主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

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2020-03-16 05:21:47
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万年看客万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`6`25524`185984`从五品下:朝散大夫|游击将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
浪漫的苦恼6

笔者以为拜伦终其一生都未能真正理解纯真一词的含义。不过说一千道一万,他的诗歌依然华彩绚烂可读性极强。这句评语并不适用于最后一位浪漫主义主要代表人物,拜伦与济慈的共同朋友,1822年溺亡在意大利的珀西.比希.雪莱。就像拜伦一样,雪莱也必须应对拿破仑最终战败之后笼罩欧洲的反动政治氛围,尤其要应付当时僵化高压的英国政府。就像拜伦一样,雪莱胸中的青春革命之火终其一生都未曾熄灭(对于革命派诗人来说,英年早逝往往是一步妙棋)。但是与拜伦不同,雪莱的问题并不在于愤世嫉俗,而是在于过分严肃以至于有些啰嗦。维多利亚时代的读者们一边追捧雪莱一边哀叹他的无神论立场,再往后的读者们则往往认为他笔下篇幅较长且更具幻想的诗歌看上去就像色彩过于浓重的疾风,一方面激情四溢,另一方面又有些不知所云。如今读者意见又逐渐转向了有利于雪莱的方向。他的诗歌集中体现了浪漫主义运动在十九世纪二十年代的绝望与渴望的极致,例如下面这段诗文节选自为悼念约翰.济慈而创作的《阿童尼》(Adonais):

I weep for Adonais—he is dead!

Oh, weep for Adonais! though our tears

Thaw not the frost which binds so dear a head!

And thou, sad Hour, selected from all years

To mourn our loss, rouse thy obscure compeers,

And teach them thine own sorrow, say: "With me

Died Adonais; till the Future dares

Forget the Past, his fate and fame shall be

An echo and a light unto eternity!"

我为阿童尼哭泣——他已经死了!

噢,为他哭泣吧!虽然我们的泪珠

融解不了那冻结他秀额的冰霜!

而你,忧郁的时刻,却被岁月挑出

来承担我们的损失;请向你的同辈

传授你的悲哀吧:你该说:“阿童尼

是和我一同死的;要是‘未来’不敢——

遗忘‘过去’,他的命运和名声必是

一线光明,一种回音,增添到永恒里!【穆旦译】

雪莱具有非凡的抒情造诣。古往今来只有寥寥几首诗钻进了英国人的集体想象,其中就包括雪莱的《奥斯曼狄斯》(Ozymandias)。诗人面无表情地点评了俗世权柄的煊赫阵势以及灰飞烟灭的必然下场。笔者建议将这首诗铭刻在下议院的入口处:

I met a traveller from an antique land

Who said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stone

Stand in the desert. Near them, on the sand,

Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown,

And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command,

Tell that its sculptor well those passions read

Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,

The hand that mocked them and the heart that fed;

And on the pedestal these words appear:

“My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings:

Look on my Works, ye Mighty, and despair!”

Nothing beside remains. Round the decay

Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare

The lone and level sands stretch far away.

客从古国来,告我古国事。

曾见沙漠中,伫立二石柱。

形制为双股,其上无身躯。

旁有碎石颅,沉沙半掩没。

蹙眉抿双唇,蔑笑真冷酷。

当年雕工巧,必深感其怒。

匠作无处寻,威仪留印记。

妙手琢顽石,苦心摹生气。

细看石柱底,隐约一行字:

“至尊威名赫,奥斯曼狄斯!

功业镇千古,天公亦叹息!”

四周无余物,不见残垣壁。

唯有万里沙,绵延向天际。

不过要说到刻画这一时期身为英国人的体验,拔得头筹的诗歌必然是《暴政的假面游行》(The Mask of Anarchy)。这是英语政治抗议诗歌当中最杰出的一首。1815年的滑铁卢大捷过后,大量英军士兵脱去军装,重返了民间生活。第二年印尼的坦博拉火山爆发,致使欧洲与北美大部分地区遭受了所谓的“无夏之年”,英国当年粮食严重歉收——这将是全球粮食贸易开放之前英国人最后一次经历足以导致饥荒的自然灾害。新近出台的《谷物法》旨在保护地主阶层的利益,向英国进口的粮食征收了高额关税,推高了食品价格,进一步恶化了民众的生活环境。另一方面民间要求政治体制改革的呼声愈发强烈,改革的支持者们希望新兴工业城市能在议会得到相应的代表权,早已不得人心的政府则咬紧牙关不肯让步。简而言之,一场即将席卷英国政坛的完美风暴已经凑齐了一切条件。

1819年8月,正当雪莱被放逐到意大利时,大批曼城民众在圣彼得广场举行示威集会,支持议会体制改革。政府派出骑兵冲击示威人群,当场杀死十五人,另有上百人被马刀砍伤。针对这一事件,雪莱写下了以下诗句:

As I lay asleep in Italy

There came a voice from over the Sea

And with great power it forth led me

To walk in the visions of Poesy.

我在意大利躺着发呆,

一个声音飘洋过海,

一股强力引领我离开,

在诗意的梦境里徘徊。

I met Murder on the way -

He had a mask like Castlereagh -

Very smooth he looked, yet grim;

Seven blood-hounds followed him:

路上我偶遇屠杀,腥风血雨——

象卡斯尔雷戴着面具,

貌似和蔼,其实残暴;

紧随他的是猎狗七条:

All were fat; and well they might

Be in admirable plight,

For one by one, and two by two,

He tossed the human hearts to chew

Which from his wide cloak he drew.

条条硕壮,只只肥美;

处境优渥,值得赞佩,

他从宽大的斗篷

双双对对掏出人心,

扔给他们虎咽狼吞。

Next came Fraud, and he had on,

Like Eldon, an ermined gown;

His big tears, for he wept well,

Turned to mill-stones as they fell.

接着是蒙骗,穿一袭

象埃尔顿裹着的裘皮法衣;*

他伤心恸哭,泣涕涟涟,

滴滴泪珠落地即成磨盘。

*【第一任埃尔顿侯爵约翰.斯科特,时任英国大法官。】

And the little children, who

Round his feet played to and fro,

Thinking every tear a gem,

Had their brains knocked out by them.

幼童们缠绕其膝下,

往返来回,嬉戏、玩耍,

以为滴滴泪珠皆是珍宝,

却被它们砸烂了头脑。

Clothed with the Bible, as with light,

And the shadows of the night,

Like Sidmouth, next, Hypocrisy

On a crocodile rode by.

以圣经作伪装,俨然光明,

而那黑夜的幽灵,

象西德茅斯般,*

接着鳄鱼驮着伪善。

*【即亨利.艾尔顿,1801—1804年和1806—1807年任首相,1804被封为西德茅斯子爵。1819年担任内政大臣】

And many more Destructions played

In this ghastly masquerade,

All disguised, even to the eyes,

Like Bishops, lawyers, peers, or spies.

在恐怖的化妆舞会里

许许多多毁灭在演绎,

人人在伪装,甚至就连双眼,

都貌似主教、律师、贵族、或密探。

Last came Anarchy: he rode

On a white horse, splashed with blood;

He was pale even to the lips,

Like Death in the Apocalypse.

暴政终于来也:

他驾着白马,飞溅喋血;

他苍白的脸色、嘴唇,

酷似启示录中的死神。

And he wore a kingly crown;

And in his grasp a sceptre shone;

On his brow this mark I saw -

'I AM GOD, AND KING, AND LAW!'

他头顶王冠,俨然皇上;

手握权杖,闪闪发光;

只见戳记在其印堂—

“我是上帝,法律,国王!”

With a pace stately and fast,

Over English land he passed,

Trampling to a mire of blood

The adoring multitude,

步伐庄严而快速,

他穿越英格兰的国土,

将敬仰膜拜的苍生

践踏于血泊泥坑。

And a mighty troop around,

With their trampling shook the ground,

Waving each a bloody sword,

For the service of their Lord.

四周布满强悍的士兵,

震撼大地,践踏蹂躏,

个个挥舞带血的刺刀,

在为他们的君主效劳。

And with glorious triumph, they

Rode through England proud and gay,

Drunk as with intoxication

Of the wine of desolation.

因为光荣的凯旋,

趾高气扬踏遍英格兰,

酩酊于欣喜若狂

是那忧伤的酒浆。

O'er fields and towns, from sea to sea,

Passed the Pageant swift and free,

Tearing up, and trampling down;

Till they came to London town.

越过五湖四海、城镇、田园,

迅疾逍遥地穿过盛装庆典,

烧杀凌虐,踩踏蹂躏;

直到他们抵达了伦敦。

And each dweller, panic-stricken,

Felt his heart with terror sicken

Hearing the tempestuous cry

Of the triumph of Anarchy.

惊慌失措的居民,

饱尝了吊胆提心,

聆听暴政的凯旋——

暴风雨般的呼喊。

For with pomp to meet him came,

Clothed in arms like blood and flame,

The hired murderers, who did sing

'Thou art God, and Law, and King.

迎接他的是浮华壮丽,

掩饰如血似火的兵器,

雇佣的帮凶在合唱

“你是上帝、法律、国王。”

'We have waited, weak and lone

For thy coming, Mighty One!

Our purses are empty, our swords are cold,

Give us glory, and blood, and gold.'

“孤独羸弱的我们,等待你的驾临—

我们始终恭候强大的国君!

咱们的钱包空空,刀剑阴森,

赐我们荣耀、鲜血与黄金!”【上善若水网友译,有修正】

十九世纪英国历史的一大部分内容在于革命的缺席。缓慢但稳步推进的议会体制改革与社会改革虽然始终没能平息下层社会的怒火,但却成功地遏制了一切有可能颠覆“上帝、法律、国王”的革命势力。英国人终究还是再次迎来了更美好的时光。英国成为了一个不断成长壮大的帝国,有能力将国内的过剩人口打发到海外去强占其他民族的土地,同时又将世界各地的奢侈品进口回英国。全世界第一个投身于工业革命的国家终于全速发动了起来。换言之,英国人的日子即将越过越好。相比之下,浪漫主义诗歌却是危机时代的产物,属于法国大革命与彼得卢大屠杀之间的时代。因此这一流派也逐渐消沉了下去。英国诗歌即将一本正经地板起面孔。维多利亚时代的诗人们正在系牢马甲上的扣子,整理头上的帽子,等待历史的召唤。


最后于2020-03-23 02:22:20改,共2次;
2020-03-16 05:21:47