主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

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2020-03-11 23:28:03
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万年看客万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`7`25629`186762`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
浪漫的苦恼4 1

第二代浪漫主义诗人的领军人物是约翰.济慈,他有意识地应和了华兹华斯的风格,与此同时又对前辈的政治立场感到绝望。后来他定居在伦敦北部,与柯勒律治分别住在汉普特斯西斯地区的两边,由此也结识了后者。济慈在二十五岁就英年早逝,认真投入诗歌创作的时间只有六年,生前饱受评论家们的嘲笑。直到维多利亚时代他的风评才转向正面,被人们当成了终极浪漫派,莎士比亚以来最受爱戴的诗人。如果要从社会角度解读济慈的诗歌,关键词是“不安全感”。济慈的父亲是一位马夫,后来改行成为了伦敦某酒馆的店老板。济慈十四岁那年就父母双亡沦为了孤儿,此后一直穷困拮据直至去世。他的第一份工作是行医,在伦敦接受了培训。但是因为决心要成为诗人,他从未正经给别人看过病。能以一言判定诗人声誉的士绅阶层文论家们很不待见济慈,抨击他出身低微,讥讽他不如趁早改行去化学用品商店当伙计。他们觉得他的感性风格低俗冒犯,属于典型的下里巴人风格。此外济慈的政治观点大概也妨碍了他的作品得到时人的接受。他是个激进共和派,尽管从未像好友与对手雪莱那样强烈表达过自己的主张。

对于英国诗歌史而言,济慈的出身背景之所以重要,是因为济慈对于这一切做出的反应。简而言之,他效仿柯勒律治的先例,也构建了一个专属他本人的诗歌世界,一片温柔而又懒散的音韵天地,这片天地将会吸引后世无数青少年。在受教育方面济慈的运气不错,他在一所作风自由的学校念书,老师们鼓励他研读前代诗人的作品。诗歌就此成为了专供济慈独享的替代世界,在这里乔叟、但丁、弥尔顿、斯宾塞与查普曼就像他的同代人一样真切。在济慈眼中,现实世界里的十九世纪初的伦敦充斥着势利眼、贫困与疾病。他并不打算将诗歌作为描述身边世界的工具,而是利用诗歌营造了另一个更高尚、更敏感的世界。他继承了华兹华斯的个人主义与专注自我,并将其推向了更极端的地步。无论如何,他都迷倒了十九世纪与二十世纪的无数诗坛后辈。

济慈的影响之所以如此深远,首先是因为他的技艺娴熟,擅长搭配音律与感受。他的这项本领比其他任何人都更完美。当然他的确英年早逝,他的感情生活也的确很悲剧,但是这并不是后世铭记他的主要原因。他的名声之所以历久弥新,关键还是因为他的笔下功夫了得。以下选取的诗文是长诗《恩底弥翁》(Endymion)的开头第一段。这段文字尽管在济慈生前备受抨击,但却奠定了他的“诗歌超越生命”的信条:

A thing of beauty is a joy for ever:

Its loveliness increases; it will never

Pass into nothingness; but still will keep

A bower quiet for us, and a sleep

Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing.

Therefore, on every morrow, are we wreathing

A flowery band to bind us to the earth,

Spite of despondence, of the inhuman dearth

Of noble natures, of the gloomy days,

Of all the unhealthy and o'er-darkened ways

Made for our searching: yes, in spite of all,

Some shape of beauty moves away the pall

From our dark spirits. Such the sun, the moon,

Trees old and young, sprouting a shady boon

For simple sheep; and such are daffodils

With the green world they live in; and clear rills

That for themselves a cooling covert make

'Gainst the hot season; the mid forest brake,

Rich with a sprinkling of fair musk-rose blooms:

And such too is the grandeur of the dooms

We have imagined for the mighty dead;

All lovely tales that we have heard or read:

An endless fountain of immortal drink,

Pouring unto us from the heaven's brink.

凡美的事物就是永恒的喜悦:

它的美与日俱增;它永不湮灭,

永不消亡;它永远都会

为我们保留一处幽亭,让我们安睡,

充满了美梦、健康和宁静的呼吸。

于是,每个翌日的清晨,我们编织

绚丽的彩带,把自己跟尘世系牢捆好,

不管失望沮丧,也不管无情之辈如何缺少

高贵的天性,不管愁苦的岁月,

更不管求索途中经历的一切

疾患与晦暗;是的,将所有这些统统抛弃,

某种形式的美终究总会揭去

笼罩我们心灵的黑幕。看那日月升沉,

古木幼树遮蔽着单纯的羊群,

为它们搭起遮荫凉棚;再看水仙摇曳

以及它们生长其间的绿茵世界;

明澈的溪流,为草木提供丝丝凉意

从而抵御炎夏;林中灌木团团集聚

满洒麝香蔷薇的细碎花朵;

伟人的末日也是这样一番结果,

我们想象他们的命运何等壮丽;

这都构成无尽的不朽仙泉,

从天际注入我们的心田。【译者不详,有修改】

这段文字着实令人心醉,但也令读者略感晕眩,隐约暗示济慈并非像他自己期望的那样是一个纯粹的乡间居民。他的田园牧歌描写得并不是百分之百的正宗英国,而是多少带着一丝地中海地区的可疑气息,诗文背后隐隐能看到意大利画家与希腊文人的身影。相比之下约翰.克莱尔才是如假包换的正宗英国乡间住户,而且他显然抱有同样的观点。在克莱尔看来,济慈“往往按照他自己的臆想来描绘自然,而不是按照他亲眼所见的景象——假如他当真见过的话——来描绘自然。”这番批评不能说没有道理,但是并没有把道理说透。以夜莺为例,上一章我们见过了克莱尔如何栩栩如生地描绘真实的夜莺与真实的夜莺巢。相比之下,济慈在《夜莺颂》(Ode to a Nightingale)当中描绘的夜莺则写意得多。根据诗人自述,他是在一位朋友家的花园里听到夜莺鸣叫之后有感而发创作了这首诗:

My heart aches, and a drowsy numbness pains

My sense, as though of hemlock I had drunk,

Or emptied some dull opiate to the drains

One minute past, and Lethe-wards, had sunk;

'Tis not through envy of thy happy lot,

But being too happy in thine happiness ---

That thou, light-winged Dryad of the trees,

In some melodious plot

Of beechen green and shadows numberless,

Singest of summer in full-throated ease.

我的心在痛,困顿和麻木

刺进了感官,有如饮过毒鸠,

又象是刚刚把鸦片吞服,

于是向着列斯忘川下沉:

并不是我嫉妒你的好运,

而是你的快乐使我太欢欣——

因为在林间嘹亮的天地里,

你呵,轻翅的仙灵,

你躲进山毛榉的葱绿和荫影,

放开歌喉,歌唱着夏季。

O, for a draught of vintage! that hath been

Cooled a long age in the deep-delved earth,

Tasting of Flora and the country green,

Dance, and Provencal song, and sunburnt mirth!

O for a beaker full of the warm South,

Full of the true, the blushful Hippocrene,

With beaded bubbles winking at the brim,

And purple-strained mouth;

That I might drink, and leave the world unseen,

And with thee fade away into the forest dim;

哎,要是有一口酒!那冷藏

在地下多年的清醇饮料,

一尝就令人想起绿色之邦,

想起花神,恋歌,阳光和舞蹈!

要是有一杯南国的温暖

充满了鲜红的灵感之泉,

杯沿明灭着珍珠的泡沫,

给嘴唇染上紫斑;

哦,我要一饮而离开尘寰,

和你同去幽暗的林中隐没:

Fade far away, dissolve, and quite forget

What thou among the leaves hast never known,

The weariness, the fever, and the fret

Here, where men sit and hear each other groan;

Where palsy shakes a few, sad, last gray hairs,

Where youth grows pale, and specter-thin, and dies;

Where but to think is to be full of sorrow

And leaden-eyed despairs,

Where Beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyes,

Or new Love pine at them beyond tomorrow.

远远地、远远隐没,让我忘掉

你在树叶间从不知道的一切,

忘记这疲劳、热病、和焦躁,

这使人对坐而悲叹的世界;

在这里,青春苍白、消瘦、死亡,

而“瘫痪”有几根白发在摇摆;

在这里,稍一思索就充满了

忧伤和灰色的绝望,

而“美”保持不住明眸的光彩,

新生的爱情活不到明天就枯凋。

Away! away! for I will fly to thee,

Not charioted by Bacchus and his pards,

But on the viewless wings of Poesy,

Though the dull brain perplexes and retards:

Already with thee! Tender is the night,

And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne,

Clustered around by all her starry fays;

But here there is no light,

Save what from heaven is with the breezes blown

Through verdurous glooms and winding mossy ways.

去吧!去吧!我要朝你飞去,

不用和酒神坐文豹的车驾,

我要展开诗歌底无形羽翼,

尽管这头脑已经困顿、疲乏;

去了!呵,我已经和你同往!

夜这般温柔,月后正登上宝座,

周围是侍卫她的一群星星;

但这儿却不甚明亮,

除了有一线天光,被微风带过,

葱绿的幽暗,和苔藓的曲径。

I cannot see what flowers are at my feet,

Nor what soft incense hangs upon the boughs,

But, in embalmed darkness, guess each sweet

Wherewith the seasonable month endows

The grass, the thicket, and the fruit tree wild;

White hawthorn, and the pastoral eglantine;

Fast-fading violets covered up in leaves;

And mid-May's eldest child,

The coming musk rose, full of dewy wine,

The murmurous haunt of flies on summer eves.

我看不出是哪种花草在脚旁,

什么清香的花挂在树枝上;

在温馨的幽暗里,我只能猜想

这个时令该把哪种芬芳

赋予这果树,林莽,和草丛,

这白枳花,和田野的玫瑰,

这绿叶堆中易谢的紫罗兰,

还有五月中旬的娇宠,

这缀满了露酒的麝香蔷薇,

它成了夏夜蚊蚋的嗡萦的港湾。

Darkling I listen; and, for many a time

I have been half in love with easeful Death,

Called him soft names in many a mused rhyme,

To take into the air my quiet breath;

Now more than ever seems it rich to die,

To cease upon the midnight with no pain,

While thou art pouring forth thy soul abroad

In such an ecstasy!

Still wouldst thou sing, and I have ears in vain ---

To thy high requiem become a sod.

我在黑暗里倾听:呵,多少次

我几乎爱上了静谧的死亡,

我在诗思里用尽了好的言辞,

求他把我的一息散入空茫;

而现在,哦,死更是多么富丽:

在午夜里溘然魂离人间,

当你正倾泻着你的心怀

发出这般的狂喜!

你仍将歌唱,但我却不再听见——

你的葬歌只能唱给泥草一块。

Thou wast not bonr for death, immortal Bird!

No hungry generations tread thee down;

The voice I hear this passing night was heard

In ancient days by emperors and clown;

Perhaps the selfsame song that found a path

Through the sad heart of Ruth, when, sick for home,

She stood in tears amid the alien corn;

The same that ofttimes hath

Charmed magic casements, opening on the foam

Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn.

永生的鸟呵,你不会死去!

饥饿的世代无法将你蹂躏;

今夜,我偶然听到的歌曲

曾使古代的帝王和村夫喜悦;

或许这同样的歌也曾激荡

露丝忧郁的心,使她不禁落泪,

站在异邦的谷田里想着家;

就是这声音常常

在失掉了的仙域里引动窗扉:

一个美女望着大海险恶的浪花。

Forlorn! the very word is like a bell

To toll me back from thee to my sole self!

Adieu! the fancy cannot cheat so well

As she is famed to do, deceiving elf.

Adieu! adieu! thy plaintive anthem fades

Past the near meadows, over the still stream,

Up the hilside; and now 'tis buried deep

In the next valley glades.

Was it a vision, or a waking dream?

Fled is that music --- Do I wake or sleep?

呵,失掉了!这句话好比一声钟

使我猛醒到我站脚的地方!

别了!幻想,这骗人的妖童,

不能老耍弄它盛传的伎俩。

别了!别了!你怨诉的歌声

流过草坪,越过幽静的溪水,

溜上山坡;而此时,它正深深

埋在附近的溪谷中:

噫,这是个幻觉,还是梦寐?

那歌声去了:——我是睡?是醒?【穆旦译】

读者们大概必须承认,这首诗并没有描写现实当中的英国,但是诗文的绚烂瑰丽却远远超越了克莱尔能够企及的上限。再举个例子,下面这首诗是克莱尔的《致秋天》(To Autumn),笔者窃以为这首诗堪称技法娴熟且观察细致的杰作:

The thistledown's flying, though the winds are all still,

On the green grass now lying, now mounting the hill,

The spring from the fountain now boils like a pot;

Through stones past the counting it bubbles red-hot.

静悄悄的风中,蓟絮飘过,

落在草地上,荡到小山坡,

喷泉的水像一壶刚沏的热茶,

翻着气泡从卵石间流下。

The ground parched and cracked is like overbaked bread,

The greensward all wracked is, bents dried up and dead.

The fallow fields glitter like water indeed,

And gossamers twitter, flung from weed unto weed.

干裂土地似一块焦黄的烧饼,

耷拉的干草,没有生命的草坪,

闪闪的犁沟,幻觉的水槽,

细细的蛛丝,悬挂在干草枯蒿。

Hill-tops like hot iron glitter bright in the sun,

And the rivers we're eying burn to gold as they run;

Burning hot is the ground, liquid gold is the air;

Whoever looks round sees Eternity there.

骄阳下的山包,似一个个烧红的熨斗,

眼前的小河,像熔化的金属慢慢地流,

炽热的土地,滚烫的空气,

放眼四野,无边无际。【木草堂网友译】

笔者承认,“娴熟”二字说得还是不够公道。单就技法而言这首诗的工整程度在英语作品当中可谓首屈一指。但是常言说不怕不识货就怕货比货,下面是济慈的《秋颂》(Ode to Autumn):

Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,

Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;

Conspiring with him how to load and bless

With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run;

To bend with apples the moss'd cottage-trees,

And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core;

To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells

With a sweet kernel; to set budding more,

And still more, later flowers for the bees,

Until they think warm days will never cease,

For summer has o'er-brimm'd their clammy cells.

雾气洋溢、果实圆熟的秋,

你和成熟的太阳成为友伴;

你们密谋用累累的珠球,

缀满茅屋檐下的葡萄藤蔓;

使屋前的老树背负着苹果,

让熟味透进果实的心中,

使葫芦胀大,鼓起了榛子壳,

好塞进甜核;又为了蜜蜂

一次一次开放过迟的花朵,

使它们以为日子将永远暖和,

因为夏季早填满它们的粘巢。

Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store?

Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find

Thee sitting careless on a granary floor,

Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind;

Or on a half-reap'd furrow sound asleep,

Drows'd with the fume of poppies, while thy hook

Spares the next swath and all its twined flowers:

And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep

Steady thy laden head across a brook;

Or by a cyder-press, with patient look,

Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours.

谁不经常看见你伴着谷仓?

在田野里也可以把你找到,

弥有时随意坐在打麦场上,

让发丝随着簸谷的风轻飘;

有时候,为罂粟花香所沉迷,

你倒卧在收割一半的田垄,

让镰刀歇在下一畦的花旁;

或者.像拾穗人越过小溪,

你昂首背着谷袋,投下倒影,

或者就在榨果架下坐几点钟,

你耐心地瞧着徐徐滴下的酒浆。

Where are the songs of spring? Ay, Where are they?

Think not of them, thou hast thy music too,—

While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day,

And touch the stubble-plains with rosy hue;

Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn

Among the river sallows, borne aloft

Or sinking as the light wind lives or dies;

And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn;

Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble soft

The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft;

And gathering swallows twitter in the skies.

啊.春日的歌哪里去了?但不要

想这些吧,你也有你的音乐——

当波状的云把将逝的一天映照,

以胭红抹上残梗散碎的田野,

这时啊,河柳下的一群小飞虫

就同奏哀音,它们忽而飞高,

忽而下落,随着微风的起灭;

篱下的蟋蟀在歌唱,在园中

红胸的知更鸟就群起呼哨;

而群羊在山圈里高声默默咩叫;

丛飞的燕子在天空呢喃不歇。【穆旦译】

就像刚才一样,这首诗写得绝对不是英国的乡村,而是全然不同的另一种乡村——济慈描绘的是心境当中的乡村,是看待生命状态的一道视线,是一处由他创造并且永远与读者同在的想象世界。这样看来,济慈之所以能迷倒这么多后世诗人也就不难理解了。


2020-03-11 23:28:03