位教区牧师,啤酒杯从不离手,

一位忧郁的才女,一位贵族时常来两首,

一位文书官,决心要违背父亲的心意,

只顾涂写诗章,顾不得专心把账记,

一名囚犯,在牢房里搞不到笔墨,

就抓起木炭在墙壁上大搞创作,

全都涌向推克纳姆,央求我指点几句,

好让他们能继续发疯或者虚荣下去。

还有一位阿瑟——他的莽撞儿子惯于违法闯祸

——认为祸根都在于我本人与我的诗作;

可怜的考纳斯,他的老婆私奔偷汉,

因此诅咒文艺、诗歌以及蒲柏那个混蛋。

人生如此严肃,不大笑不足以安然度过。在蒲柏看来,针对文明与理智的最大威胁就是沉闷乏味——这个标签包括了政治宣传、夸大其词、谎言以及我们今天在信息层面上面临的一切威胁——而且这一威胁是生死攸关的大事。智力对于蒲柏来说是一项道德品质,换句话说蠢人就等于坏人。在他的长诗《愚人记》(The Dunciad)的结尾,他难得地点明了小丑的面孔后面潜藏着什么:

Religion blushing, veils her sacred fires,

And unawares Morality expires.

Nor public flame nor private dares to shine;

Nor human spark is left, nor glimpse divine!

Lo! thy dread empire Chaos is restor'd,

Light dies before thy uncreating word;

Thy hand, great Anarch, lets the curtain fall,

And universal darkness buries all.

宗教的尴尬,掩饰了神圣的火焰,

意识不到道德正在衰竭绝断,

明面上无人放火,私下里不敢点灯,

人类灵光荡然无存,只剩一片昏懵!

呜呼!可怖的混沌帝国即将恢复统治,

词语遭到抹杀之前光明就会消逝;

伟大的昏乱,你的手降下了帷幕,

无边的黑暗从此将一切禁锢。


2019-12-23 22:11:14

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