主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

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2020-03-27 05:09:38
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万年看客万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`7`25625`186730`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
不列颠时代5 3

要说到对于维多利亚时代阅读公众的影响力,十九世纪中期的两大巨头分别是继承了华兹华斯的桂冠诗人头衔的阿尔弗雷德.丁尼生勋爵与罗伯特.勃朗宁。丁尼生首先是一位广受欢迎的奇幻诗歌作者,例如《尤利西斯》(Odysseus)与《夏洛特女士》(The Lady Of Shalott)。此外他的作品还是凸显大英帝国海外扩张大业的官方诗文,完美契合了时代精神的特质。这其中最优秀的一首诗《轻骑兵进击》(The Charge of the Light Brigade)描写了一场既英勇又脑残的军事行动。英国军人具有某种近乎寻死的怪异士气,这种气质将会在几十年后一战期间的巴雪戴尔战役当中达到高峰。不过在十九世纪中期这种气质已经充分成型了:

Half a league, half a league,

Half a league onward,

All in the valley of Death

Rode the six hundred.

"Forward, the Light Brigade!

"Charge for the guns!" he said:

Into the valley of Death

Rode the six hundred.

半里格,半里格,

往前冲杀半里格,

骑兵六百名

冲进死亡的谷地。

“向前冲,轻骑兵!”

他说,“向炮冲击!”

骑兵六百名

冲进死亡的谷地。

"Forward, the Light Brigade!"

Was there a man dismay'd?

Not tho' the soldier knew

Someone had blunder'd:

Theirs not to make reply,

Theirs not to reason why,

Theirs but to do and die:

Into the valley of Death

Rode the six hundred.

“向前冲,轻骑兵!”

可有人丧气?没有。

尽管士兵们知道

是错误命令。

他们可不能抗命,

他们可无法弄清,

只能奉命去牺牲。

骑兵六百名

冲进死亡的谷地

Cannon to right of them,

Cannon to left of them,

Cannon in front of them

Volley'd and thunder'd;

Storm'd at with shot and shell,

Boldly they rode and well,

Into the jaws of Death,

Into the mouth of Hell

Rode the six hundred.

炮打在他们右面,

炮打在他们左面,

炮打在他们前面,

排炮在轰鸣,

冒着炮火和霰弹,

他们善骑又勇敢。

骑兵六百名

冲进地狱的大门,

冲进死神的牙关。

Flash'd all their sabres bare,

Flash'd as they turn'd in air,

Sabring the gunners there,

Charging an army, while

All the world wonder'd:

Plunged in the battery-smoke

Right thro' the line they broke;

Cossack and Russian

Reel'd from the sabre stroke

Shatter'd and sunder'd.

Then they rode back, but not

Not the six hundred.

出鞘马刀亮晃晃,

挥舞空中闪寒光,

劈下在炮手身上;

向一支大军冲击,

举世都震惊。

他们冲破了防线,

杀进炮台的硝烟;

哥萨克和俄国人

挡不住马刀猛劈,

乱掉了队形。

这时他们往回驰——

不满六百名。

Cannon to right of them,

Cannon to left of them,

Cannon behind them

Volley'd and thunder'd;

Storm'd at with shot and shell,

While horse and hero fell,

They that had fought so well

Came thro' the jaws of Death

Back from the mouth of Hell,

All that was left of them,

Left of six hundred.

炮打在他们右面,

炮打在他们左面,

炮打在他们后面,

排炮在轰鸣;

在炮火和霰弹下,

战马和英雄倒下。

打得漂亮的他们

冲出死神的牙关;

他们中的生还者,

六百人中的生者

冲出地狱门。

When can their glory fade?

O the wild charge they made!

All the world wondered.

Honor the charge they made,

Honor the Light Brigade,

Noble six hundred.

时间能湮没英名?

哦他们这次狂冲!

举世都震惊。

致敬,向这次冲锋!

致敬,向这六百名

豪迈轻骑兵!【译者不详】

这次军事行动发生在1854年10月,发动冲锋的英军死伤接近三百人,战马损失了超过三百匹。对于维多利亚时代的英国人来说,克里米亚战争的重要性在于暴露了英国在军事方面的无能与组织混乱,此时距离惠灵顿的军队被解散已经过去了一代人时间。就丁尼生而言,他在创作冲突题材的诗歌时更喜欢深入挖掘英国历史。大部分此类诗歌虽说文辞华丽动人,但是却难以帮助度射门理解十九世纪英国人的集体心态,就好像圣潘克拉斯火车站的彩绘砖难以帮助我们了解维多利亚时代的科学进展一样。一般来说,当代读者要想了解丁尼生最具文采的一面,要想了解诗人如何把握住了时代精神,真正该看的是篇幅更长且笔调更黑暗的《悼念组诗》(In Memoriam)。丁尼生在剑桥就读时结交了一位密友阿瑟.亨利.哈拉姆,此人于1833年在维也纳死于中风。接下来丁尼生花了十七年时间来创作这套组诗,在其中反思了生活、爱情、命运以及友谊等多个主题。当年弥尔顿也曾用一首《利西达斯》悼念了剑桥好友亨利.金的去世,并且在诗中超越了个人的悲恸,提出了更广泛的论点。两百多年后,丁尼生的悼亡诗作更加大胆,古典气质更淡,此后再未被超越。这些诗句让人一听就全身发凉:

DARK house, by which once more I stand

Here in the long unlovely street,

Doors, where my heart was used to beat

So quickly, waiting for a hand,

昏暗的屋边我再度站立,

站在这不可爱的长街上;

在这门前,往常我的心脏

为筹待一只手总跳得急。

A hand that can be clasp’d no more—

Behold me, for I cannot sleep,

And like a guilty thing I creep

At earliest morning to the door.

可这只手再也无从紧握--.

瞧我呀,如今已无法入睡,

却像个可怜东面负着罪,

绝早地悄悄溜到这门口。

He is not here; but far away

The noise of life begins again,

And ghastly thro’ the drizzling rain

On the bald street breaks the blank day.

他不在这里;但是听远处,

生活的嘈杂声又在响起,

而透过空街上蒙蒙细雨,

茫茫中露出苍白的初曙。【飞白译】

不过《悼念组诗》包含了多种情绪,丁尼生在另一首诗中劝说自己采取念头通达的坚忍主义来应对人生的损失,这首诗至今依然十分动人,甚至还很有用:

I envy not in any moods

The captive void of noble rage,

The linnet born within the cage,

That never knew the summer woods;

我不妒忌笼中出生的小鸟——

这缺乏高贵怒火的囚徒,

不管它自己是否觉得幸福,

它从未见过夏天森林的奇妙;

In envy not the beast that takes

His license in the field of time,

Unfetter'd by the sense of crime,

To whom a conscience never wakes;

我不妒忌为所欲为的野兽,

它在自己的期限里放纵,

不因犯罪感而约束行动,

也不因良心觉醒而发愁;

Nor, what may count itself as blest,

The heart that never plighted troth

But stagnates in the weeds of sloth:

Nor any want-begotten rest.

我不妒总从未作过盟誓的心,

尽管它可以自诩为幸福,

它只在懒惰的莠草中朽腐,

我不妒忌匮乏造成的安宁。

I hold it true, whate'er befall;

I feel it, when I sorrow most;

'T is better to have loved and lost

than never to have loved at all.

不论何事降临,我确信,

在最悲痛的时刻我觉得:

宁肯爱过而又失却,

也不愿做从未爱过的人。【飞白译】

不过诗人要如何应对基督教在他身边受到的全方位挑战呢?《造物的自然历史的遗迹》这本书今天已经没多少人记得了。但是这本书在1844年匿名出版的时候却引发了一阵轰动,就连阿尔伯特亲王都为维多利亚女王读过这本书。本书作者是苏格兰的一位记者,名叫罗伯特.钱伯斯,他试图在书中证明包括人类在内的一切生命形式都是演化改变的结果,而演化过程可以追溯到太阳系的开端。与达尔文在十四年后出版的《物种起源》相比,本书的论证远没有那么严密可靠,但是的确成为了全英国街头巷尾的谈资。丁尼生也为此赋诗一首,采用大自然的身份开了腔:

“So careful of the type?” but no.

From scarped cliff and quarried stone

She cries, ?A thousand types are gone:

I care for nothing, all shall go.

“难送我关心物种吗?”不!

自然从岩层和化石中叫喊:

“物种已绝灭了千千万万,

我全不在乎,一切都要结束。

“Thou makest thine appeal to me:

I bring to life, I bring to death:

The spirit does but mean the breath:

I know no more.” And he, shall he,

“你向我呼吁,求我仁慈;

我令万物生,我使万物死,

灵魂仅仅意昧着呼吸,

我所知道的仅止于此。”

Man, her last work, who seem’d so fair,

Such splendid purpose in his eyes,

Who roll’d the psalm to wintry skies,

Who built him fanes of fruitless prayer,

难道说,人——她最后最美的作品

眼中闪耀着目标的光芒,

建造起徒然祈祷的庙堂,

把颂歌迭上冰冷的天庭,

Who trusted God was love indeed

And love Creation’s final law —

Tho’ Nature, red in tooth and claw

With ravine, shriek’d against his creed —

他相信上帝与仁爱一体,

相信爱是造物的最终律法,

尽管自然张扬着染血的爪牙,

叫喊着反对他的教义,

Who loved, who suffer’d countless ills,

Who battled for the True, the Just,

Be blown about the desert dust,

Or seal’d within the iron hills?

他曾为真理和正义而斗争,

他爱过,也受过无穷苦难,——

难道他也将随风沙吹散,

或被封存在铁山底层?

No more? A monster then, a dream,

A discord. Dragons of the prime,

That tare each other in their slime,

Were mellow music match’d with him.

从此消灭?这是一场恶梦,

一个不和谐音。原始的巨龙

在泥沼之中互相撕裂,

与此相比也是柔美的音乐!

O life as futile, then, as frail!

O for thy voice to soothe and bless!

What hope of answer, or redress?

Behind the veil, behind the veil.

生命是多么徒劳而脆弱!

啊,但愿你的声音能安慰我!

哪儿能找到回答或补救?

唯有在通过了帷幕之后。【飞白译】

丁尼生的创作生涯很长,而且大半辈子都很出名。维多利亚时代的诗人可以享受到明星一般的待遇,思想深入且行动迅速的文学文化滋养了他们。丁尼生的存在证明了诗歌在十九世纪依然具有影响社会的力量。他的作品极其畅销,每当推出新诗都会引发新一轮讨论与分析热潮。当时的英国人想当然地认为诗人就应该关注重大社会议题,从政治到军事,从宗教到家庭生活全都是合情合理的诗歌题材。在今天的文学界,诗歌遭到五花大绑,塞进了智识生活的贫民窟里。当年的情况则远非如此。

罗伯特.勃朗宁与丁尼生可谓一时瑜亮,两人既是对手也是朋友,此外勃朗宁名声几乎与丁尼生一样显赫。他也是一位性情多变的诗人,最擅长戏剧独白诗。读者们应当将这些独白大声朗读出来,营造出历史人物(往往是意大利人)的声音,从而帮助读者们反思自己的生活。不过另一方面他也能创作十分流行的爱国主义诗歌,例如下面这首《海外乡思》(Oh, to be in England)就是他在自行流放意大利时创作的:

Oh, to be in England

Now that April's there,

And whoever wakes in England

Sees, some morning, unaware,

That the lowest boughs and the brushwood sheaf

Round the elm-tree bole are in tiny leaf,

While the chaffinch sings on the orchard bough

In England - now!!

啊,但愿此刻身在英格兰,

趁这四月天,

一个早晨醒来,

谁都会突然发现:

榆树四周低矮的枝条和灌木丛中,

小小的嫩叶已显出一片葱茏,

听那苍头燕雀正在果园里唱歌,

在英格兰啊,在此刻!

And after April, when May follows,

And the whitethroat builds, and all the swallows!

Hark, where my blossomed pear-tree in the hedge

Leans to the field and scatters on the clover

Blossoms and dewdrops - at the bent spray's edge -

That's the wise thrush; he sings each song twice over,

Lest you should think he never could recapture

The first fine careless rapture!

And though the fields look rough with hoary dew,

All will be gay when noontide wakes anew

The buttercups, the little children's dower

- Far brighter than this gaudy melon-flower!

四月过去,五月接踵来到,

燕子都在衔泥,白喉鸟在筑巢!

我园中倚向篱笆外的梨树,

把如雨的花瓣和露珠

洒满了树枝之下的苜蓿田;

聪明的鸫鸟在那儿唱,把每支歌都唱两遍,

为了免得你猜想:它不可能重新捕捉

第一遍即兴唱出的美妙欢乐!

尽管露水笼罩得田野灰白暗淡,

到中午一切又将喜气盎然,

苏醒的毛茛花是孩子们的嫁妆,

这华而俗的甜瓜花哪儿比得上它灿烂明亮!【飞白译】

勃朗宁最重要的诗作是篇幅宏大的叙事长诗《指环与书》(The Ring and the Book),题材是十七世纪发生在意大利的一起著名谋杀案。不过今天的大多数读者都更喜欢更短小的勃朗宁独白,因为这些诗歌的感染力简直就像揪住了读者的领口那样迫切。以下是《布劳拉姆主教的辩护词》(Bishop Bloughram's Apology)的开头:

No more wine? Then we'll push back chairs and talk.

A final glass for me, tho'; cool, i'faith!

We ought to have our Abbey back, you see.

It's different, preaching in basilicas,

And doing duty in some masterpiece

Like this of brother Pugin's, bless his heart!

I doubt if they're half baked, those chalk rosettes,

Ciphers and stucco-twiddlings everywhere;

It's just like breathing in a lime-kiln: eh?

These hot long ceremonies of our church

Cost us a little--oh, they pay the price,

You take me-amply pay it! Now, we'll talk.

没有酒了?那咱们推开椅子聊聊。

不过我还得再来最后一杯;哈,这是信仰!

我们得把我们的教堂夺回来,你看,

这感觉就是不一样,在大教堂里布道,

在建筑杰作当中做工。

且看普金兄弟的这座教堂,愿他的心蒙恩!

可没有偷工减料之处,那白垩的玫瑰花窗,

满墙灰泥拧着旋,花纹好像密码。

我们的教堂里法事漫长而又炎热,

好像在石灰窑里喘气一般

我们可是真够受的——嗨,他们可是遭了罪了,

你听我说——可是遭得不轻!行了,说正事。


通宝推:ccceee,
2020-03-27 05:09:38