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主题:【文摘】空战的艺术 -- chela
家园博客 【文摘】空战的艺术

转自 http://taiwanbbs.org/cgi/index.pl?b=mil,m=1113496349

原译者 TOGA

(Aircraft Illustration月刊Vol 137, No7)

作者简介:

Major Lawrence Data Spinetta,美国空军1st Fighter Squadron F-15C空优战机种子级教官,曾经在伊拉克,柯索夫,Serbia等区域衝突中出击65架次;其早年曾在驻英基地服役,并且以其爱机多次与欧洲各盟国空军的F-104, F-16, Mig-29等诸路英雄好汉们以武会友过。

而不久之前,老美海航的F/A-18E/F超级大黄蜂战机开始进入部署成军阶段,并且展开各项作战训练计画,其中包括与空军间的异种机空战竞技格斗;在此因缘际会下,Major Lawrence得以在不久前与美国海航VFA-102”钻石背”中队旗下的超级大黄蜂战机,在佛罗里达州外海上空展开多场激烈较量竞技...

原文节译:

身為战机飞行员,其职业生涯中最高的理想成就便是在空战中漂亮击落敌机;你可以在一场战争中扔下成百上千的炸弹把敌人炸个屁滚尿流,但是唯有击落五架以上敌机,你才能获得在空军职业生涯中最為尊贵的地位~ACE。

然而身為空战食物链的顶峰~美帝空军,最大的悲哀在於天下英雄莫敢当,拔剑四顾心茫然-几乎没有任何敌国空军战机敢前来挑战送死,使得几十年来,想在美国空军中获得ACE这个头衔,简直比连庄诺贝尔奖还难。在近年来几场区域衝突中,吾等空优战机飞行员几乎总是在名為CAP的无聊飞行任务中,袖手旁观地看轰炸攻击机群作声光烟火表演秀(喔!!那堆落下的集束炸弹看起来真猛!!被打到一定很痛........),除了偶尔闪闪SAM与防空炮火外,空优飞行员的日子真的很无聊.............

日子空虚寂寞事小,缺乏足够的实战经验教训来锻鍊精进空战技术与战术可是兹事体大,在没有好的敌国空军可以比拼练功下,与够格的盟友伙伴切磋较量自是最佳的代替方案;而无疑的,我们的海航弟兄自是最够格的对手之一。最近我便获得这样一个机会:与美国海航VFA-102”钻石背”中队旗下的新锐战机~F/A-18E/F超级大黄蜂战机进行异种机空战竞技。

USAF与USN战机飞行员,我们之间的兄弟情谊之稳固坚实,有如英格兰与苏格兰………….-_-||| 不过在各自独力发展多年之后,彼此间已各自发展出一套截然不同的文化,训练制度与专业术语,例如海航弟兄们将其大半的训练光阴与精力投注在如何将战机安全降落在那於波涛汹涌的大海中起伏摇晃,準备降落时目视小如邮票的苍海一航母上,而在空军,基地建造商在开始铺设那长达12,000英呎的跑道前,得先选好风水宝地盖好军官俱乐部与高尔夫球场………..海航弟兄习惯称他们的战机基本作战单位编成為section和division,而我们则是称其為2- ship和4-ship;USAF定义”Aspect Angle”為敌机机尾与我机之间的夹角,而USN则是将其定义為敌机机鼻与我机之间的夹角……………类似的大异其趣之情形,也同样出现反应在两军种目前的主力战机与BFM哲学理念上。

当我第一次拜见超级大黄蜂战机的现代化航电座舱时,心中著实為“没有先进电脑,网路,与E-mail,今日战争将无从展开”这事实感嘆不已;两机相比下,超级大黄蜂战机上令人目不暇给的航电与SA科技令其宛如血统高贵的名种竞赛神驹,而我的宝贝座骑F- 15C则有如苦力老驥。

然而在空战性能较量上,俺的宝贝F-15C依然是老驥伏櫪,志在千里:12,973公斤的空重加上五万磅级的最大后燃推力,使得鹰式机為能量而生的空优战机自1975年以来服役至今,在重视能量与速度的空优战场上依然罕有其匹;而相形之下,超级大黄蜂战机的重量比F -15C还重上5%左右,可是最大推力级数只有其88%,造成其速度与能量补充上的明显性能不足,在低空飞行时速度甚至难以突破音速;虽然其无攻角限制飞行与机首指向能力杰出,但是若在战场上遭遇到诸如Su-27或Mig-29之流的空优掠食者时“Super Hornets will never be able to outrun 4th generation predators such as Su-27 or Mig-29. Once an engagement occurs, there’s no escape”。

F-15C与F/A-18E/F在 BFM哲学理念上亦有极大差异,美国海航的空战训练是强调勇猛进取,追求在空战开战后90秒内将敌机给轰下,為了达到此点,美国海航的战术训练与理念在某些情况下,在吾等空军健儿的眼中看来,简直离经叛道(例如:They are more likely to point at an adversary and risk an overshoot (ie flying out in front of the bandit……a bad thing) rather than reposition to the bandit’s six o’clock)

相对於海航狂野进取的冒险野郎作风,我们空军则是将BFM当作竞技来看~控制战机的竞技。Trying to achieve a controlled Weapon Employment Zone entry and maintain the offensive. 追求全面性的攻防兼具优势。敌机上次出现在你六点鐘,距离3,000呎以内的方位是什麼时候???如果你不注意留神小心提防的话,岂有不為国捐躯的道理???我们鹰式机飞行员将APG-63, 70, V1, V2等雷达系统视同随身迷你AWACS,如果鹰之墙的雷达搜索网之安排居然会让敌机衝进目视接战距离才被发现的话,便意味著作战计画出现严重错误;和海航相较,我们空军飞行员较喜欢在不受AWACS密切管制指挥的状况下进行自主空优作战。

对於战机飞行员而言,战机的转弯速率与半径是攸关空战胜负的关键指标;在中高度下,F-15C在持续转弯率上略胜三分,而F/A-18E/F则拜Movable forward edge on wing之赐,於瞬间转弯率佔优。然而这等“living wing”对F/A-18E/F而言是福也是祸:在增进转弯性能的同时,其也显著提高机体阻力,让F/A-18E/F原已不足的空战能量更加雪上加霜。

另外一项对F/A-18E/F而言是福也是祸的配备则在於其先进的“维琪式”飞控系统电脑,為了保护战机结构寿限与广大战机飞行员的飞行安全,该电脑对於超级大黄蜂的操作g限(+7.5G)与飞行包络线有著一定限制,当飞行员作出超出限制规定时,飞控系统电脑便会“投票否决”飞行员的“过当”机动,即使是敌方的SAM或AAM已经迎面而来了也不例外~為了保护大多数人类飞行员的飞行安全,有时只好牺牲那些在敌人SAM或AAM鬼门关前,迫切需要更多机动的少数倒楣鬼…………….XD

而F-15C上的老式飞控系统便不会如此自作聪明,人类飞行员是战机机动的最终决定与主宰者,只要有需要且飞行员有能力承受,随时可以把战机操至超过正常机动上限,直达机体运动极限的地步,例如F-15的正常g上限是9G,但是在一次波斯湾大战期间,一架F- 15E飞行员為了闪避来袭SAM,曾经飞出高达10.5G级的瞬间机动。

以F-15C要在BFM竞技中压倒F/A-18E/F,其诀窍关键便是在保持能量与速度;若交战在时速350节以下进行,则F/A-18E/F将享有约每秒一度的转弯速率优势。

To keep an energy advantage, our game plan was simply to avoid getting into a slow speed fight with a Hornet. We sought to exploit our power advantage by keeping speed on the jet and keeping exclusive turning room above the Super Hornet with his nose committed down hill.

We simply out-powered the Super Hornet to reposition to a more favorable position above his jet. We tried to exploit the vertical using the F-15’s power advantage while at the same time remaining clear of the Hornet’s nose. A Super Hornet does not have to point his nose as high if there’s a lot of lateral separation.

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NO:30_13flak  於 2004/08/08 12:48

Re:空战的艺术

而F/A-18E/F则拜Movable forward edge on wing之赐,於瞬间转弯率佔优

前缘襟翼,第四代战机中唯一没有前缘襟翼的就是F-15(毕竟它是第一隻)。

To keep an energy advantage, our game plan was simply to avoid getting into a slow speed fight with a Hornet.

翻译:别跟猪打架...

We tried to exploit the vertical using the F-15’s power advantage while at the same time remaining clear of the Hornet’s nose.

翻译:如果要打就骑到牠身上...

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在友谊赛中,VFA-102的超级大黄蜂战机的飞行员在面对F-15C的火神炮锁定时,也往往显得闪躲反击无力;和超级大黄蜂战机机炮著重对地攻击设计不同,F-15C战机的火神炮安装摆设方式是為了空战而生,其两度上扬的机炮安置设计意味著机炮攻击时所需的前置量较少,而老美海航飞行员根据自己座机火神炮在各种空战情景射击时所需的前置量经验,以黄蜂之炮度鹰式之射,结果在进行何时该闪避机动的研判决断时往往慢了半拍,让吾等鹰式机空优健儿乐得有不动如山反应慢半拍的对手在那可以从容瞄準射击,且往往在我们已经”模拟射击”完940发机炮弹药储存后,才看到对手机姍姍来迟的反应.....

另外一个造成VFA-102的超级大黄蜂战机飞行员难以有效闪避F-15C的夺命火神炮之锁定的可能原因又是来自超级大黄蜂战机上那自作聪明主张的维琪牌先进飞控系统,為了避免飞安意外发生,当超级大黄蜂战机的飞行高度低於10,000英尺时,机上飞控将限制飞行员不得作出超过25度攻角的飞行机动,如此一来,没能量少速度高阻力低g限的超级大黄蜂战机连在高攻角飞行机动上的优势都引刀自宫了,诚可谓雪上加霜附赠冰雹也.

Combat Aircraft月刊2005, Vol 6, No6, Page 24 ~ Page29

Major Lawrence Data Spinetta又一力作:”Eagle Driver School”

”為什麼伊拉克飞行员的飞行训练时程如此之短??”

”因為他们只须学会如何起飞.”

自1972 年成军以来,天主的宝马~F-15鹰式机转战全球三十餘年,创下杀敌101,自损0的空前纪录,在沙漠风暴战争期间,美国空军所缔造的39架击落记录中,有36架出自F-15鹰式机飞行员之手,到了沙漠风暴战争后期,禁航区任务,与第二次波湾战争期间,鹰式机更形同绝对空优的代名词,不发一弹便已教伊拉克飞行员闻风丧胆,寧可把自家战机埋在土裡,也不敢飞上天际,到鹰之墙面前送死.

然而想达成如此辉煌的战功,光是有优异的鹰式机还不够,更重要的是那神所祝福与同在的我帝国精锐空优战士,鹰式机的驾驶~驭鹰者(Eagle Driver).

目前培育驭鹰者的摇篮位於Tyndall空军基地,在為期六个月的鹰式机基本战术训练课程中,新进的菜鸟们将接受250小时的讲堂学术课程,50次的模拟机训练,以及超过45次的实机飞行训练;在训练课程结束时,每位合格学员都是名副其实的百万飞行员~国家在其身上的六个月训练总投资超过百万美金.而如此不惜血本的投资培育,目的只有一个:将不知天高地厚的官校毕业菜鸟们培养成足以继承先人前辈光荣传统,让敌国空军飞行员打从心底裡畏惧的新一代驭鹰者.

空军战机飞行员的生涯是无比严苛,近战缠斗有如两人在电话亭裡持刀械斗~绝无任何差池闪失的空间;在空战中败北的输家,即使其够幸运能死裡逃生,亦将背负 “跳伞者”的耻辱.想在Tyndall严苛的训练课程中存活,学员们必需同时兼具野心进取的A型人格以及严守工作纪律的优良习惯,在开学的第一天,基地指挥官在致词时定会说道:“菜鸟们,你们已经準备好把种种血泪经验教训与挫折打击刻画在你们的脑海眼睛,每一颗牙齿,以及每一丝毛髮上了吗?”唯有在如此严厉的试炼中胜出,证实自己的意志决心与学习能力,才有资格接受代表帝国空权的最高象徵~驭鹰者之臂章.

成為驭鹰者的路漫长且坎坷,且从一开始便充满艰辛与激烈竞争;每年有超过一万名有為帝国青年报考美帝空军学院,竞争其约1,400个招生名额,在学院学习期间,院生的课业竞争压力要比一般大学混吃等死生沉重许多,因為正如FLAK教官之名言:”空战这门课的体罚可是很重的~失败者将被轰进土裡”,在学期间成绩表现不佳的院生,其后半生将沦為再也看不到明天的太阳的弹道飞弹发射管制官:被关在地表下100英尺处,全天24小时与弹道飞弹发射管為伍~对大多数人而言,再也没有比这更好的奋发上进之理由...................XD

有潜力的学员将先接受基础飞行训练课程,以及约50小时的螺旋桨小飞机飞行训练,以习得基本飞行技巧,目前帝国空军已将此业务包给民间飞行驾驶训练学校,以求节省开支;之后学员将接受為期一年的Specialized Undergraduate Pilot Training(SUPT),SUPT的训练课程分成两阶段:在第一阶段时学员先接受T-37(目前已逐步由T-6A所取代)基础教练机之驾驶训练,到了第二阶段时,学员们根据第一阶段时的表现分成两组,表现较差的那一组接受T-1A Jayhawk(毕奇400A喷射机改良型)喷射教练机的驾驶训练,為往后的运输机/空中加油机驾驶生涯铺路,而成积表现较佳的那一组则接受T-38 Talon超音速战斗教练机的训练课程,朝战斗机/轰炸机飞行员的光辉大道继续前进.

对於学员们而言,驾驶T-38 Talon超音速战斗教练机可说是截然不同的全新体验,很多在驾驶轻航机与基础教练机时表现甚佳的学员,在遇到T-38时往往无法适应其高速飞行性能而反应不过来,且这问题不是光靠高速运动神经反射动作便可弥补;在以往飞慢速教练机时,学员有的是时间可以按部就班,照表飞行,但是在飞T-38时,学员必须要学得是人驭机,而非机驶人的道理,在状况尚未发生前便已先行预见,进而採取适当的飞控输入~这是在升格进入战机飞行员大殿之前,学员们所必备的基本认知与能力.

在最新升级改良的T-38C超音速战斗教练机裡,帝国空军替其引进了现代化的玻璃座舱,先进HUD,以及整合式GPS导航以因应新时代的训练需求,然而这等作法有一点副作用:使我们的后进小老弟娇生惯养,被宠坏成”玻璃座舱宝宝”.等到他们前来驾驶真正男子汉所该开的鹰式机时,面对其上充满”原始粗獷野性风格”的座舱时,往往不知所措(菜鸟新手:X的!!这是蒸汽机时代的仪表板吗??老鸟教官:混帐!!你们这些被惯坏的微软XP宝宝,在满坑满谷的按钮与类比系统中大展身手,这才是真正男子汉的浪漫啊~~~!!!).

在SUPT训练完成之后,名列前茅而被精挑细选出来的未来战机驾驶学员将进一步接受為期三个月的Introduction to Fighter Fundamentals(IFF)训练课程,目前此课程所用的机种為AT-38(加装基本武装与相关攻击航电的T-38改版),使学员在习得基本战斗手感与技能之餘,又无需让一线战机下海而增加不必要的成本开支.

除了上述阶段性飞行训练计画以外,在前往 Tyndall基地接受鹰式机BFM课程训练之前,获选学员还得接受一些其它非关飞行的歷练测试:Survival, Evasion, Resistance, and Escape(SERE)训练让学员们实地体验学习,万一未来座机不幸坠毁於敌境时,如何因应敌国审问官/刑求员不符合日内瓦公约精神的问候,以及如何在严苛险恶的敌境逃亡求生(学员们会被要求学习食用一些平日难得一见的逃亡佳餚,例如兔子的眼睛,金龟甲虫等等......);在水域求生课程时,首先学员会身背降落伞,然后被海军弟兄友情赞助的快艇拖著在海上跑,学员们得设法在人沉大海之前解开降落伞;之后学员会在快艇的拖曳下,於三百公尺的高度玩滑行伞,然后在学员们正当心旷神谊之际,与我们间向来拥有美好坚定友情的海军弟兄会再度拔刀相助~一刀砍断拖曳缆绳.之后学员们得降落在海面之上,设法摆脱降落伞,再凭一己之力游向附近预先设置的救生筏,攀登上筏之后再拚老命於时限内划向指定的搜救区.

随著现代战机的空战运动性能日益精进,高g机动作战也成為现代战机飞行员所必需严肃面对的重大挑战;飞行员不仅得力抗瞬间尖峰高g机动,还得适应持续高g飞行,特别是单座空优战机飞行员,如果在高g状态下发生大脑缺血所导致的G昏迷,则即使是神仙也难救其以1.2马赫以上之时速重返大地怀抱的命运.

目前帝国空军用来测试新进学员对抗高g能力的离心机装置位於Holloman空军基地,在接受测试时,除了身上的抗g装置外,学员们得极力从事一种名為“L-1 strain”的肌肉运动~全力收紧自身腿部,臀部,与腹部的肌群,迫使在高重力环境下,堆积於身体下方末端的血液重回脑部.说得白话一点,这种运动和严重便秘患者会在马桶上所作的运动如出一辙………

然而纵使有抗g装置和反便秘运动之助,新进学员在离心机测验的失败率依然十分之高,那些失败学员将在几个月后再行接受测试,而在这段期间,补考生们将需接受特殊无氧运动课程与特製食谱,以改善体质,强化肌力;可乐,糖果棒,雪茄烟等一般飞行员早餐时的最爱,也得和这些补考生们说再见.

為了减少这些人生悲剧的发生,学长在此传授诸位小老弟们一个应考小秘方:在接受高g离心测试前,儘可能将你们身上的抗g服绑紧~最好紧到你们几乎走不动為止.如此将可有效提高你们一次通过考验的机率.

不过此一小秘方也有一个小小副作用~会让你们身上青一块紫一块(特别是手臂处),宛如严重家暴事件下的受害者.当年学长在用这招渡过测试后不久,於海边渡假,在沙滩展露英躯泡马子时,一位善心女士前来关怀:“先生,请问您是在不久前遭受严重车祸吗??”(

歷经多次艰辛与考验之后,最终胜出获选的学员终於获得前往Tyndall空军基地接获驾驶鹰式机训练的殊荣~一场更為艰辛的磨难与歷练的开始.

来到Tydall空军基地受训的第一天,所有驭鹰者种子学员都会得到一本厚达697页的”Dash One”F-15鹰式机手册,这本书中详实深入的记载了鹰式机各系统的原理,战机性能诸元,操作需知,系统操作极限与注意事项,以及在各种紧急意外状况下的应变之道,不过书中并未包括鹰式机的武器系统与战术应用~在学如何用鹰式机空战之前,学员们得先脚踏实地的学会如何飞鹰式机.

在接下来的一个月内,学员们得牢记Dash One手册中的每一条细节,并且在模拟器中充份证明其已经确实对手册倒背如流,且有能力适当因应任何突发意外或紧急状况.正如帝国空军的其它军用机种,鹰式机也有自行专用的飞行Checklist,但是当其它机种的学员与飞行员只被要求记得其List中重点粗体字部份时,鹰式战机的学员与飞官则必须牢记其飞行Checklist中的每一条与每一点在心~毕竟,在瞬息万变的空战中,可没那个閒暇餘地让飞行员抽出小抄来温故知新.

通过模拟器考验之后,学员们终於能接触到最终大奖~鹰式机实飞训练.用於此一训练新手任务的鹰式机衍生型為F-15D双座战斗教练机,其在后座教官席上有另外一套操作系统,好让训练教官能在天兵学员将天主的宝马飞成冥王的爱驹前,及时挽救两人的性命;和单座型的F-15C相较,D型机虽然在速度,机鼻指向灵敏度,以及抗departure的性能表现上较為逊色,但是两者在这些性能上的差别小到几乎让人无从查觉.不过由於空优飞行员并不喜欢在实战出击时,背后有个空荡荡的座位之感觉,因此目前所有的D型机仍是留在帝国本土担任训练工作,而不像其兄弟C型机与E型机般在外四处征战.

在驭鹰者的正规训练操课中,飞行员必需在战机加完油后13分鐘内完成所有检查与确认工作,啟动引擎以準备出击,不过在此训练新进学员的课程中,学员一开始可以有多几分鐘的时间完成準备工作,且无需处理一些较复杂但非训练飞行必需的装备检查与调整(如航电状况,保密无线电,雷达等等.........);但即便如此,这些新进菜鸟还是照样能搞个手忙脚乱,顾此失彼,弄个20多分鐘战机还无法飞上天;在佛罗里达高照的艳阳下,此时少有教官还能心平气和,而不解开安全带,跳起来给与学员”亲切的个人指导与鼓励”..................

歷经一番折腾之后,战机好不容易总算飞上天,新进学员在首度乘鹰上天时,少有不兴奋得过度换气,心跳大於每分鐘一千下,笑容从左耳裂到右耳者,直到他们错过漏听第一个无线电指令為止;到了第二次飞行课程时,学员将亲自操作并体会鹰式机的最大爬升运动性能:在后燃全开下,鹰式机在滑行几千英呎跑道后便离地升空,加速至时速五百英里后,如火箭般於一分鐘内从海平面飆至两万英呎高空,那种舒爽畅快,绝非笔墨所能形容(英国皇家空军颱风战机飞行员:”嘿嘿嘿..........”).

在经过几次摸索熟练基本飞行后,学员们开始在教官的引领下,慢慢探索鹰式机的运动性能与起降操控之要领,对於一般学员而言,鹰式机的高速是最难适应的挑战,其必须在这段期间学得能预见鹰式机在各种高速运动下的后果与因应之道,而非是在事情发生后才手忙脚乱,被鹰式机拖著飞.在标準飞行状态下,F-15的最低安全飞行时速下限為三百节,爬昇时的标準空速為三百五十节,标準巡航空速则為0.9至0.95马赫.

放学员单飞F-15C,可说是所有驭鹰者种子学员飞行员生涯中的一大转捩点,亦是最大的挑战:亲爱的教官再也不会在你的后座给你亲切的指导与收你造成的烂摊子,而是在隔壁的一架F-15C上.从现在起,学员得开始学习成為自立自强的男子汉.

在放单飞之初,学员会在教官长机的带领下,学习各种编队飞行~在恶劣的天候下,对鹰式机操作仍十分生疏,随时可能发生空间迷航的学员就在你身旁几公尺处维持紧密编队飞行,这无论对教官还是学员而言,都会构成莫大的心理压力,亦考验著教官与学员彼此间的领导统驭及双方互信.

等到学员能通过这关之后,接下来便是学员来Tyndall受训的主要目的与重头戏~鹰式机基本战术机动(Basic Fighter Maneuvers, BFM)之学习.

战机飞行员手册有云:

”Fighting in the air-to-air environment is a relatively new form of combat, spanning a period of only 75 years. During that time, rapid techonological developments have spurred progress from very primitive weapons systems to the tremendous capability of modern fighters. Nevertheless, the very basic principles of aerial combat have virtually remained unchange, seasoned only by actual combat and training experiences. These fundamentals are very important part of our combat training program."

近距格斗作战的训练,并不因為时代变迁与武器科技进步而导致重要性有所减退,强烈的电子干扰,或是因战场迷雾所导致的敌我识别困难,都可能迫使飞行员展开你不情我不愿的视距内近战格斗,而先进离轴空对空飞弹的引进也只是让近距格斗的时间便得更加短促险恶,也令飞行员更没有丝毫犯错的空间;那种一见苗头不对便立刻开后燃远去,改日再战的美好时光已经一去不復返~一枚极速六马赫的现代BVRAAM,足以教绝大多数想改日再战的傢伙们下辈子再来...........总而言之,现代的空中近战格斗,可不像电影”好大一把枪”演得那般拖泥带水,好半天杀不死人;而是快速剧烈,血腥残酷,不分生死不休~这也是何以帝国空军如此重视驭鹰者种子学员的BFM观念与技巧的养成训练.

对於初次接触此领域的学员而言,BFM一开始只是一群名称稀奇古怪的战术飞行机动之总称~滚转剪式飞行,英麦曼,破S机动,侧转,"Tree","Ditch”等等..............但是在歷经十二次的实机操作之后,学员们至少能对这些机动的原理,用途,与飞法有个具体完整的概念.

然而熟背剑招原理是一回事,能心领神会,融会贯通,活学活使又是另外一回事;当年学长自Tyndall顺利毕业,分发到驻英的Lakenheath基地时,曾经一度自负对天下近战原理与格斗技巧已经无所不窥,等到与中队指挥官~一名F-15C飞行时数高达三千小时,老鸟中的老鸟於空中对阵时,我才知道自己有错得多离谱~中队指挥官把我当碎布娃娃般地痛宰.我这时才发觉:原来当年在Tyndall基地的教官,是以慈母般的爱心与耐心,一步步地慢慢示范各种BFM 技巧让我们这群菜鸟学习,可是却没教导我们该在什麼最适当的时机使出最阴狠有效的杀招~这是得让毕业菜鸟们被下放到各基地后,被各基地的学长和老鸟们狠狠地在空中修理几个月甚至於几年之后,才能慢慢自行领悟与体会的.

BFM是一门不只追求适时正确,亦得追求反应速度,熟方能生巧的学问,且需不断地练习方能保持巔峰;许多一度从一线退下改坐办公桌的老飞官,当其有机会重返一线,与青壮飞行员较量BFM战技时,结果经常是惨兮兮~并非他们已经忘却了正确的BFM战技,只是当他们在使出正确的BFM战技时,动作与反应总是比正值巔峰,无须多加思索,正确适时的战技杀招便如滔滔不绝的江水般连绵不绝而来的青壮飞行员慢上个几拍,自是只有挨扁的份.

拜五万磅级的强劲推力之赐,F-15C的BFM技巧,特别重视高速高g与垂直机动领域的技巧,以带给一般推重比不足的对手机三度空间的进袭威胁;其目标就是设法机动至敌机的控制区,也就是必杀六点鐘方向~一个一旦进入,要击落敌机就几乎只是时间上的问题之绝佳方位.打从学员训练开始,所有驭鹰者便被不断灌输一个理念:与其在视距外乱枪打鸟的滥射飞弹,不如善用战术,将本机以剧烈的战术机动移形换位至敌机的六点鐘方向死穴,以求绝对的控制与安全猎杀.在模拟空战中,再也没有比不用飞弹模拟发射模式,而是以机炮模拟发射模式自六点鐘方向来”击落”对手更酷更Man的事.

在Tyndall的格斗训练中,参赛机必需严守所谓的1,000英呎最低距离限制~不论任何情况,模拟交战战机彼此间的距离不得低於一千英呎,以免发生碰撞意外.当学员新手成长為经验丰富的老鸟后,这个最低安全距离则可被缩短至500英呎.

http://www.clubhyper.com/reference/f15vssu27sm_1.htm

心血来潮,向有许多美国飞官云集流连的F-16战机网请教有关1992年,俄国侧卫战机在友谊赛中两度击败F-15C/D的故事,结果无意间得到上述网址的答覆~依照当时参与其事的驭鹰者的说法,SU-27UB单挑击败F-15C/D之说,根本是子虚乌有的神话:因為担心电子机密外洩,以及万一双方认真过头,造成擦撞或失事等严重意外,美方当时根本禁止鹰式机与侧卫战机在DACT中一较高低;在整个侧卫战机来美访问期间,鹰式机与侧卫机间只进行过联合战术编队与编队转弯的飞行交流.

而就在一次编队飞行时:

During one of these turns the Flanker, rather than continuing to the expected heading, stopped at the Eagles dead six for 3000 feet. After several seconds of wondering what the Hell the SU-27 pilot was doing the F-15 pilot spent 20 seconds trying to shake him and was unable, and then stopped, which proves? Basically nothing.

In the fighter community nobody starts 3000 foot perch setups at the defender's dead six, because staying behind somebody after that kind of start is on a par with clubbing baby seals in its level of difficulty. Instead the offender actually moves to the defender's 4 or 8 'o clock for 3000 feet before starting the fight. Even then in this more difficult setup the offender still stays in an offensive position 95% of the time. The 5% he doesn't is usually a result of him grossly porking up his BFM. It should be emphasized this was a single event, unplanned, unexpected, and half-heartedly done and not some series of "mock dogfights”.

As Paul Harvey says "that's the rest of the story" straight from participants in the event not some second, third, or fourth hand magazine article or internet rumor which just repeats what somebody else wrote.

Posted - 06/01/2005 : 23:58:21

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http://www.sistemasdearmas.hpg.ig.com.br/aam/meteor.html

JOUST

The JOUST is a simulator of air-air fights of long reach multiusenario from the DERA (present QinetiQ) that was used to help applications of the program Meteor.

The JOUST is a capable system of modelar fights air to long distance (BVR - Beyond Visual Grinds) realistic with human control and digital modeling using simulation of high resolution.

They are 12 stations (now added of four simulators of the Eurofighter), more 3 stations of command to generate aim, missiles BE, radars and airships AWACS.

More of 60 evaluations were driven from the decade of 90 by pilots from the RAF and RN during 6 years. Each evaluation had lasted two to four weeks. The battles were 4x4 and also hears participation of others countries.

The JOUST is used for researches of battle to short distance and to long distances, development of tactics, equipment news use doctrine (Rafale by example), training, studies of interface man-machine and study of settings.

The JOUST is capable of simulating workings of radar, RCS of airships, datalink JTIDS to change of information, electronic countermeasures and its effect in the sensors. Is able to simulate new sensors as an IRST and situations of environment that confuse to deteccao infravermelha. The given saints melted with screen Kalman and shown in a screen of vision of God.

The system is capable of generate airships controlled digital as package of bombardeiros flying bass. The battle can be helped by an AEW modelado or of human control for the two sides.

They were studied the factors that they do a hunting over another in the arena BVR, as fuselagem, aerodynamics, propulsao, avionicos and performance of weapons. You quiz they were them a success for show like a weapons/airship systems combination functions and relate with the battle BVR.

All of the aspects of the study about the battle BVR they were grouped in the following categories:

- Studies of effectiveness to evaluate performance of you vary airships and weapons, in you vary task

- Researches in the huntings performance areas (fuselagem, weapons, avionicos and sensors) to help to direct researches for studies of better option.

- Evaluate the options of modernizacao of airships

- Analyzes and formulation of tactics BVR, present and future.

The studies were focado in the following areas:

- Battle effectiveness Studies in air settings of superiority and air defense

- Studies of Integration of avionicos of huntings and studies of balanceamento of systems

- Analyzes battle tactics formulation BVR for huntings, sensors and weapons (present and future)

The studies concentrated in the Eurofighter. The opponents were the Mig-29, Su-27 and derived (Su-35). They were modelados vary options of radar, avionicos and weapons. The settings varied since generic air defense with convoy of bombardeiros, keeps pure air superiority (with or without AEW of each side).

Also it was quizzed to study option of hunting more cheap with or without systems got worse like IRST, DASS and JTIDS/MIDS.

The future radar AESA of the Eurofighter also was quizzed, with multiple and unique configuration of antenna to compare long reach cover.

A:

以上是JOUST系统的介绍, 简而言之, 其為一套可考量多方面变因(AWACS, DATALINK, 电战, 雷达, 光电, 武器系统, 战机RCS变化, 战机性能等等), 全面模拟空对空作战状况与研发探讨战术应用的电脑模拟系统, 在应用於颱风战机的开发过程中, 其曾用於模拟探讨IRST, DASS, JTIDS/MIDS, 乃至还在构想阶段的AESA雷达等战机子系统的效益评估.

===================================

In May of 1993 was initiated studies of the applications of the program Meteor that they were evaluated to will be applied in the program Eurofighter. They were evaluated weaknesses and points fortresses of the project, as configurations of propellant. They were carried out more three evaluations in the two years to quiz proposals. The facts were used to them determine the final specifications. The facts also influenced the program ASRAAM.

The majority of the battles studied showed that they would be between 20-50km. Below 12-20km will be inside the visual reach. The application was reach maximum well beyond 100km (> 150km) and more more lineal profile speed, with in the-escape zone (NEZ) of 20-80km that would be factor critic in the arena BVR.

The performance was similar to the AIM-54 Phoenix with agility of the ASRAAM. The motor solido of double impulse was considerado before of the ramjet, but nao would fill the applications.

The very demanding application caused to adoption of propulsao ramjet to reach the speed, reach and manobrabilidade terminal. The limitation was to interface with the Eurofigther and ejetor embutido.

An of the applications of the program BVRAAM was furtive launching, with the enemy pilot receiving alerts most minimum that the missile was shot, reducing the evasive opportunity of action; sufficient energy to pursue and destroy very agile aim; strong performance in electronic environment of war; capacity of engajar, shoot and desengajar quick to increase the survival.

The simulations showed that a hunting armed with an assets radar air-air missile of long reach would try shoot the missile and flee quick. The aim is able to against-attack with another missile BVR and try evade losing altitude and leading missile for denser atmosphere. If sobe quick, the missile in pursuit will have difficulty in go up new to accompany.

You had him also showed that the battle would be of shots BVR multiple, with opponents shooting and fleeing or evading, always outside of the visual reach. The perdedor generally was what lost first altitude, or flew subsonico and stayed herself options, stayed without weapons or fuel and fled.

The objective of the experiment passed be it to superacao of the R-77 that was much most better that AMRAAM in energy.

The simulation resulted us applications of the BVRAAM that should arm the Eurofighter British to obtain superiority to 2030. The threat they were hunts others with equivalent missile. The threat key was the Russian missile Vympel R-77 (AA-12 Adder) and future variantes.

The capacity BVR intial of the program Eurofighter rotated around the AMRAAM. The Eurofighter did not have furtividade to exceed the Su-27 armed with the R-77. The answer would be able to be missile of bigger reach than the AMRAAM.

A:

自1993年五月起, 本系统开始应用於探讨未来BVRAAM的性能需求, 根据其模拟结果:现代的BVR空战范围多在20至50公里范围内展开, WVR空战范围则多在12至20公里范围内, 且R-77的终端猎杀动能与NEZ非当时AIM-120所能及, 颱风战机如果使用AIM-120去力拼使用R-77与其后续衍生型的SU-35的话, 将取不到可以令人接受的空战交换比....若要维持EF-2000的空战有效性至2030年以后的话, 该系统的模拟结论為:”一款有效射程如凤凰(100公里以上, 一说>150公里), 机动性如ASRAAM, 拥有20至80公里范围NEZ的主动雷达导引衝压推进BVRAAM”(双脉衝火箭推进经模拟被认為无法满足需要), 这后来成為流星飞弹计画的开发宗旨目标, 也影响了ASRAAM的性能设计取向.

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To USAF would use to furtividade of the F/A-22 to approach and flee without to be bothered and by this the F/A-22 has less need of a missile of long reach. The F/A-22 finished defined the difference of operation between Europeans and U.S.A.

The results of the simulations of the Eurofighter equipped with the Meteor were compared with others hunts. The adversary was the Su-27 modernized (equivalent to the Su-35) equipped with THE-10 or R-77 (given more worse) he had the following results:

(完整版的对抗Su-35 + R-77模拟交换比)

The hunts Reason of the Change (%)

F/A-22:90% (AIM-120)

EF2000:82-75% (Meteor)

F-15F:60%(AIM-120)

F-15E:55%(AIM-120)

F-15C:43%(AIM-120)

Rafale:50% (MICA)

F-18E:45-25% (AIM-120)

Gripen:40% (AIM-120)

M-2000-5:35% (MICA)

Tornado F3:30% (AIM-120)

F-18C:21% (AIM-120)

F-16C:21% (AIM-120)

The chance of a conventional airship survive to a furtive hunting is missing of 10% (F/A-22 against Su-27). The Eurofighter has good results by also have a small one RCS in the quadrant frontal that is the more important in the battle BVR and use the missile Meteor in the simulation.

Obs: THE F-15F was a proposal of F-15 with systems advanced. All of the western huntings they used the AMRAAM with exception of the Rafale French that they use the MICA.

The air-air missiles technology is able to defined the depth from the air battle. Who it has the most greatest reach controls the commitment.

A:

以上是截止1997年时的整体模拟结果总结:面对SU-35 + R-77与其衍生型组合, 只有匿踪性追求完美的猛禽, 与拥有部份匿踪优势(这被认為只佔少部份获胜要素)与流星级BVRAAM(这被认為是获胜关键)的颱风战机, 能在公平较量状态下於BVR对战中取得甜头.

当时的综合结论是在以Su-35 + R-77為对手时,F-22 + AIM-120C可以取得超过10比1的压倒性优势交换比,而EF-2000 + Meteor亦能取得3至4.5比1的可观优势交换比;不过到了2000年左右,流星飞弹研发团队在其网站中表示:”根据其最新超级电脑模拟,EF- 2000 + Meteor在以Su-35 + R-77乃至R-77M為对手时,其交换比足可与F-22 + AIM-120C相媲美,而造价却只有后者的1/2~1/3.”当然,此宣称很可能只是过於夸大竞标广告~因為当流星飞弹打败FMRAAM后不久,此一宣称便和其网站一同消失了,现用的英国广告较為含蓄间接,但意思好像也差不多:

”美国空军準备用猛禽战机来对抗的空中威胁,我们以EF-2000 + METEOR作為对策方案~成本只有老美方案的数分之一”

”EF-2000 + METEOR组合足以应付任何已知的空中对手”

In a battle simulated in 1996, with four F-15 armed with AIM-120 against others four F-15 simulating Mig-29 armed with R-27 and R-73, the pilots blue did not see the enemy and neither the wing. Did not they maneuver to more of 3g’s and never they flew invertidos.

The envelope of battle to short distances and long distances they were separate. In a simulation in the JOUST in 1996 showed that an aim to more of 40km was free to maneuver. Any missile can be avoided in the maximum reach.

With the present missiles air-air the commitment will be between 15-40km. Missiles of short reach are more more lethal to less than 8km. Between 8-15km the aim still can avoid the approximate battle.

The Meteor will have long reach and more energy to long distances. The objective is increase to NEZ. The datalink of two roads will be used to inform that the missile found the aim.

The ASRAAM follows similar tactics upon be an option more cockroach against aim still beyond the visual reach.

A:

现有中程空对空飞弹的实战动态高猎杀率射程范围约在15至40公里范围间,而短程空对空飞弹的实战动态高猎杀率射程范围则在数百公尺至8公里范围间;对於高速高机动敌机而言,40公里范围外与8至15公里范围间存在可利用规避飞弹攻击的机动空间.而流星飞弹(NEZ范围从20公里至80公里,且号称可在90 至100公里外有效迎击9G机动目标)与ASRAAM(实战动态有效射程从500公尺处至15~25公里+范围间)的组合,则能有效弥补这些Gap.

A hunting should have capacity multi-aim. Datalincar several missiles at the same time also is desirable. If a hunting has avionicos upper as assignment of aim by third or datalink, this requer the formulation of tactics. Also requer good coordination and discipline of formation.

The general tactics depend on each plataforma. An air battle between opponents equipped with missiles of long reach with active radar is characterized by you vary offensive actions, followed by maneuvers defensives. The meeting is followed with a serie of change of missiles (himself not houver defeats before). The upper combination defeats, knocking down the enemy or foge for lack of weapon or fuel.

The altitude and speed are important for the huntings and missiles air-air. The missiles are more effective against aim flying high or the decrease speed. Also it is more dependable fly Pass and quick. The dilemma is seek the combination of altitude, speed and geometry of meeting to maximize the own forces and minimize the of the enemy.

In case of of an airship with big energy of agility/manobrabilidade but little autonomy to fight, the pilot can choose a flight of short duration and big energy or he prolong the fight flying bass and with little energy. Flying bass the pilot stayed in the defensive, but with similar duration of battle to of fight of big energy.

He have a better missile he generates less demand of the pilot. In approximate battles, to bigger task he went he maintain the conscience from the situation.

The studies of the JOUST determined some carateristicas important things of a modern airship of hunting:

(JOUST计画研究结论, 几个攸关空战胜负的关键指标)

- Agility of energy.

The excess of power or SEP is vital so much in the dogfight as much as in the arena BVR. This already it was perceived in the Vietnam when the huntings obtained maneuver to avoid the missiles. A hunter should be good to accelerate in straight line and go up in the SEP of great profile.

(无论远射近缠, 战机剩餘功率都是极度重要的性能指标, 悠关著战机直线加速性能, 飞弹有效射程, 以及闪避敌袭飞弹能力)

- Manobrabilidade of energy.

It is the capacity of maintain curves without a lot loss of energy

(空战胜负关键重要指标二:能量利用效率~能在转弯等机动中损失动能较少的战机设计, 拥有较佳的胜算)

- Persistence of battle.

 It is the quantity of energy and weapons. Also it signifies maintain speed without use the powders-combustor

(持续战力:包括武装, 战机能量, 以及不开后燃器的巡航时速等等)

- Furtividade or RCS.

 Helps in the against-deteccao and contramedidas electronic

(匿踪性)

- Integration of Sensors

 To facilitate to disponibilizacao of information and conscience from the situation

(侦测器资料整合/SA能力)

- Systems of weapons.

The weaknesses and strong points should be acquaintances to exploit the weapons friends and enemy.

(敌我空战武装性能比较)

Another hunts studied by the JOUST went the JSF (F-35) in several generic configurations for future settings.

The pilots of the Tornado F.3 from the RAF that would go participate in you quiz of the JTIDS in August of 1994 they used the JOUST to develop tactics before of him you had. It resulted in vitoria relativamente easy against the F-15 from the USAF and afterwards against others hunts like Mig-29 Germans.

(皇家空军在吃了JOUST菠菜后, 垫定日后以龙捲风F3 + 天闪 + JTIDS却能狂电老美F-15C + AIM-120与老德MIG-29的战术基础)

To RAF modelou the probability of an airship of attack survive in an air space well defended, using barely the computers and crew members in simuladores of the JOUST. The best index of survival went to of the Tornado of two places where the navigator carried out the while defensives task the pilot flew the airship. The Harrier and Jaguar, airships monoposto, they had always less capacity of survival.

(JOUST的另一发现:两个飞官恰恰好.............)

The JOUST uses human users (MITL - man-in-the-loop) instead of algorithms by several motives. Human be him can explain the razoes of the result of the battle, instead of alone show the final result. The pilots can study the factors that caused to the success, or limited sweats efficiency. Without a pilot for esplicar the razoes of an unexpected result, as in a simulation MITL, an analyst using digital modeling will be forced try estimate it the razoes upon observe the battle. It will have that move the tactics from the digital modeling to be sure that the result was not caused by the inadequate tactics.

The way MITL also supplies indication from the difficulty involved in the use of a private system and an idea of the kind of pilot that will go use the system from the best way. Considerando a hunting with bigger agility than another, a pilot that uses this capacity correctly will be better. The pilot will go he concentrate in stayed in the great area of the envelope to maintain bigger energy than the opponent.

The digital modeling still he has importance. If they will go necessary he quiz many parameters at the same time, and he quiz small variations, he is necessary he use digital modeling to repeat systematically the settings. I spend less time and more cheap in we will have of hand of work. The algorithm is calibrated with referencia of the human performance. The pilot also is capable of he call attention of problems in the software.

The JOUST passed he equip it three bases from the RAF that received assemblies of 4 stations between 1994-1995. Afterwards they were modernized to permit fights 4x4.

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