主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

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2020-03-03 01:49:43
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万年看客万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`6`25524`185984`从五品下:朝散大夫|游击将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
革命5 1

克莱尔对于圈地运动与工业化时期的英格兰的描述既明确又直接,在这方面唯有另一位同样出身农村的诗人能与他相比,而且此人在其他各个方面都与他差异显著。乔治.克雷布出身英国东海岸,原本是一名医生,后来又成为了教士,常住在英格兰南方。克雷布的创作生涯很长,他在塞缪尔.约翰逊与埃德蒙.伯克时期的伦敦起步——伯克这位托利党政客兼哲学家日后还成为了他的资助人——到了晚年他又成为了沃尔特.斯科特与拜伦等等后起之秀眼中的可敬前辈。但是从根本上来说克雷布是一个前浪漫主义时代的诗人。他惯于创作描述性的长诗与英雄双行体叙事诗,他的创作兴趣主要在于描摹身边的世界——一个有些压抑的农村与小城镇世界,尽管其中充满了令人难忘的角色——而不是剖析自己的内心与性格,更不用说袒露灵魂了。人们经常将他比作现实主义小说家。如果你想了解一下十八与十九世纪之交的英格兰农村生活是怎样的景象,那就少不了要研读一下克雷布的作品。克雷布并不像克莱尔那样犀利,他的世界观很虔诚且本质上偏向悲观,或许会让一部分读者产生反感。但是在他表现最好的时候,他的诗歌不仅充满活力,而且信息量极其丰富。他并不像其他诗人那样讲政治,但他确实对于穷人与被排斥的社会群体抱有深切同情,就像日后的华兹华斯那样。在他的早期作品《村镇》(The Village)当中,克雷布描写了一位老农:

For yonder see that hoary swain, whose age

Can with no cares except his own engage;

Who, propped on that rude staff, looks up to see

The bare arms broken from the withering tree,

On which, a boy, he climbed the loftiest bough,

Then his first joy, but his sad emblem now.

He once was chief in all the rustic trade,

His steady hand the straightest furrow made;

Full many a prize he won, and still is proud

To find the triumphs of his youth allowed.

A transient pleasure sparkles in his eyes,

He hears and smiles, then thinks again and sighs:

For now he journeys to his grave in pain;

The rich disdain him, nay, the poor disdain;

Alternate masters now their slave command,

And urge the efforts of his feeble hand;

Who, when his age attempts its task in vain,

With ruthless taunts of lazy poor complain.

那边有一位老汉满头白发,

谁也不曾将他的福祉牵挂;

他拄着粗糙牧杖,抬头将你瞧看,

牧杖乃是死树上折断的赤裸枝干,

他也曾是少年,也曾爬上最高的树梢,

他最初的欢愉,却也象征了悲哀的今朝。

他曾是精通各项农活的好把式,

稳定的双手将田垄耕得笔直;

多少次拔得头筹,如今他依旧骄傲,

当别人将他早年的劳动成果夸耀。

他的眼里闪过一丝转瞬即逝的欢喜,

一边听一边微笑,回过神来才叹气:

如今他只得披一身粗布走向坟茔,

有钱人鄙视他——不,是鄙视所有穷人;

一位又一位主人都将他当成奴隶使唤,

催促他那双老迈的手快把活干;

当他因为年岁老迈完不成工作,

他们就无情嘲笑他多么懒惰。

克雷布在同一首诗当中还描绘了一番济贫院里的景象。当时济贫院在英国很常见,但凡是无法自行糊口的人们都会被打发进这一悲惨且污秽不堪的场所。鉴于克雷布的诗文能让约翰逊与伯克这样的托利党主要政客们留下深刻印象,我们也应当注意不要一味依赖粗陋的政治分类来进行想当然的假设,将托利党全都视作冷酷无情的混蛋:

Theirs is yon house that holds the parish poor,

Whose walls of mud scarce bear the broken door;

There, where the putrid vapours, flagging, play,

And the dull wheel hums doleful through the day;

There children dwell, who know no parents' care,

Parents, who know no children's love, dwell there;

Heart-broken matrons on their joyless bed,

Forsaken wives, and mothers never wed;

Dejected widows with unheeded tears,

And crippled age with more than childhood-fears;

The lame, the blind, and, far the happiest they!

The moping idiot and the madman gay.

教区的穷人就在这一带居住,

简陋的泥墙,摇摇欲坠的门户;

笼罩在室内的是腐臭的蒸汽,

沉闷的纺轮终日转得有气无力;

住在这里的孩童从不晓得父母疼爱,

住在这里的父母只将子女当成欠债;

心碎的老祖母孤零零在病榻上僵卧,

从未出嫁的母亲,遭到遗弃的老婆。

孀居的寡妇,以泪洗面也无人在意,

昏聩老人再次陷入孩提时的恐惧;

瘸腿的,瞎眼的,要说谁最欢乐,

当然是木然的白痴与疯子大笑呵呵。

Here too the sick their final doom receive,

Here brought, amid the scenes of grief, to grieve,

Where the loud groans from some sad chamber flow,

Mixed with the clamors of the crowd below;

Here, sorrowing, they each kindred sorrow scan,

And the cold charities of man to man:

Whose laws indeed for ruined age provide,

And strong compulsion plucks the scrap from pride;

But still that scrap is bought with many a sigh,

And pride embitters what it can't deny.

重病之人在这里等着闭眼断气,

将他们送到悲恸之所满心苦戚,

痛苦的呻吟传出了悲哀的斗室,

混同了屋外的嘈杂,将四下充斥;

忙着伤心的人们偷偷地彼此打量,

每个人都揣一副冰冷的算计心肠:

按照习俗,将死之人理应他们共同照料,

于是咬牙拔毛出血,因为面子不能不要;

但是有多少人在拔毛出血时唉声叹气,

令人肉痛的面子,没有回绝的余地。

Say ye, oppressed by some fantastic woes,

Some jarring nerve that baffles your repose;

Who press the downy couch, while slaves advance

With timid eye to read the distant glance;

Who with sad prayers the weary doctor tease

To name the nameless ever-new disease;

Who with mock patience dire complaints endure,

Which real pain, and that alone, can cure;

How would ye bear in real pain to lie,

Despised, neglected, left alone to die?

How would ye bear to draw your latest breath,

Where all that's wretched paves the way for death?

有福的你们也会受到奇妙病痛的压迫,

神经刺痛也会令你们浑身难过,

于是倒在长沙发上,奴才们团团走趋,

低眉顺眼地猜度你们的眉眼高低。

你们满嘴悲哀祈祷,嘲讽着疲累的医生,

非要人家讲清这次又是什么无名病症。

医生装出满脸耐心,忍受你们的刺耳抱怨,

一点真痛就能让你们满嘴怪话消失不见。

你们要如何承受真正的痛苦凄惶,

饱受蔑视与忽视,独自等待死亡?

你们是否甘愿就这样咽下最后一口气,

沿着如此崎岖的恶道向死亡走去?

Such is that room which one rude beam divides,

And naked rafters form the sloping sides;

Where the vile bands that bind the thatch are seen,

And lath and mud is all that lie between;

Save one dull pane, that, coarsely patched, gives way

To the rude tempest, yet excludes the day.

Here, on a matted flock, with dust o'erspread,

The drooping wretch reclines his languid head;

For him no hand the cordial cup applies,

Nor wipes the tear that stagnates in his eyes;

No friends with soft discourse his pain beguile,

Nor promise hope till sickness wears a smile.

粗糙的横梁将房舍两边分割,

裸露的椽子压出左右两道斜坡,

捆扎茅草的粗绳在眼前暴露无遗,

茅草的缝隙间露出了板条与灰泥;

胡乱修补的木板,挡不住雨雪风霜,

却能遮蔽白昼的朗朗日光。

斑驳的垫子,积了厚厚一层灰尘,

上面僵卧着嘴角流涎的可怜人;

没有人为他悉心送水端茶,

没有人将他眼角积泪拭擦,

没有朋友的良言将他的痛苦缓和,

没有希望,只得屈服于狞笑的病魔。

日后克雷布将笔锋转向了直接描写法国大革命期间席卷英国的政治纷争。通过他的诗文,我们不仅能见识到当年活力四射的论战交锋场面,也能体味到与其相伴相生的极端氛围。在1812年出版的《故事组诗》(The Tales)第一部当中,克雷布塑造了一位托利党高派教会信徒博尔特法官。博尔特擅长公开演讲且引以为傲,很爱听自己的声音。因此当他来到某个遥远城市的时候——大概是曼城或者伯明翰——十分天真地闯进了一家论政俱乐部,这种俱乐部在当时的英国足有成百上千家。很快博尔特法官就意识到自己玩脱了:

Now, dinner past, no longer he supprest

His strong dislike to be a silent guest;

Subjects and words were now at his command--

When disappointment frown'd on all he plann'd;

For, hark!--he heard amazed, on every side,

His church insulted and her priests belied;

The laws reviled, the ruling power abused,

The land derided, and its foes excused:--

He heard and ponder'd--What, to men so vile,

Should be his language? For his threat' ning style

They were too many;--if his speech were meek,

They would despise such poor attempts to speak:

At other times with every word at will,

He now sat lost, perplex' d, astonish'd, still.

Here were Socinians, Deists, and indeed

All who, as foes to England's chureh, agreed;

But still with creeds unlike, and some without a creed:

Here, too, ferce friends of liberty he saw,

Who own'd no prince and who obey no law;

There were reformers of each different sort,

Foes to the laws, the priesthood, and the court;

Some on their favourite plans alone intent,

Some purely angry and malevolent:

The rash were proud to blame their country's laws;

The vain, to seem supporters of a cause;

One cal'd for change that he would dread to see;

Another sigh'd for Gallic liberty!'

And numbers joining with the forward crew,

For no one reason- -but that numbers do.

“How,”said the justice,“can this trouble rise,

“This shame and pain, from creatures I despise?"

And conscience answer'd- .“ The prevailing cause

Is thy delight in listening to applause;

Here, thou art seated with a tribe, who spurn

Thy favourite themes, and into laughter turn

Thy fears and wishes; silent and obscure,

Thyself, shalt thou the long harangue endure;

And learn, by feeling, what it is to force

On thy unwilling friends the long discourse:

What though thy thoughts be just, and these, it seems,

Are traitors' projects, idiots' empty schemes;

Yet minds like bodies cramm'd, reject their food,

Nor will be forced and tortured for their good !"

At length, a sharp, shrewd, sallow man arose;

And begg'd he briefly might his mind disclose;

“It was his duty, in these worst of times,

“T' inform the govern'd of their rulers' crimes:”

吃罢晚餐,他再不愿将本性压抑,

再不愿老老实实将嘴巴紧闭;

终于轮到他滔滔不绝力压全场——

然后失望就将他的全盘计划阻挡;

听吧!——他惊讶地听到,在他身前身后

他的教会遭到侮辱,教士们被批倒批臭;

法律遭到痛斥,统治权力被扣上黑锅,

祖国遭到嘲讽,祖国的敌人得到开脱:——

听得他暗自心惊——面对如此恶劣的听众

他该说什么?倘若把话说得太重,

唯恐惹恼这许多人;——倘若说得太轻

气场太弱,又怕被他们嘲笑出门。

别的时候他总能口若悬河,

如今他却呆若木鸡张口结舌。

这里有人信奉苏西尼派与自然神论,

还有形形色色的国教会敌人;

各种教条无所不有,还有混不吝的浑人:

这里也有人狂热鼓吹自由,

绝不肯向王公与律法弯腰低头;

还有门类齐全的各种改革派,

敌视法律与教士,存心将宫廷败坏;

有些人极力宣扬自己的宏伟大计,

也有些人单纯只想发泄满腹怨气:

急躁的人们骄傲地抨击着国法,

虚荣的人们只想假装有些看法;

这个人主张变革令他心生惧畏,

那个人高呼法国万岁自由万岁!

哪个嗓门最大,附和的人们就越多,

还讲什么理性?人多势众越发敢说。

法官慨叹道:“乱象何以至此?

这么多卑劣之辈,此等痛苦与羞耻?”

良知回答道:“论及祸根莫作他想,

只因你一味爱听别人为你鼓掌。

如今你深陷与你不容的群落,他们厌弃

你最爱的题目,将你的希望与恐惧

化为笑柄;闭嘴噤声,莫要出头冒尖,

要默默忍受他们的大论长篇,

要通过感觉来理解是什么力量

让你这些勉强的朋友如此激亢:

有多少想法你以为都是天经地义,

他们却视作叛徒的伎俩,白痴的把戏;

然而心智好比身体,吃撑了也受不了,

更不会容忍强力折磨,借口为了你好!”

最后有一位瘦削蜡黄之人站起身来,

希望占用片刻,将自己的头脑剖白:

“这是我的职责,在这最恶劣的时代,

向被统治者们揭示掌权者如何罪孽败坏!”

博尔特被这位名叫哈蒙德的共和派律师吓得不敢开口,直到哈蒙德发言完毕之后他才鼓足勇气发起了反击。人们一般认为克雷布描写人物与景物的时候略显乏味,但其实他也可以非常幽默,比方说以下就是博尔特法官努力鼓动怒火时的样子:

Alarm'd by this, he lash'd his soul to rage,

Burn'd with strong shame, and huried to engage.

As a male turkey straggling on the green,

When by ferce harriers, terriers, mongrels seen,

He feels the insult of the noisy train,

And sculks aside, though moved by much disdain;

But when that turkey, at his own barn-door,

Sees one poor straying puppy and no more,

(A foolish puppy who had left the pack,

Thoughtless what foe was threat'ning at his back,)

He moves about, as ship prepared to sail,

He hoists his proud rotundity of tail,

The half-seal'd eyes and changeful neck he shows,

Where, in its quick' ning colours, vengeance glows;

From red to blue the pendant wattles turn,

Blue mix'd with red, as matches when they burn;

And thus th' intruding snarler to oppose,

Urged by enkindling wrath, he gobbling goes.

So look'd our hero in his wrath, his cheeks

Flush'd with fresh fires and glow 'd in tingling streaks;

受惊之下,他鞭笞灵魂大发烈怒,

羞耻心熊熊灼烧,急于将对方吓住。

恰似雄火鸡在绿草坪上疯狂扑翼,

只因凶猛的各种猎犬逼近了草地,

狺狺吠叫令他心中惶恐惊惧,

于是扑腾着逃走,憋了一肚子气。

还是这只火鸡,逃回自家农舍门口,

看见一只走失的无助小狗,

(愚蠢的小东西,脱离开了大部队,

不知道怎样凶恶的敌人盯着他的后背,)

于是他摆开架势,恰似航船即将离岸,

骄傲地炸起丰满的尾羽好似团扇,

眯起眼睛,高高耸起紧绷的脖颈,

复仇的光芒在脖颈上熠熠闪动;

赤红色的肉垂变成了幽蓝,

又好似火柴燃烧,变得红中透蓝;

为了对抗这呲牙的入侵小兽,

他点燃了怒火,咯咯叫着向前凑。

我们的主人公此时也怒不可遏,

两颊飞烈火,根根血管即将爆破;

英国主流文化似乎对华兹华斯与济慈情有独钟,而笔者则建议读者们将克雷布与克莱尔当成现实英格兰的更可靠观察家。克雷布笔下的自然风光充斥着荒凉孤寂的气息——空无一人的海滩,水草壅塞的河道,凄凉的荒野。克莱尔笔下的自然风光从地理位置上来说要比克雷布更加靠北,看上去也更加阳光明媚且生机盎然,很适合踏青远足呼吸新鲜空气,学童、农夫、獾与参天古树在这片地区随处可见。然而要想收束以英国革命为主题的本章节,最恰当的文字恐怕还是克莱尔的自传性质反思诗歌《我在》(I Am)。如果你想理解身处飞速变化社会的人们如何感到茫然若失,这首诗可谓抓住了关键。尽管诗歌的作者是克莱尔,但是听上去就好像克拉布笔下的贫苦农民用自己的语言开了腔那样:

I am! yet what I am none cares or knows,

My friends forsake me like a memory lost;

I am the self-consumer of my woes,

They rise and vanish in oblivious host,

Like shades in love and death's oblivion lost;

And yet I am! and live with shadows tost

我在!但我的本性无人知晓或者萦怀,

我的朋友弃绝了我,恰似将回忆忘记;

我只能将满心苦痛自行品味明白,

它们在被遗忘的宿主心中生灭来去,

恰似阴影迷失在爱与死的幻境;

然而我在!我与被抛弃的影子共度生命。

Into the nothingness of scorn and noise,

Into the living sea of waking dreams,

Where there is neither sense of life nor joys,

But the vast shipwreck of my life's esteems;

And e'en the dearest—that I loved the best—

Are strange—nay, rather stranger than the rest.

飘入讽刺而又喧嚣的虚无,

沉浸于满是白日梦的灵海,

那里没有活着的感觉与幸福,

唯有我生命尊严的巨船残骸;

即便是最亲爱的——我的挚爱亲人

也变得陌生——而且还不如陌生人。

I long for scenes where man has never trod;

A place where woman never smil'd or wept;

There to abide with my creator, God,

And sleep as I in childhood sweetly slept:

Untroubling and untroubled where I lie;

The grass below—above the vaulted sky.

我渴望这样一片风景,人迹未至,

未曾见过女性的微笑与眼泪;

我将在那里服从创造我的上帝,

像童稚岁月那样甜美入睡,

心中坦然,无人搅扰,

上有苍穹,身枕青草。【参考了遐思如梦网友的译文】


2020-03-03 01:49:43