主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

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2020-03-25 04:36:50
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万年看客万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`6`25524`185984`从五品下:朝散大夫|游击将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
不列颠时代3 2

在本书此前涉及的各个世纪里,绝大多数英国人似乎都是基督教信徒。或许这只是社会控制的手段,或许怀疑论者、不可知论者乃至无神论者的数量从来都不少,但是显然他们一直将自己的想法藏在心里。基督教信仰是英国文化的绝对核心,公然出柜的无神论者少之又少,笔者只能想起来克里斯托弗.马洛以及一段时间里的安德鲁.马维尔。但是现在科学在地理与生物领域的新发现正在颠覆英国人对于地球历史、地球起源以及人类特殊地位的固有看法——换句话说上帝与信仰都遭到了质疑。千百万爱思考的英国人就此遭受了重创。马修.阿诺德是教育过克拉夫的拉格比公学创始人的儿子,他笔下有一首诗歌十分到位地体现了这一思潮。阿诺德的文笔机智、简练而又古典,不过丝毫打动不了笔者,唯独下面这首名至实归的佳作《多佛尔海滩》(Dover Beach)是个例外。诗人通过这部作品抒发了对于信仰在唯物主义时代信仰逐渐消失的悲恸:

The sea is calm tonight.

The tide is full, the moon lies fair

Upon the straits; on the French coast the light

Gleams and is gone; the cliffs of England stand,

Glimmering and vast, out in the tranquil bay.

Come to the window, sweet is the night-air!

Only, from the long line of spray

Where the sea meets the moon-blanched land,

Listen! you hear the grating roar

Of pebbles which the waves draw back, and fling,

At their return, up the high strand,

Begin, and cease, and then again begin,

With tremulous cadence slow, and bring

The eternal note of sadness in.

今夜大海平静,

潮水正满,月色朗朗,

临照海峡,——法国海岸上

微光渐隐,而英国的峭壁高竖,

在宁静的海湾里显出巨大模糊的身影。

到窗边来吧,晚风多么甜!

可是你听!月光漂白了的陆地

与大海相接处,那一条长长的浪花线

传来磨牙般的喧声,

这是海浪卷走卵石,然后转回头来,

又把它们抛到高高的海滩之上,

涌起,停息,再重新涌起,

以缓慢而颤动的节拍

送来永恒的悲哀的音响。

Sophocles long ago

Heard it on the ?gean, and it brought

Into his mind the turbid ebb and flow

Of human misery; we

Find also in the sound a thought,

Hearing it by this distant northern sea.

索福克勒斯很久以前

在爱琴海边听过这喧声,

在他心中引起了人类苦难的

浊浪滚滚的潮汐;

我们在此遥远的北海边聆听,

也在此声中听到了深意。

The Sea of Faith

Was once, too, at the full, and round earth’s shore

Lay like the folds of a bright girdle furled.

But now I only hear

Its melancholy, long, withdrawing roar,

Retreating, to the breath

Of the night-wind, down the vast edges drear

And naked shingles of the world.

信仰之海

也曾有过满潮,像一根灿烂的腰带,

把全球的海岸围绕。

但如今我只听得

它那忧伤的退潮的咆哮久久不息,

它退向夜风的呼吸,

退过世界广阔阴沉的边界,

只留下一滩光秃秃的卵石。

Ah, love, let us be true

To one another! for the world, which seems

To lie before us like a land of dreams,

So various, so beautiful, so new,

Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light,

Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain;

And we are here as on a darkling plain

Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight,

Where ignorant armies clash by night.

啊,爱人,愿我们

彼此真诚!因为世界虽然

展开在我们面前如梦幻的国度,

那么多彩、美丽而新鲜,

实际上却没有欢乐,没有爱和光明,

没有肯定,没有和平,没有对痛苦的救助;

我们犹如处在黑暗的旷野,

斗争和逃跑构成一片混乱与惊怖,

无知的军队在黑夜中互相冲突。【飞白译】

维多利亚时代英国人的世界观受到了许多体制的塑造,包括君主制、国教会以及大英帝国等等。但是这其中最重要的体制还要数婚姻。婚姻意味着安全与体面,在人生赢家与不圆满的存在之间画下了分界线。皈依了罗马天主教会的考文垂.帕特摩尔是维多利亚时代最杰出的歌颂婚姻的诗人。帕特摩尔生在埃塞克斯,早年是一位画家,后来捣鼓了一阵子科学研究,最后才转向诗歌。由于他家里没钱,不得不耗费了很多年在大英博物馆做一名低级助理员。他的人生转折点出现在1847年,这一年他迎娶了一位艾米丽.安德鲁斯。他的诗歌并未一炮打响,而且日后他还要再婚两次。但是他笔下颂扬婚姻的长篇叙事诗《家中的天使》(The Angel in the House)最终受到了广泛欢迎。我们不妨将这首长诗视作一篇易于阅读的轻小说,总体而言笔调轻快,但是同时又传达了强烈的反女权信息,因此被二十世纪的知识分子们批判得狗血淋头。只需看一看以下选段就能理解本诗的主旨:

Man must be pleased; but him to please

Is woman's pleasure; down the gulf

Of his condoled necessities

She casts her best, she flings herself.

How often flings for nought, and yokes

Her heart to an icicle or whim,

Whose each impatient word provokes

Another, not from her, but him;

While she, too gentle even to force

His penitence by kind replies,

Waits by, expecting his remorse,

With pardon in her pitying eyes;

And if he once, by shame oppress'd,

A comfortable word confers,

She leans and weeps against his breast,

And seems to think the sin was hers;

男人必须被取悦,而取悦他

则是女人的愉悦;沿着他那被安抚

的必需之物的深渊向下

她投下了自己的精华,飞身将深渊填补。

飞身一跃往往只为一场空,

恣意而为的冰凌将她的心禁锢,

每一句不耐烦的话语都会挑动

另一句,并非来自她,而是由他说出。

她如此温柔,不肯将他强迫,

不肯用温和的回应迫使他悔悟

于是等在一边,期待他改过,

怜悯的眼神里充满了宽恕。

一旦他,受到羞耻新的逼迫,

说了几句贴心的话语,

她就会倚靠在他胸口,两眼泪落,

似乎认为过失都在自己。

这段诗文当中的女性形象可以说很不女权了。帕特摩尔塑造的“屈服的妻子”形象在多年以后的世代看来实在无法忍受,但却准确地体现了维多利亚时代对于理想婚姻关系的看法——这部诗作在当时极其畅销,一次能卖掉一马车。部分原因当然在于帕特摩尔传达了对于夫妻之爱的迫切、真诚且几乎有些天真的看法。他一方面要求——或者说期望——妻子能够像天使那样制约丈夫的野蛮,另一方面也留下了不少证据表明他很看好谦和互让的婚姻幸福。下面这首《离别》(Departure)描述了一个寻常日子里夫妻告别的场景:

IT was not like your great and gracious ways!

Do you, that have naught other to lament,

Never, my Love, repent

Of how, that July afternoon,

You went,

With sudden, unintelligible phrase,

And frighten'd eye,

Upon your journey of so many days

Without a single kiss, or a good-bye?

I knew, indeed, that you were parting soon;

And so we sate, within the low sun's rays,

You whispering to me, for your voice was weak,

Your harrowing praise.

Well, it was well

To hear you such things speak,

And I could tell

What made your eyes a growing gloom of love,

As a warm South-wind sombres a March grove.

And it was like your great and gracious ways

To turn your talk on daily things, my Dear,

Lifting the luminous, pathetic lash

To let the laughter flash,

Whilst I drew near,

Because you spoke so low that I could scarcely hear.

But all at once to leave me at the last,

More at the wonder than the loss aghast,

With huddled, unintelligible phrase,

And frighten'd eye,

And go your journey of all days

With not one kiss, or a good-bye,

And the only loveless look the look with which you pass'd:

'Twas all unlike your great and gracious ways.

这可不像你平时那样伟大而慈爱的风度!

你,明明不必为其他人伤心,

我的爱人,莫非你从未悔过,

你居然,在七月的那个下午

突然就离开

伴随着突兀的,听不清的言语

以及惊恐的眼神,

踏上那么多天的旅程

却不给我留下一个吻,不说一句再见?

其实,我也知道,你很快就要动身

于是我们坐下,在夕阳余晖当中,

你对我耳语道——因为你的声音微弱

——你那焦虑的赞美。

好吧,能听到

你说出这些话语,确实挺好。

我也知道

是什么让你的双眼放出爱之光辉,

恰似温暖的南风抚慰了三月的果园。

这才像你平时那样伟大而慈爱的风度,

谈一点日常小事,我的爱人,

升起你的机关,美好而又惹人怜爱

释放出你的笑声满怀,

当我靠近你身边,

因为你声音太低,我实在听不见。

但是突然你终于要离开我身边,

我与其说震惊,倒不如说思绪万千,

伴随着局促的,听不清的言语,

以及惊恐的眼神,

踏上那么多天的旅程

却不给我留下一个吻,不说一句再见?

临走之前仅仅用无爱的眼神向我一瞥:

这实在不像你平时那样伟大而慈爱的风度!

前拉斐尔派的宗教画家们将帕特摩尔当成了自己人,辛格.萨金特还为他绘制了全身像。罗马天主教则对于他的后半生意义重大。他最著名的短诗《真理至大》(Magna Est Veritas)尽管笔调轻快,但却格外动人,这也是他的一贯风格:

Here, in this little Bay,

Full of tumultuous life and great repose,

Where, twice a day,

The purposeless, glad ocean comes and goes,

Under high cliffs, and far from the huge town,

I sit me down.

For want of me the world's course will not fail:

When all its work is done, the lie shall rot;

The truth is great, and shall prevail,

When none cares whether it prevail or not.

在这里,在这小小的港湾,

熙熙攘攘的生灵在此休憩,

在这里,两次每天,

海水涨落,欢乐而没有目的,

远离城镇,在高崖之下,

我找个地方坐下。

就算少了我,世界的进程也不受扰动:

大功告成之际,谎言必将腐朽;

伟大的真理,必将大获全胜,

届时谁也不会关心它胜利与否。

有一味显而易见的解药能够从根本上化解考文垂.帕特摩尔对于婚姻的推崇,那就是乔治.梅瑞狄斯笔下令人生畏的组诗《现代爱情》(Modern Love)。这套组诗总共包括五十首十四行诗,描写了一场婚姻的解体以及男女主人公各自出轨的经过。诗人本人的婚姻生活也很不圆满。他娶了文坛同侪托马斯.洛夫.皮考克的女儿,后来妻子跟着另一个男人跑了。梅瑞狄斯的小说文笔晦涩,如今没多少人看。但是随着当代人越发熟悉婚姻生活可能带来的苦境,《现代爱情》却变得越发流行起来。帕特摩尔的乐观对应了梅瑞狄斯的绝望;帕特摩尔用水粉上色,梅瑞狄斯则用指甲在画面上划过。以下是组诗的第一首,描写了两个貌合神离的人如何躺在同一张床上相互折磨:

By this he knew she wept with waking eyes:

That, at his hand's light quiver by her head,

The strange low sobs that shook their common bed

Were called into her with a sharp surprise,

And strangled mute, like little gaping snakes,

Dreadfully venomous to him. She lay

Stone-still, and the long darkness flowed away

With muffled pulses. Then, as midnight makes

Her giant heart of Memory and Tears

Drink the pale drug of silence, and so beat

Sleep's heavy measure, they from head to feet

Were moveless, looking through their dead black years,

By vain regret scrawled over the blank wall.

Like sculptured effigies they might be seen

Upon their marriage-tomb, the sword between;

Each wishing for the sword that severs all.

他由此知道,她醒着的眼在流泪:

只因为他在她头边的手略抖了一下,

奇怪的啜泣,震颤着他们的床榻,

因为突然猛吃一惊就此被她召回,

气吁吁的小蛇一般是令人窒息的沉默,

在他听来更毒得可怕。她一动不动

好似顽石,随着压抑的脉动

长长的黑夜在流逝。当夜半时刻

使她充满回忆和泪的巨大心房

饮下这苍白的沉默苦药,

敲出睡眠的节奏,他们从头到脚

一动不动,望穿了黑色岁月的凋亡,

徒然遗憾地把空墙慢慢地扫遍。

倒也许能看见他们的雕刻肖像

中间隔着剑,在他们婚姻之墓上;

而彼此都希望这剑把一切斩断。【黄杲炘译,有修改】

接下来这首诗描写了一顿令人惊心动魄的晚宴,夫妻双方的干涩对话丝毫无法掩饰爱情已死的事实:

AT dinner she is hostess, I am host.

Went the feast ever cheerfuller? She keeps

The topic over intellectual deeps

In buoyancy afloat. They see no ghost.

With sparkling surface-eyes we ply the ball:

It is in truth a most contagious game;

HIDING THE SKELETON shall be its name.

Such play as this the devils might appall!

But here ’s the greater wonder; in that we,

Enamor’d of our acting and our wits,

Admire each other like true hypocrites.

Warm-lighted glances, Love’s Ephemerae,

Shoot gayly o’er the dishes and the wine.

We waken envy of our happy lot.

Fast, sweet, and golden, shows our marriage-knot.

Dear guests, you now have seen Love’s corpse-light shine!

在晚餐桌上她是女主人,我是客人。

还有哪顿饭吃得更加喜庆?

她将话题在智识深渊的表层圈定,

浮而不沉,他们见不到鬼魂。

我们抛球接球,表层的眼睛闪闪发光:

事实上这是一个感染力最强的游戏;

游戏的名字叫做“将尸骸藏匿”。

这游戏真能把魔鬼吓得发慌!

但是更伟大的奇迹也在此露头;

我们的演技与机智令自己叹为观止,

彼此钦佩对方才是真正的伪君子。

暖光下的一瞥,爱情的蜉蝣,

伴随着觥筹交错,卿卿我我,

我们的幸福令观者嫉妒,

我们的姻缘甜美、珍贵而坚固。

请列位见识一番爱情尸骸的鬼火!


2020-03-25 04:36:50