主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

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O Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 27 万年看客 字9830 2018-06-10 22:11:29
O 不列颠时代5 3 万年看客 字14359 2020-03-27 05:09:38
O 不列颠时代4 万年看客 字13108 2020-03-25 04:40:17
O 不列颠时代3 1 万年看客 字14253 2020-03-25 04:36:50
O 不列颠时代2 1 万年看客 字13710 2020-03-20 06:21:50
..O 拉格比好象是橄榄球嘛 1 桥上 字0 2020-03-21 00:33:44
...O 橄榄球起源于拉格比城 4 燕人 字15 2020-03-27 05:59:09
....O 谢了,和那个拉格比公学有关吗? 桥上 字0 2020-03-27 07:16:12
.....O 传说是该校一个学生首创 4 燕人 字418 2020-03-27 07:31:57
O 十一,不列颠时代1 1 万年看客 字12533 2020-03-20 06:20:34
O 浪漫的苦恼6 万年看客 字10167 2020-03-16 05:21:47
O 浪漫的苦恼5 1 万年看客 字18385 2020-03-13 05:22:48
O 浪漫的苦恼4 1 万年看客 字17171 2020-03-11 23:28:03
..O 想起了百草园 桥上 字0 2020-03-12 02:46:13
O 浪漫的苦恼3 1 万年看客 字14441 2020-03-10 23:27:32
2018-06-10 22:11:29
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万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`238`25695`188502`正五品下:朝议大夫|宁远将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
1 Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 27

在村镇之外有一片沼地。一个温暖的夜晚,一名欲火烧心的孤独男子正在沼地里徘徊,口中念叨着抑扬顿挫的词句。一段段旋律正在他的脑海里翻腾,他搜索枯肠想要为这些旋律配上歌词。他心心念念想要歌颂的是一位同村姑娘——一位他高攀不上的姑娘。

几百年后,另一名男子感到自己辜负了上帝,即将面对不灭的地狱之火。但是此人性情和善,总觉得上帝不可能像教会长老们宣扬的那样冷酷无情。于是他抄起一杆鹅毛笔,展开一卷粗纸,饱蘸墨水,写下了一段专供他本人念诵的祷文。他在动笔的时候口中同样哼唱着曲调。

再接下来是一名深陷地牢的女性,严刑拷打致使她遍体鳞伤无处不痛。她正在向一位衣着寒酸的教士口述一段大逆不道的反诗,主题是抗拒权威。

像这样的女性还会有很多。她们当中有些人处境优渥,端坐在彩绘玻璃窗户之后,室内铺陈着御寒的毛皮;也有些人处境贫苦,生活在二十世纪的伦敦,膝下儿女嗷嗷待哺,负心渣男一去不归。像这样的男性更是远远更多,他们当中既有爱尔兰的神秘主义者也有苏格兰的农夫,既有西部郡县的教士也有沃里克郡的演员。所有这些男男女女都投入了同一项事业:根据韵律组织词语,将每一行语句都像疾驰赛艇上的索具那样牢牢绷紧,将蕴藏在英语当中蔓生滋长的魔力发挥到极致,构建出一台又一台结构紧凑、轰鸣不止、充满意义的袖珍语言引擎。

专攻远古时期的考古学家告诉我们,音乐与旋律出现在语言与字词之前。面对着周遭环伺的黑暗与危险,部落萨满们总会带头起舞,增强部落的凝聚力,彰显无畏的精神。为了保持舞蹈节奏,自然免不了要哼唱、歌唱乃至喊叫。不知多少世代之后,开始有人将歌声与词语结合在一起。要想理解诗歌的起源,不妨看看配备合唱团与面具的古希腊早期悲剧。

在这片名为不列颠的群岛上,我们所知的最早得到诵读与讨论的诗歌出自古罗马的拉丁语诗人之手。诚然,青铜时代的不列颠土著部落——他们已经拥有了相当高超的技术,他们当中既有农夫也有金属匠人,还有矿工与商人——不太可能一首诗歌也没创作过。但是无论他们创作过怎样的诗句,如今都早已散佚失传了。但是罗马治下的不列颠也将会孕育她自己的维吉尔与马提亚尔,以及众多能与古希腊人比肩的诗人。苏塞克斯的街头将会有人举办诵诗大会,短小精悍的荤口打油诗也会在哈德良长城的士兵之间广泛传扬。

随着一轮轮的外来入侵与本土抗击,随着一轮轮的成败交替与疆土易手,英国的种族构成逐渐变成了另一番模样。海外的入侵者操着一口日耳曼语言,不列颠本土的抵抗者则使用掺杂拉丁单词的凯尔特语言,双方的冲撞孕育了英语的前身。在语言学层面上,不列颠群岛恰似一口沸腾不止的大釜,各种配料在接下来几百年间逐一下锅——古挪威语,法语,意大利语,西班牙语,印度语乃至阿拉伯语——最终烹煮出锅的大杂烩则是全世界范围最广、弹性最强的语言。一代代英国人将会使用这种语言来抒发内心最深处最真挚的情感,抒发他们在人世间的喜乐、热爱与恐惧。绝大多数人类文化都有一枝独秀之处,受到其他文化的仰慕。倘若德国没了音乐家,意大利没了画家与建筑师,他们的国家形象与国民认同将会受到怎样的打击呢?英国的音乐传统远不如俄国或者德国那样底蕴深厚,英国的建筑远不如罗马或者巴黎那样生机勃发,英国的世界观远不如古典中国那样自成一体。与上述主要文明圈子相比,英国人的足以自傲之处在于我们具有全世界最丰富、最可观、最一以贯之的诗歌传统。“鸣禽巢窠”(nest of singing birds)的地位至今依然是英国历史成就的核心——在笔者看来,甚至就连日不落帝国的构建或者科学领域的大跃进在这一成就面前也只能甘拜下风。

本书的用意在于以英国诗歌为框架,讲述一首不一样的史诗。通过诗歌以及诗人们的生平来探寻身为英国人的感受。成千上万名英国人都曾通过书信、绘画、各类艺术品、手机短信、电子邮件乃至社交网络更新内容留下过坦露心迹的线索。然而诗歌却是另一回事。诗歌是人类迄今为止发现过的最亲密、最直接的沟通方式。当诗歌打动读者时——诚然,打不动读者的二流诗歌远比一流优秀诗歌多得多——诗歌总能以无与伦比的烈度直指人心。即便身在二十一世纪,我们依然会因为莎士比亚笔下麦克白弑君灭友的心路历程而莫名震撼,负疚感与绝望在麦克白心中的层层覆压依然会看的我们喘不上气来。记录文献固然能告诉我们一战战场多么惨烈,但是为了获得身临其境的感受,我们首先会将目光投向诗人而不是电影工作者,甚至在今天也是这样。这些都是显而易见的例子。与短信、电子邮件乃至电视节目不同,诗歌能让我们与另一个时空的人们直接交谈,无需借助他人传话。无论是中世纪的农夫还是乔治王时期的心碎女性都能直视我们的眼睛。

在2015年写下这段序言的时候,笔者十分清楚“英国”这个词如今具有怎样的争议含义。笔者的许多苏格兰同乡都远远更希望笔者撰写一部专注于苏格兰诗歌的作品——苏格兰诗歌也确实会在本书当中占据大量篇幅。不过无论读者们是否满意,近几年来英格兰的声音确实越发响亮了。许多当代史学家都毫无愧怍地采取了以英格兰为核心的叙事立场,而就在一二十年之前他们还会不假思索地采用“不列颠”这个词。

不过假如笔者接下来仅仅局限于英格兰地区的诗歌,那么难免陷入困境。所谓的“英格里斯”语言(Inglis)早在中世纪初期就已经在苏格兰南部扎根了。甚至就连颂扬罗勃特一世国王的爱国主义史诗所使用的语言也更贴近如今被我们称作英语的萨克逊语-法语混合物而不是苏格兰当地的盖尔语。苏格兰最伟大的诗人们——威廉.邓巴,罗伯特.亨利森,加文.道格拉斯,罗伯特.费格生,罗伯特.彭斯,沃尔特.斯科特以及休.麦克迪尔米德——都留下了不少英语作品。尽管二十世纪有不少本土作家都打定主意要重新拾起古代苏格兰风格的英语,这些愣头愣脑的苏格兰人依然是英格兰人的表亲。其他凯尔特国家的情况也是一样:要想谈论英国诗歌,怎么能漏掉斯威夫特、叶芝与狄兰.托马斯呢?

本书无意挑动地域之争。从古至今,英伦群岛上的居民们有过很多大体一致的共同经历。维京人的登陆地点分布在在不列颠海岸线的周遭各处,他们的定居点更是无处不在,包括奥克尼与设得兰群岛,都柏林与曼恩岛,高尔半岛,约克郡以及英格兰东部大部地区。宗教改革的烈火不仅烧遍了苏格兰,也烧遍了英格兰。瘟疫、农业变革与战争都不会特意绕过英伦群岛上的特定地区或者族群。大部分身为英国人的体验都是共通的,笔者有意彰显这一点。同时笔者也希望尽量体现英国不同地域的特色。

笔者很清楚,在英伦群岛上出现过很多并非用英语创作的伟大诗歌。苏格兰历来都有盖尔语诗歌传统,爱尔兰也有爱尔兰语诗歌传统,威尔士吟游诗人同样佳作颇多。诚然,这些作品大都口口相传,作者身份晦涩不清。但这并不是将这些诗作排除在外的理由。因此只要有机会,笔者就会引入非英语诗歌的英语译文。笔者当然希望能够多包括几首这样的诗歌,但是千百年来的霉菌与雨水导致文稿朽烂并不是笔者的责任。使用译文的另一个原因在于笔者不想让当代读者过于头痛——假如没有译文,读者们大概领会不了早期盎格鲁-萨克逊诗歌,包含大量方言用语的诗歌,以及少数几段拉丁语诗歌。

有些人认为二十一世纪是诗歌复兴的时代,也有些人认为诗歌艺术在二十一世纪已经走上了绝路。在笔者看来,这两种说法从古至今始终相伴相生,也始终各有道理。问题的根源在于读者们如何听取诗歌。如今我们大多数人都要通过印刷品来接触诗歌,尽管我们在幼年时期也曾听过不少节律分明的童谣。诗歌与写作历来密不可分,但是诗歌在历史上往往是一门口头艺术,诉诸于听觉而不是视觉。即便在今天依然有很多诗人坚持不出版诗集,仅仅在本人亲自出面的诗友会上朗读作品。因此广播电台作为当代最主要的口语传播媒介也就成了传扬这部史诗的最理想渠道。接下来大家将要读到的内容将会在2015年10月8日全国诗歌日当天占据BBC广播电台4频道,硬生生插进新闻与天气预报之间的每一寸空隙。创作于千年之前的诗篇将会在这一天再次响彻全国。

本书囊括了许多最伟大的英国诗歌,其中有好几首诗名不见经传,实在可惜得很。笔者希望本书有助于我们重新思考自己的来处与现在的境遇。笔者诚挚邀请各位读者一起踏上这段旅程,充分体味这一路上的惊喜与振奋,以及偶尔发作的茫然若失。


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通宝推:非鱼,九霄环珮,桥上,决不倒戈,mezhan,
2018-06-10 22:11:29
2020-03-27 05:09:38
4498289 复 4344063
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万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`238`25695`188502`正五品下:朝议大夫|宁远将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 不列颠时代5 3

要说到对于维多利亚时代阅读公众的影响力,十九世纪中期的两大巨头分别是继承了华兹华斯的桂冠诗人头衔的阿尔弗雷德.丁尼生勋爵与罗伯特.勃朗宁。丁尼生首先是一位广受欢迎的奇幻诗歌作者,例如《尤利西斯》(Odysseus)与《夏洛特女士》(The Lady Of Shalott)。此外他的作品还是凸显大英帝国海外扩张大业的官方诗文,完美契合了时代精神的特质。这其中最优秀的一首诗《轻骑兵进击》(The Charge of the Light Brigade)描写了一场既英勇又脑残的军事行动。英国军人具有某种近乎寻死的怪异士气,这种气质将会在几十年后一战期间的巴雪戴尔战役当中达到高峰。不过在十九世纪中期这种气质已经充分成型了:

Half a league, half a league,

Half a league onward,

All in the valley of Death

Rode the six hundred.

"Forward, the Light Brigade!

"Charge for the guns!" he said:

Into the valley of Death

Rode the six hundred.

半里格,半里格,

往前冲杀半里格,

骑兵六百名

冲进死亡的谷地。

“向前冲,轻骑兵!”

他说,“向炮冲击!”

骑兵六百名

冲进死亡的谷地。

"Forward, the Light Brigade!"

Was there a man dismay'd?

Not tho' the soldier knew

Someone had blunder'd:

Theirs not to make reply,

Theirs not to reason why,

Theirs but to do and die:

Into the valley of Death

Rode the six hundred.

“向前冲,轻骑兵!”

可有人丧气?没有。

尽管士兵们知道

是错误命令。

他们可不能抗命,

他们可无法弄清,

只能奉命去牺牲。

骑兵六百名

冲进死亡的谷地

Cannon to right of them,

Cannon to left of them,

Cannon in front of them

Volley'd and thunder'd;

Storm'd at with shot and shell,

Boldly they rode and well,

Into the jaws of Death,

Into the mouth of Hell

Rode the six hundred.

炮打在他们右面,

炮打在他们左面,

炮打在他们前面,

排炮在轰鸣,

冒着炮火和霰弹,

他们善骑又勇敢。

骑兵六百名

冲进地狱的大门,

冲进死神的牙关。

Flash'd all their sabres bare,

Flash'd as they turn'd in air,

Sabring the gunners there,

Charging an army, while

All the world wonder'd:

Plunged in the battery-smoke

Right thro' the line they broke;

Cossack and Russian

Reel'd from the sabre stroke

Shatter'd and sunder'd.

Then they rode back, but not

Not the six hundred.

出鞘马刀亮晃晃,

挥舞空中闪寒光,

劈下在炮手身上;

向一支大军冲击,

举世都震惊。

他们冲破了防线,

杀进炮台的硝烟;

哥萨克和俄国人

挡不住马刀猛劈,

乱掉了队形。

这时他们往回驰——

不满六百名。

Cannon to right of them,

Cannon to left of them,

Cannon behind them

Volley'd and thunder'd;

Storm'd at with shot and shell,

While horse and hero fell,

They that had fought so well

Came thro' the jaws of Death

Back from the mouth of Hell,

All that was left of them,

Left of six hundred.

炮打在他们右面,

炮打在他们左面,

炮打在他们后面,

排炮在轰鸣;

在炮火和霰弹下,

战马和英雄倒下。

打得漂亮的他们

冲出死神的牙关;

他们中的生还者,

六百人中的生者

冲出地狱门。

When can their glory fade?

O the wild charge they made!

All the world wondered.

Honor the charge they made,

Honor the Light Brigade,

Noble six hundred.

时间能湮没英名?

哦他们这次狂冲!

举世都震惊。

致敬,向这次冲锋!

致敬,向这六百名

豪迈轻骑兵!【译者不详】

这次军事行动发生在1854年10月,发动冲锋的英军死伤接近三百人,战马损失了超过三百匹。对于维多利亚时代的英国人来说,克里米亚战争的重要性在于暴露了英国在军事方面的无能与组织混乱,此时距离惠灵顿的军队被解散已经过去了一代人时间。就丁尼生而言,他在创作冲突题材的诗歌时更喜欢深入挖掘英国历史。大部分此类诗歌虽说文辞华丽动人,但是却难以帮助度射门理解十九世纪英国人的集体心态,就好像圣潘克拉斯火车站的彩绘砖难以帮助我们了解维多利亚时代的科学进展一样。一般来说,当代读者要想了解丁尼生最具文采的一面,要想了解诗人如何把握住了时代精神,真正该看的是篇幅更长且笔调更黑暗的《悼念组诗》(In Memoriam)。丁尼生在剑桥就读时结交了一位密友阿瑟.亨利.哈拉姆,此人于1833年在维也纳死于中风。接下来丁尼生花了十七年时间来创作这套组诗,在其中反思了生活、爱情、命运以及友谊等多个主题。当年弥尔顿也曾用一首《利西达斯》悼念了剑桥好友亨利.金的去世,并且在诗中超越了个人的悲恸,提出了更广泛的论点。两百多年后,丁尼生的悼亡诗作更加大胆,古典气质更淡,此后再未被超越。这些诗句让人一听就全身发凉:

DARK house, by which once more I stand

Here in the long unlovely street,

Doors, where my heart was used to beat

So quickly, waiting for a hand,

昏暗的屋边我再度站立,

站在这不可爱的长街上;

在这门前,往常我的心脏

为筹待一只手总跳得急。

A hand that can be clasp’d no more—

Behold me, for I cannot sleep,

And like a guilty thing I creep

At earliest morning to the door.

可这只手再也无从紧握--.

瞧我呀,如今已无法入睡,

却像个可怜东面负着罪,

绝早地悄悄溜到这门口。

He is not here; but far away

The noise of life begins again,

And ghastly thro’ the drizzling rain

On the bald street breaks the blank day.

他不在这里;但是听远处,

生活的嘈杂声又在响起,

而透过空街上蒙蒙细雨,

茫茫中露出苍白的初曙。【飞白译】

不过《悼念组诗》包含了多种情绪,丁尼生在另一首诗中劝说自己采取念头通达的坚忍主义来应对人生的损失,这首诗至今依然十分动人,甚至还很有用:

I envy not in any moods

The captive void of noble rage,

The linnet born within the cage,

That never knew the summer woods;

我不妒忌笼中出生的小鸟——

这缺乏高贵怒火的囚徒,

不管它自己是否觉得幸福,

它从未见过夏天森林的奇妙;

In envy not the beast that takes

His license in the field of time,

Unfetter'd by the sense of crime,

To whom a conscience never wakes;

我不妒忌为所欲为的野兽,

它在自己的期限里放纵,

不因犯罪感而约束行动,

也不因良心觉醒而发愁;

Nor, what may count itself as blest,

The heart that never plighted troth

But stagnates in the weeds of sloth:

Nor any want-begotten rest.

我不妒总从未作过盟誓的心,

尽管它可以自诩为幸福,

它只在懒惰的莠草中朽腐,

我不妒忌匮乏造成的安宁。

I hold it true, whate'er befall;

I feel it, when I sorrow most;

'T is better to have loved and lost

than never to have loved at all.

不论何事降临,我确信,

在最悲痛的时刻我觉得:

宁肯爱过而又失却,

也不愿做从未爱过的人。【飞白译】

不过诗人要如何应对基督教在他身边受到的全方位挑战呢?《造物的自然历史的遗迹》这本书今天已经没多少人记得了。但是这本书在1844年匿名出版的时候却引发了一阵轰动,就连阿尔伯特亲王都为维多利亚女王读过这本书。本书作者是苏格兰的一位记者,名叫罗伯特.钱伯斯,他试图在书中证明包括人类在内的一切生命形式都是演化改变的结果,而演化过程可以追溯到太阳系的开端。与达尔文在十四年后出版的《物种起源》相比,本书的论证远没有那么严密可靠,但是的确成为了全英国街头巷尾的谈资。丁尼生也为此赋诗一首,采用大自然的身份开了腔:

“So careful of the type?” but no.

From scarped cliff and quarried stone

She cries, ?A thousand types are gone:

I care for nothing, all shall go.

“难送我关心物种吗?”不!

自然从岩层和化石中叫喊:

“物种已绝灭了千千万万,

我全不在乎,一切都要结束。

“Thou makest thine appeal to me:

I bring to life, I bring to death:

The spirit does but mean the breath:

I know no more.” And he, shall he,

“你向我呼吁,求我仁慈;

我令万物生,我使万物死,

灵魂仅仅意昧着呼吸,

我所知道的仅止于此。”

Man, her last work, who seem’d so fair,

Such splendid purpose in his eyes,

Who roll’d the psalm to wintry skies,

Who built him fanes of fruitless prayer,

难道说,人——她最后最美的作品

眼中闪耀着目标的光芒,

建造起徒然祈祷的庙堂,

把颂歌迭上冰冷的天庭,

Who trusted God was love indeed

And love Creation’s final law —

Tho’ Nature, red in tooth and claw

With ravine, shriek’d against his creed —

他相信上帝与仁爱一体,

相信爱是造物的最终律法,

尽管自然张扬着染血的爪牙,

叫喊着反对他的教义,

Who loved, who suffer’d countless ills,

Who battled for the True, the Just,

Be blown about the desert dust,

Or seal’d within the iron hills?

他曾为真理和正义而斗争,

他爱过,也受过无穷苦难,——

难道他也将随风沙吹散,

或被封存在铁山底层?

No more? A monster then, a dream,

A discord. Dragons of the prime,

That tare each other in their slime,

Were mellow music match’d with him.

从此消灭?这是一场恶梦,

一个不和谐音。原始的巨龙

在泥沼之中互相撕裂,

与此相比也是柔美的音乐!

O life as futile, then, as frail!

O for thy voice to soothe and bless!

What hope of answer, or redress?

Behind the veil, behind the veil.

生命是多么徒劳而脆弱!

啊,但愿你的声音能安慰我!

哪儿能找到回答或补救?

唯有在通过了帷幕之后。【飞白译】

丁尼生的创作生涯很长,而且大半辈子都很出名。维多利亚时代的诗人可以享受到明星一般的待遇,思想深入且行动迅速的文学文化滋养了他们。丁尼生的存在证明了诗歌在十九世纪依然具有影响社会的力量。他的作品极其畅销,每当推出新诗都会引发新一轮讨论与分析热潮。当时的英国人想当然地认为诗人就应该关注重大社会议题,从政治到军事,从宗教到家庭生活全都是合情合理的诗歌题材。在今天的文学界,诗歌遭到五花大绑,塞进了智识生活的贫民窟里。当年的情况则远非如此。

罗伯特.勃朗宁与丁尼生可谓一时瑜亮,两人既是对手也是朋友,此外勃朗宁名声几乎与丁尼生一样显赫。他也是一位性情多变的诗人,最擅长戏剧独白诗。读者们应当将这些独白大声朗读出来,营造出历史人物(往往是意大利人)的声音,从而帮助读者们反思自己的生活。不过另一方面他也能创作十分流行的爱国主义诗歌,例如下面这首《海外乡思》(Oh, to be in England)就是他在自行流放意大利时创作的:

Oh, to be in England

Now that April's there,

And whoever wakes in England

Sees, some morning, unaware,

That the lowest boughs and the brushwood sheaf

Round the elm-tree bole are in tiny leaf,

While the chaffinch sings on the orchard bough

In England - now!!

啊,但愿此刻身在英格兰,

趁这四月天,

一个早晨醒来,

谁都会突然发现:

榆树四周低矮的枝条和灌木丛中,

小小的嫩叶已显出一片葱茏,

听那苍头燕雀正在果园里唱歌,

在英格兰啊,在此刻!

And after April, when May follows,

And the whitethroat builds, and all the swallows!

Hark, where my blossomed pear-tree in the hedge

Leans to the field and scatters on the clover

Blossoms and dewdrops - at the bent spray's edge -

That's the wise thrush; he sings each song twice over,

Lest you should think he never could recapture

The first fine careless rapture!

And though the fields look rough with hoary dew,

All will be gay when noontide wakes anew

The buttercups, the little children's dower

- Far brighter than this gaudy melon-flower!

四月过去,五月接踵来到,

燕子都在衔泥,白喉鸟在筑巢!

我园中倚向篱笆外的梨树,

把如雨的花瓣和露珠

洒满了树枝之下的苜蓿田;

聪明的鸫鸟在那儿唱,把每支歌都唱两遍,

为了免得你猜想:它不可能重新捕捉

第一遍即兴唱出的美妙欢乐!

尽管露水笼罩得田野灰白暗淡,

到中午一切又将喜气盎然,

苏醒的毛茛花是孩子们的嫁妆,

这华而俗的甜瓜花哪儿比得上它灿烂明亮!【飞白译】

勃朗宁最重要的诗作是篇幅宏大的叙事长诗《指环与书》(The Ring and the Book),题材是十七世纪发生在意大利的一起著名谋杀案。不过今天的大多数读者都更喜欢更短小的勃朗宁独白,因为这些诗歌的感染力简直就像揪住了读者的领口那样迫切。以下是《布劳拉姆主教的辩护词》(Bishop Bloughram's Apology)的开头:

No more wine? Then we'll push back chairs and talk.

A final glass for me, tho'; cool, i'faith!

We ought to have our Abbey back, you see.

It's different, preaching in basilicas,

And doing duty in some masterpiece

Like this of brother Pugin's, bless his heart!

I doubt if they're half baked, those chalk rosettes,

Ciphers and stucco-twiddlings everywhere;

It's just like breathing in a lime-kiln: eh?

These hot long ceremonies of our church

Cost us a little--oh, they pay the price,

You take me-amply pay it! Now, we'll talk.

没有酒了?那咱们推开椅子聊聊。

不过我还得再来最后一杯;哈,这是信仰!

我们得把我们的教堂夺回来,你看,

这感觉就是不一样,在大教堂里布道,

在建筑杰作当中做工。

且看普金兄弟的这座教堂,愿他的心蒙恩!

可没有偷工减料之处,那白垩的玫瑰花窗,

满墙灰泥拧着旋,花纹好像密码。

我们的教堂里法事漫长而又炎热,

好像在石灰窑里喘气一般

我们可是真够受的——嗨,他们可是遭了罪了,

你听我说——可是遭得不轻!行了,说正事。


通宝推:ccceee,
2020-03-27 05:09:38
2020-03-25 04:40:17
4497343 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`238`25695`188502`正五品下:朝议大夫|宁远将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 不列颠时代4

考文垂.帕特摩尔觉得是基督教信仰拯救他脱离了苦境。他在后半生与另一位罗马天主教诗人成为了密友,此人终生未婚,他的作品堪称是英语诗坛最重要的宗教诗歌,足以与亨利.沃恩以及T.S.艾略特相提并论。这位杰拉德.曼利.霍普金斯就像帕特摩尔一样出身于埃塞克斯的一户中产家庭,起初想当画家。他的父亲是一位略有名气的诗人兼记者,全家人都是虔诚的宗教信徒,尽管信得不是天主教而是圣公会。霍普金斯在牛津大学受到了盎格鲁天主教的影响,最终改换门庭并且成为了一名耶稣会神父。他的转变并非个别现象——在十九世纪五六十年代,许多严肃认真的国教会信徒都在红衣主教曼宁的引导下转向了罗马,其中就包括了负责英国议会大厦重建工作的建筑师奥古斯塔斯.普金。

霍普金斯总是具有极端苦行的倾向。根据史料分析,他几乎肯定是个一辈子都没敢出柜的男同,因此才会热切奉行守贞与甘于清贫的天主教誓言,以此缓解内心的折磨。他的诗歌节律犹如一触即发的机簧,每一行诗都具有严格数量的音步。在打头的重读音节之后必定跟着若干模糊的轻读音节,从而模仿正常说话的节律。这种节律在霍普金斯的笔下或者说口中产生了劈头盖脸动摇神智的效果。例如约翰.多恩与乔治.赫伯特这样的早期宗教诗人更关心死亡以及对于死亡的恐惧,而霍普金斯则更像沃恩,对于自然世界充满了喜悦的热情。他是一位欢庆的诗人,而不是悲悼的诗人,尽管就像其他形而上学主义者一样,偶尔他也会遭到自我怀疑与自我厌恶的纠缠。所有这一切都能用来解释为什么他在当代读者当中如此流行。在笔者看来,霍普金斯笔下天主教意味最显著的长诗——例如《德国的残骸》(The Wreck of Deutschland)——也是最难打动人心的作品。但是他的风格绝对与其他任何人都截然不同,具有专属于他本人的声音。或许正是因为如此,他在生前才未能得到更广泛受众的接纳,必须等到英国诗坛步入更激进的时代之后才能真正流行起来。请看《如翠鸟着了火》(As Kingfishers Catch Fire):

As kingfishers catch fire, dragonflies draw flame;

As tumbled over rim in roundy wells

Stones ring; like each tucked string tells, each hung bell's

Bow swung finds tongue to fling out broad its name;

Each mortal thing does one thing and the same:

Deals out that being indoors each one dwells;

Selves — goes itself; myself it speaks and spells,

Crying Whát I do is me: for that I came.

如翠鸟着火,蜻蜓划焰火;

如跌撞上圆井缘,石经鸣;

似每根拨弦之述,每只悬铃

之荡弓找舌头把名字投播;

每名朽物一件相同的事做:

分给出每位居室内的居灵;

自自我——自自己;“我自己”且拼且评,

啭叫“我所做是我:我来而为我”。

I say more: the just man justices;

Keeps grace: thát keeps all his goings graces;

Acts in God's eye what in God's eye he is —

Chríst — for Christ plays in ten thousand places,

Lovely in limbs, and lovely in eyes not his

To the Father through the features of men's faces.

我且讲更多:公正的人公正;

保持慈恩:保持他之所行慈恩;

在神眼中表现他在神眼中的诚——

基督——因基督在万方成真,

对父,通过人的面容特征

可爱在四肢,可爱在双眼,非他之身。【froCt网友译,有修改】

霍普金斯最伟大的成就就是将他对于世间美好的激动喜乐——他的诗句往往会让读者们感到他是一位观察力敏锐的画家——与虔诚的宗教信仰交织在一起,致使两者难解难分。因此即便对于笔者这样并不信教的人们来说,他的诗歌依然具有直指人心的力量。下面举两个例子。在笔者看来这两首短诗是十九世纪最出色的作品。首先是《变化的美》(Pied Beauty):

Glory be to God for dappled things –

For skies of couple-colour as a brinded cow;

For rose-moles all in stipple upon trout that swim;

Fresh-firecoal chestnut-falls; finches’ wings;

Landscape plotted and pieced – fold, fallow, and plough;

And all trades, their gear and tackle and trim.

All things counter, original, spare, strange;

Whatever is fickle, freckled (who knows how?)

With swift, slow; sweet, sour; adazzle, dim;

He fathers-forth whose beauty is past change:

Praise him.

赞美主,为他创造的变化的万物

看天空中多彩的云朵如同花斑母牛,

看水塘里游泳的鳟鱼,一身玫瑰红点,

新烤出来的红栗,金雀的翅膀

井井有条的大地,褶皱,整饬,刚被犁过,

各行各业的技艺,工具各不相同

万事万物,原件,备品,等外品,

一切易变的,都变化了(谁知道如何?)

快慢不一,酸甜不定,明暗不常

他的美就在这变化之中:

赞美主吧。【hidingdragon网友译,有修改】

再来一首《上帝荣华无上》(God's Grandeur)

The world is charged with the grandeur of God.

It will flame out, like shining from shook foil;

It gathers to a greatness, like the ooze of oil

Crushed. Why do men then now not reck his rod?

Generations have trod, have trod, have trod;

And all is seared with trade; bleared, smeared with toil;

And wears man's smudge and shares man's smell: the soil

Is bare now, nor can foot feel, being shod.

世界彰显着上帝荣华无上,

如震颤的银箔,放射华光;

如榨油渗出,流向伟大的地方。

为什么人类不敬畏他的权杖?

践踏,践踏,践踏,世世代代全都这样;

百工生麻木,苦劳生肮脏,

沾染人类的污浊气息:大地四方

如此贫瘠,脚感觉不到将鞋穿上。

And for all this, nature is never spent;

There lives the dearest freshness deep down things;

And though the last lights off the black West went

Oh, morning, at the brown brink eastward, springs —

Because the Holy Ghost over the bent

World broods with warm breast and with ah! bright wings.

尽管如此,自然不会消耗殆尽。

至爱的新奇,深层的东西,永不休止。

即便最后一线光从漆黑的西方散尽,

哦,晨光,在东方褐色的边际升起,

因为那圣灵俯身贴近

这世界,用温暖的胸膛和光明的翎羽。

以上诗文的作者一看就有绘画经验,不是吗?霍普金斯上学时的牛津是思想的温床,每一位智识过剩、情绪激动、争辩成性的年轻人们都忍不住在各个领域走得太远一点。但是在自以为伟大的高傲表象下这帮人全都玩得很开心。比方说有一位教士的儿子查理斯.道奇森,此人在牛津就读的时期与霍普金斯有重叠。尽管他也加入了宗教团体并且终身未婚,但却始终没成为天主教徒。他是一名杰出的数学家,也是摄影领域的先驱人物。今天我们当然更熟悉他的笔名刘易斯.卡罗尔,他的传世名作《爱丽丝漫游仙境》,以及他终其一生对于幼女的仰慕。道奇森年轻时写过很严肃的诗歌,也希望得到严肃对待,但是他的真正天赋却在于创作奇幻文学以及架空世界当中的颠覆性笑话。他为我们留下了许多“胡言诗”,其中最伟大的一首无疑是《炸脖龙》(Jabberwocky)。就像托尔金的中土世界植根于早期英国文学一样,这首诗也在盎撒文化当中稳稳地占据了一席之地:

'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

有(一)天臾里,那些活济济的貐子

在卫边儿尽着那么廾那么犻;

好难四儿啊,那些鹁鹊蚼子,

还有寏的猱子怄得格儿。

"Beware the Jabberwock, my son!

The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!

Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun

The frumious Bandersnatch!"

“小心那炸脖竜,我的孩子!

那咬人的牙,那抓人的爪子!

小心那诛布诛布鸟,还躲开

那符命的螌得螚子!”

He took his vorpal sword in hand:

Long time the manxome foe he sought --

So rested he by the Tumtum tree,

And stood awhile in thought

他手拿着一把佛盘剑:

他早就要找那个蛮松蟒——

他就躲在一棵屯屯树后面,

就站得那儿心里头想。

And as in uffish thought he stood,

The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,

Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,

And burbled as it came!

他正在那儿想的个鸟飞飞,

那炸脖竜,两个灯笼的眼,

且秃儿丐林子里夫雷雷

又渤波儿波儿的出来撵。

One, two! One, two! and through and through

The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!

He left it dead, and with its head

He went galumphing back.

左,右!左,右!透了又透,

那佛盘剑砍得欺哩咔碴!

他割了它喉,他拎了它头,

就一嘎隆儿的飞恩了回家。

"And hast thou slain the Jabberwock?

Come to my arms, my beamish boy!

O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!"

He chortled in his joy.

“你果然斩了那炸脖竜了吗?

好孩子快来罢,你真比阿灭!

啊,乏比哦的日子啊,喝攸!喝喂!”

他快活的啜个得儿的飞唉。

'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

   

有(一)天臾里,那些活济济的貐子

在卫边儿尽着那么廾那么犻;

好难四儿啊,那些鹁鹊蚼子,

还有寏的猱子怄得格儿。【赵元任译,有修正】

真是一首文辞奇诡的好诗——不过大概不能让读者忍不住笑意。相比起来,下面这首《威廉师傅你这么老》(You Are Old, Father William)才是笔者本人的长年最爱,因为这首无情颠覆权威的诗歌更有卡罗尔的风格:

"You are old, Father William," the young man said,

"And your hair has become very white;

And yet you incessantly stand on your head—

Do you think, at your age, it is right?"

“威廉师傅你这么老,

你的头发白又白;

倒竖蜻蜒,你这么巧——

你想这样儿该不该?”

"In my youth," Father William replied to his son,

"I feared it might injure the brain;

But now that I'm perfectly sure I have none,

Why, I do it again and again."

先生答道,“我那时小,

怕把脑子跌去来;

现在脑子我没多少,

天天练武随便摔。”

"You are old," said the youth, "as I mentioned before,

And have grown most uncommonly fat;

Yet you turned a back-somersault in at the door—

Pray, what is the reason of that?"

“威廉师傅你这么重,

浑身长得肥又肥;

倒迁筋斗进门洞——

你这身子可危不危?”

"In my youth," said the sage, as he shook his grey locks,

"I kept all my limbs very supple

By the use of this ointment—one shilling the box—

Allow me to sell you a couple."

老头答道,“当年轻,

我就用这个油拌灰;

卖给你只算一先令,

搽了就四肢轻如飞,”

"You are old," said the youth, "and your jaws are too weak

For anything tougher than suet;

Yet you finished the goose, with the bones and the beak—

Pray, how did you manage to do it?"

“威廉师傅你这么弱,

只该喝点稀溜汤;

吃鸡带骨头还叫饿,

这样你胃口伤不伤?”

"In my youth," said his father, "I took to the law,

And argued each case with my wife;

And the muscular strength, which it gave to my jaw,

Has lasted the rest of my life."

威廉答道,“我做知县,

太太总要来帮我忙;

件件案子要拗着我辩,

所以练得我嘴这么强。”

"You are old," said the youth, "one would hardly suppose

That your eye was as steady as ever;

Yet you balanced an eel on the end of your nose—

What made you so awfully clever?"

“威廉师傅你这么晃,

你的眼睛花不花?

鳝鱼顶在鼻尖儿上,

这样能耐差不差?”

"I have answered three questions, and that is enough,"

Said his father; "don't give yourself airs!

Do you think I can listen all day to such stuff?

Be off, or I'll kick you down stairs!"

师傅怒道,“你还不够?

问了又问想干啥?

谁爱听你这咕叨咒?

滚下楼去你快回家!”【赵元任译,有修正】

笔者认为这首诗对于维多利亚时代精神的体现足以与考文垂.帕特摩尔乃至丁尼生的任何作品相提并论。今天的读者们或许不会将这段文字视为正经诗歌,但是维多利亚时代本来就充斥着各种讽刺文学——爱德华.李尔在画漫画之余撰写的五行打油诗,在家庭内部流传的荒唐诗,店铺与街头售卖的轻松歌谣,尤其还有火爆全国且性意味十足的音乐厅歌词。维多利亚时代英国人的精神风貌确实有一本正经、虔诚信教、注重阶级区分的一面,他们确实因为科学新进展而晕头转向,确实一厢情愿地相信大英帝国天命在身;但是另一方面他们也很爱笑,经常乐不可支。


最后于2020-03-27 05:13:01改,共2次;
2020-03-25 04:40:17
2020-03-25 04:36:50
4497341 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`238`25695`188502`正五品下:朝议大夫|宁远将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 不列颠时代3 1

在本书此前涉及的各个世纪里,绝大多数英国人似乎都是基督教信徒。或许这只是社会控制的手段,或许怀疑论者、不可知论者乃至无神论者的数量从来都不少,但是显然他们一直将自己的想法藏在心里。基督教信仰是英国文化的绝对核心,公然出柜的无神论者少之又少,笔者只能想起来克里斯托弗.马洛以及一段时间里的安德鲁.马维尔。但是现在科学在地理与生物领域的新发现正在颠覆英国人对于地球历史、地球起源以及人类特殊地位的固有看法——换句话说上帝与信仰都遭到了质疑。千百万爱思考的英国人就此遭受了重创。马修.阿诺德是教育过克拉夫的拉格比公学创始人的儿子,他笔下有一首诗歌十分到位地体现了这一思潮。阿诺德的文笔机智、简练而又古典,不过丝毫打动不了笔者,唯独下面这首名至实归的佳作《多佛尔海滩》(Dover Beach)是个例外。诗人通过这部作品抒发了对于信仰在唯物主义时代信仰逐渐消失的悲恸:

The sea is calm tonight.

The tide is full, the moon lies fair

Upon the straits; on the French coast the light

Gleams and is gone; the cliffs of England stand,

Glimmering and vast, out in the tranquil bay.

Come to the window, sweet is the night-air!

Only, from the long line of spray

Where the sea meets the moon-blanched land,

Listen! you hear the grating roar

Of pebbles which the waves draw back, and fling,

At their return, up the high strand,

Begin, and cease, and then again begin,

With tremulous cadence slow, and bring

The eternal note of sadness in.

今夜大海平静,

潮水正满,月色朗朗,

临照海峡,——法国海岸上

微光渐隐,而英国的峭壁高竖,

在宁静的海湾里显出巨大模糊的身影。

到窗边来吧,晚风多么甜!

可是你听!月光漂白了的陆地

与大海相接处,那一条长长的浪花线

传来磨牙般的喧声,

这是海浪卷走卵石,然后转回头来,

又把它们抛到高高的海滩之上,

涌起,停息,再重新涌起,

以缓慢而颤动的节拍

送来永恒的悲哀的音响。

Sophocles long ago

Heard it on the ?gean, and it brought

Into his mind the turbid ebb and flow

Of human misery; we

Find also in the sound a thought,

Hearing it by this distant northern sea.

索福克勒斯很久以前

在爱琴海边听过这喧声,

在他心中引起了人类苦难的

浊浪滚滚的潮汐;

我们在此遥远的北海边聆听,

也在此声中听到了深意。

The Sea of Faith

Was once, too, at the full, and round earth’s shore

Lay like the folds of a bright girdle furled.

But now I only hear

Its melancholy, long, withdrawing roar,

Retreating, to the breath

Of the night-wind, down the vast edges drear

And naked shingles of the world.

信仰之海

也曾有过满潮,像一根灿烂的腰带,

把全球的海岸围绕。

但如今我只听得

它那忧伤的退潮的咆哮久久不息,

它退向夜风的呼吸,

退过世界广阔阴沉的边界,

只留下一滩光秃秃的卵石。

Ah, love, let us be true

To one another! for the world, which seems

To lie before us like a land of dreams,

So various, so beautiful, so new,

Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light,

Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain;

And we are here as on a darkling plain

Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight,

Where ignorant armies clash by night.

啊,爱人,愿我们

彼此真诚!因为世界虽然

展开在我们面前如梦幻的国度,

那么多彩、美丽而新鲜,

实际上却没有欢乐,没有爱和光明,

没有肯定,没有和平,没有对痛苦的救助;

我们犹如处在黑暗的旷野,

斗争和逃跑构成一片混乱与惊怖,

无知的军队在黑夜中互相冲突。【飞白译】

维多利亚时代英国人的世界观受到了许多体制的塑造,包括君主制、国教会以及大英帝国等等。但是这其中最重要的体制还要数婚姻。婚姻意味着安全与体面,在人生赢家与不圆满的存在之间画下了分界线。皈依了罗马天主教会的考文垂.帕特摩尔是维多利亚时代最杰出的歌颂婚姻的诗人。帕特摩尔生在埃塞克斯,早年是一位画家,后来捣鼓了一阵子科学研究,最后才转向诗歌。由于他家里没钱,不得不耗费了很多年在大英博物馆做一名低级助理员。他的人生转折点出现在1847年,这一年他迎娶了一位艾米丽.安德鲁斯。他的诗歌并未一炮打响,而且日后他还要再婚两次。但是他笔下颂扬婚姻的长篇叙事诗《家中的天使》(The Angel in the House)最终受到了广泛欢迎。我们不妨将这首长诗视作一篇易于阅读的轻小说,总体而言笔调轻快,但是同时又传达了强烈的反女权信息,因此被二十世纪的知识分子们批判得狗血淋头。只需看一看以下选段就能理解本诗的主旨:

Man must be pleased; but him to please

Is woman's pleasure; down the gulf

Of his condoled necessities

She casts her best, she flings herself.

How often flings for nought, and yokes

Her heart to an icicle or whim,

Whose each impatient word provokes

Another, not from her, but him;

While she, too gentle even to force

His penitence by kind replies,

Waits by, expecting his remorse,

With pardon in her pitying eyes;

And if he once, by shame oppress'd,

A comfortable word confers,

She leans and weeps against his breast,

And seems to think the sin was hers;

男人必须被取悦,而取悦他

则是女人的愉悦;沿着他那被安抚

的必需之物的深渊向下

她投下了自己的精华,飞身将深渊填补。

飞身一跃往往只为一场空,

恣意而为的冰凌将她的心禁锢,

每一句不耐烦的话语都会挑动

另一句,并非来自她,而是由他说出。

她如此温柔,不肯将他强迫,

不肯用温和的回应迫使他悔悟

于是等在一边,期待他改过,

怜悯的眼神里充满了宽恕。

一旦他,受到羞耻新的逼迫,

说了几句贴心的话语,

她就会倚靠在他胸口,两眼泪落,

似乎认为过失都在自己。

这段诗文当中的女性形象可以说很不女权了。帕特摩尔塑造的“屈服的妻子”形象在多年以后的世代看来实在无法忍受,但却准确地体现了维多利亚时代对于理想婚姻关系的看法——这部诗作在当时极其畅销,一次能卖掉一马车。部分原因当然在于帕特摩尔传达了对于夫妻之爱的迫切、真诚且几乎有些天真的看法。他一方面要求——或者说期望——妻子能够像天使那样制约丈夫的野蛮,另一方面也留下了不少证据表明他很看好谦和互让的婚姻幸福。下面这首《离别》(Departure)描述了一个寻常日子里夫妻告别的场景:

IT was not like your great and gracious ways!

Do you, that have naught other to lament,

Never, my Love, repent

Of how, that July afternoon,

You went,

With sudden, unintelligible phrase,

And frighten'd eye,

Upon your journey of so many days

Without a single kiss, or a good-bye?

I knew, indeed, that you were parting soon;

And so we sate, within the low sun's rays,

You whispering to me, for your voice was weak,

Your harrowing praise.

Well, it was well

To hear you such things speak,

And I could tell

What made your eyes a growing gloom of love,

As a warm South-wind sombres a March grove.

And it was like your great and gracious ways

To turn your talk on daily things, my Dear,

Lifting the luminous, pathetic lash

To let the laughter flash,

Whilst I drew near,

Because you spoke so low that I could scarcely hear.

But all at once to leave me at the last,

More at the wonder than the loss aghast,

With huddled, unintelligible phrase,

And frighten'd eye,

And go your journey of all days

With not one kiss, or a good-bye,

And the only loveless look the look with which you pass'd:

'Twas all unlike your great and gracious ways.

这可不像你平时那样伟大而慈爱的风度!

你,明明不必为其他人伤心,

我的爱人,莫非你从未悔过,

你居然,在七月的那个下午

突然就离开

伴随着突兀的,听不清的言语

以及惊恐的眼神,

踏上那么多天的旅程

却不给我留下一个吻,不说一句再见?

其实,我也知道,你很快就要动身

于是我们坐下,在夕阳余晖当中,

你对我耳语道——因为你的声音微弱

——你那焦虑的赞美。

好吧,能听到

你说出这些话语,确实挺好。

我也知道

是什么让你的双眼放出爱之光辉,

恰似温暖的南风抚慰了三月的果园。

这才像你平时那样伟大而慈爱的风度,

谈一点日常小事,我的爱人,

升起你的机关,美好而又惹人怜爱

释放出你的笑声满怀,

当我靠近你身边,

因为你声音太低,我实在听不见。

但是突然你终于要离开我身边,

我与其说震惊,倒不如说思绪万千,

伴随着局促的,听不清的言语,

以及惊恐的眼神,

踏上那么多天的旅程

却不给我留下一个吻,不说一句再见?

临走之前仅仅用无爱的眼神向我一瞥:

这实在不像你平时那样伟大而慈爱的风度!

前拉斐尔派的宗教画家们将帕特摩尔当成了自己人,辛格.萨金特还为他绘制了全身像。罗马天主教则对于他的后半生意义重大。他最著名的短诗《真理至大》(Magna Est Veritas)尽管笔调轻快,但却格外动人,这也是他的一贯风格:

Here, in this little Bay,

Full of tumultuous life and great repose,

Where, twice a day,

The purposeless, glad ocean comes and goes,

Under high cliffs, and far from the huge town,

I sit me down.

For want of me the world's course will not fail:

When all its work is done, the lie shall rot;

The truth is great, and shall prevail,

When none cares whether it prevail or not.

在这里,在这小小的港湾,

熙熙攘攘的生灵在此休憩,

在这里,两次每天,

海水涨落,欢乐而没有目的,

远离城镇,在高崖之下,

我找个地方坐下。

就算少了我,世界的进程也不受扰动:

大功告成之际,谎言必将腐朽;

伟大的真理,必将大获全胜,

届时谁也不会关心它胜利与否。

有一味显而易见的解药能够从根本上化解考文垂.帕特摩尔对于婚姻的推崇,那就是乔治.梅瑞狄斯笔下令人生畏的组诗《现代爱情》(Modern Love)。这套组诗总共包括五十首十四行诗,描写了一场婚姻的解体以及男女主人公各自出轨的经过。诗人本人的婚姻生活也很不圆满。他娶了文坛同侪托马斯.洛夫.皮考克的女儿,后来妻子跟着另一个男人跑了。梅瑞狄斯的小说文笔晦涩,如今没多少人看。但是随着当代人越发熟悉婚姻生活可能带来的苦境,《现代爱情》却变得越发流行起来。帕特摩尔的乐观对应了梅瑞狄斯的绝望;帕特摩尔用水粉上色,梅瑞狄斯则用指甲在画面上划过。以下是组诗的第一首,描写了两个貌合神离的人如何躺在同一张床上相互折磨:

By this he knew she wept with waking eyes:

That, at his hand's light quiver by her head,

The strange low sobs that shook their common bed

Were called into her with a sharp surprise,

And strangled mute, like little gaping snakes,

Dreadfully venomous to him. She lay

Stone-still, and the long darkness flowed away

With muffled pulses. Then, as midnight makes

Her giant heart of Memory and Tears

Drink the pale drug of silence, and so beat

Sleep's heavy measure, they from head to feet

Were moveless, looking through their dead black years,

By vain regret scrawled over the blank wall.

Like sculptured effigies they might be seen

Upon their marriage-tomb, the sword between;

Each wishing for the sword that severs all.

他由此知道,她醒着的眼在流泪:

只因为他在她头边的手略抖了一下,

奇怪的啜泣,震颤着他们的床榻,

因为突然猛吃一惊就此被她召回,

气吁吁的小蛇一般是令人窒息的沉默,

在他听来更毒得可怕。她一动不动

好似顽石,随着压抑的脉动

长长的黑夜在流逝。当夜半时刻

使她充满回忆和泪的巨大心房

饮下这苍白的沉默苦药,

敲出睡眠的节奏,他们从头到脚

一动不动,望穿了黑色岁月的凋亡,

徒然遗憾地把空墙慢慢地扫遍。

倒也许能看见他们的雕刻肖像

中间隔着剑,在他们婚姻之墓上;

而彼此都希望这剑把一切斩断。【黄杲炘译,有修改】

接下来这首诗描写了一顿令人惊心动魄的晚宴,夫妻双方的干涩对话丝毫无法掩饰爱情已死的事实:

AT dinner she is hostess, I am host.

Went the feast ever cheerfuller? She keeps

The topic over intellectual deeps

In buoyancy afloat. They see no ghost.

With sparkling surface-eyes we ply the ball:

It is in truth a most contagious game;

HIDING THE SKELETON shall be its name.

Such play as this the devils might appall!

But here ’s the greater wonder; in that we,

Enamor’d of our acting and our wits,

Admire each other like true hypocrites.

Warm-lighted glances, Love’s Ephemerae,

Shoot gayly o’er the dishes and the wine.

We waken envy of our happy lot.

Fast, sweet, and golden, shows our marriage-knot.

Dear guests, you now have seen Love’s corpse-light shine!

在晚餐桌上她是女主人,我是客人。

还有哪顿饭吃得更加喜庆?

她将话题在智识深渊的表层圈定,

浮而不沉,他们见不到鬼魂。

我们抛球接球,表层的眼睛闪闪发光:

事实上这是一个感染力最强的游戏;

游戏的名字叫做“将尸骸藏匿”。

这游戏真能把魔鬼吓得发慌!

但是更伟大的奇迹也在此露头;

我们的演技与机智令自己叹为观止,

彼此钦佩对方才是真正的伪君子。

暖光下的一瞥,爱情的蜉蝣,

伴随着觥筹交错,卿卿我我,

我们的幸福令观者嫉妒,

我们的姻缘甜美、珍贵而坚固。

请列位见识一番爱情尸骸的鬼火!


2020-03-25 04:36:50
2020-03-20 06:21:50
4494689 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`238`25695`188502`正五品下:朝议大夫|宁远将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 不列颠时代2 1

菲利西娅.赫门兹一方面全心接受了维多利亚时代的宗教与敌国热情,另一方面又抱有私密的怀疑主义。这一特点在另一位更伟大的诗人身上也有体现。此人还是她的兰开夏郡同乡。亚瑟.休.克拉夫是著名的拉格比公学的学生,这座学校不仅以基督教作为立校之本,而且洋溢着雄赳赳的气质。后来他还在一段时间里成为了热情的高派教会成员。他最出名的诗作《不要说奋斗是徒劳》(Say not the Struggle nought Availeth)慷慨激昂地号召士兵们坚持斗争,还在更广泛的层面上批驳了失败主义。这首诗措辞巧妙,行文紧凑干脆,足以与吉卜林相媲美。可见并非每一篇体训教官拿来给受训人员打气的文字都是假大空话:

Say not the struggle nought availeth,

The labour and the wounds are vain,

The enemy faints not, nor faileth,

And as things have been they remain.

不要说奋斗终是徒劳,

辛劳和创伤白费无功,

敌人尚未力竭,更未被打倒,

事物一切照旧,依然毫无变动。

If hopes were dupes, fears may be liars;

It may be, in yon smoke concealed,

Your comrades chase e'en now the fliers,

And, but for you, possess the field.

倘若希望是虚妄,恐慌则是骗徒,

你可看见远处的硝烟弥漫?

即便在此刻,战友们也在将逃敌驱逐,

若非你拖后腿,早已将敌军阵地攻占。

For while the tired waves, vainly breaking

Seem here no painful inch to gain,

Far back through creeks and inlets making,

Comes silent, flooding in, the main.

疲惫的波浪徒然拍打海滩,

仿佛再努力也无法向前一寸,

可是就在附近的河口与港湾,

大海的满潮已经无声涌进。

And not by eastern windows only,

When daylight comes, comes in the light,

In front the sun climbs slow, how slowly,

But westward, look, the land is bright.

每当白昼来到世间,

光芒不仅仅射进东窗,

在正面,太阳攀援多么迟缓,

但向西看吧,遍地洒满霞光!

要想研究维多利亚时代英国国民的精神风貌,克拉夫其人是个很有趣的研究对象。后来他背弃了建制派教会,将精力转向了海外游历。意大利革命期间他游历了罗马与威尼斯。克拉夫是一位受过彻底训练的古典主义者,格律技法出类拔萃。不过他并没有利用这套技艺去一味描写古典题材,而是更关注当代时事。1850年,克拉夫创作了《旅途之恋》(Amours de Voyage)。此前他目睹了短命的罗马共和国如何被前来支援教皇并反对朱塞佩.马志尼以及意大利爱国者们的法军击溃。这首诗是他的最伟大杰作。诗人采用了经典的六音步长诗行格式,刻画了一位有些话痨的主人公克劳德。诗文的表现形式全都是克劳德写给国内友人的信件。克劳德是一位有些缺乏干劲的英国游客,他就像绝大多数维多利亚时期的英国人一样出于本能地支持自由派立宪主义。但是国外的政治环境以及外国人的政治热情让他感到很不以为然。克拉夫借助自己笔下的主人公绘声绘色地传达了当时英国人说话的口吻,此外他对细节的捕捉能力也远超一般小说家:

WHAT do the people say, and what does the government do? - you

Ask, and I know not at all. Yet fortune will favour your hopes; and

I, who avoided it all, am fated, it seems, to describe it.

I, who nor meddle nor make in politics, - I, who sincerely

Put not my trust in leagues nor any suffrage by ballot,

Never predicted Parisian milleniums, never beheld a

New Jerusalem coming down dressed like a bride out of heaven

Right on the Place de la Concorde," - I, nevertheless, let me say it,

Could in my soul of souls, this day, with the Gaul at the gates, shed

One true tear for thee, thou poor little Roman republic!

人们说什么?政府又做什么?

——你问我,我问谁去?但是命运将会青睐你的希望;

而对这一切避之不及的我,似乎必须将其描述。

我从未掺和或者操纵过政治——我这人历来真心诚意地

从未信任过任何政治团体或者投票活动

从未预言过新时代的来临,从未见过

新耶路撒冷身着婚纱从天而降*

降落在协和广场上——尽管如此,我还是要

掏心窝子地说一句,高卢人兵临城下的这一天

我要为你流一滴真心泪,可怜的罗马共和国!

*【暗指法国二月革命后的新形势】

What, with the German restored, with Sicily safe to the Bourbon,

Not leave one poor corner for native Italian exertion?

France, it is foully done! and you, my stupid old England, -

You, who a twelve month ago said nations must choose for themselves, you

Could not, of course, interfere, - you now, when a nation has chosen

Pardon this folly! The Times will, of course, have announced the occasion,

Told you the news of today; and although it was slightly in error

When it proclaimed as a fact the Apollo was sold to a Yankee,

You may believe when it tells you the French are at Civita Vecchia.

什么?德国已经复辟,西西里也被波旁家吞下,

难道就不能为意大利人留下一个自主的偏僻角落?

法国,瞧你干的好事!还有你,我那愚蠢的英格兰——

你在十二个月之前还说国家命运应当自决,

你当然不能干预——可是现在呢?这个国家已经做出了选择!

原谅这一愚行吧!《泰晤士报》肯定已经报道了这一事件,

向你告知了今天的新闻,尽管该报此前犯过小错,

曾经信誓旦旦地声称某个美国人买下了太阳,

但你不妨相信该报关于法军打到了奇维塔韦基亚的报道。

意大利共和派的热情一时间裹挟了克劳德。就像许多英国人一样,他越是目击战争就越觉得英国应该出手干预。但是现在已经太迟了。话说回来,如果真要轮到他拿出勇气,他能拿出多少呢?没多少:

NOW supposing the French or the Neapolitan soldier

Should by some evil chance come exploring the Maison Serny,

(Where the family English are all to assemble for safety,)

Am I prepared to lay down my life for the British female?

Really, who knows? One has bowed and talked, till, little by little,

All the natural heat has escaped of the chivalrous spirit.

Oh, one conformed, of course; but one doesn't die for good manners,

Stab or shoot, or be shot, by way of a graceful attention.

假设法国兵或者来自尼泊尔的佣兵

因为邪恶的机会,闯进了瑟尼大饭店,

(英国侨民家属为了安全都在那里集合)

我是否具有为了保护英国女性而捐躯的觉悟?

这种事谁知道呢?我大概会站出来斡旋一会儿,直到

骑士精神的勇气在我心里逐渐消失殆尽。

当然,做人要老实规矩;但是讲风度并不值得搭上性命,

无论是被刀捅死还是被枪打死,只为赢得佳人一顾。

现在真正的战斗开始了,但是当地人的日常生活不知怎的还在继续。攥紧导游指南的克劳德详细描绘了此时的超现实氛围。通过这段文字可以看出他具有天生的采访报道天赋。

YES, we are fighting at last, it appears. This morning, as usual,

Murray, as usual, in hand, I enter the Caffe Nuovo;

Seating myself with a sense as it were of a change in the weather,

Not understanding, however, but thinking mostly of Murray,

And, for to day is their day, of the Campidoglio Marbles,

Caffe-latte! I call to the waiter--and Non c'e latte,

This is the answer he makes me, and this the sign of a battle.

So I sit; and truly they seem to think any one else more

Worthy than me of attention. I wait for my milkless nero,

Free to observe undistracted all sorts and sizes of persons,

Blending civilian and soldier in strangest costume, coming in, and

Gulping in hottest haste, still standing, their coffee, -withdrawing

Eagerly, jangling a sword on the steps, or jogging a musket

Slung to the shoulder behind. They are fewer, moreover, than usual,

Much, and silenter far; and so I begin to imagine

Something is really afloat. Ere I leave, the Caffe is empty,

Empty too the streets, in all its length the Corso

Empty, and empty I see to my right and my left the Condotti.

是的,我们似乎终于开战了。今天早晨,像往常一样,

我像往常一样手拿《莫里导游手册》,走进了诺沃咖啡馆;

坐下之后总感觉天气变了,

当时我还没明白过来,心里还在琢磨《手册》上的内容,

因为今天这日子特别,卡比托利欧博物馆要展览一批古玩,

来杯拿铁!——我对侍者喊道——拿铁没了!

这是他的回答,这句话是即将打仗的信号。

我干坐在那里,他们似乎觉得别人全都

比我更值得关注。我叫的不加奶黑咖啡迟迟不来,

于是我趁机专心打量起了形形色色的其他顾客们,

平民与军人一起混杂着走进来,穿着最奇怪的衣服,

来不及坐下就急不可待地将咖啡牛饮一空——

然后又急匆匆冲出门去,腰间挎着剑,肩膀后面

斜挂着毛瑟枪。此外他们的人数比平时更少,

也比平时安静了许多,于是我不禁觉得

这回真出事了。我离开之前,咖啡馆已经没人了,

街上也没人了,科索大街从头到尾

空空荡荡,康多蒂大街的左右两边也见不着人……

这是一首精彩的长诗,笔者建议读者们阅读全篇。克拉夫本人是一位纠结的自由派,日后还会成为弗洛伦斯.南丁格尔的密切合作伙伴。维多利亚时代很看重宗教信仰,宗教与不可知论以及各种怀疑之间的冲突也很激烈。克拉夫的诗歌同样反映了这一方面。下面这首《十诫新编》(The Latest Decalogue)淋漓尽致地讲解了维多利亚时代英国人对待宗教了模棱两可态度:

THOU shalt have one God only; who

Would be at the expense of two?

No graven images may be

Worshipped, except the currency.

Swear not at all; for, for thy curse

Thine enemy is none the worse.

At church on Sunday to attend

Will serve to keep the world thy friend.

Honor thy parents; that is, all

From whom advancement may befall.

Thou shalt not kill; but need’st not strive

Officiously to keep alive.

Do not adultery commit;

Advantage rarely comes of it.

Thou shalt not steal; an empty feat,

When it’s so lucrative to cheat.

Bear not false witness; let the lie

Have time on its own wings to fly.

Thou shalt not covet, but tradition

Approves all forms of competition.

你只能崇拜一个神;

拜两个的代价高得吓人。

不能崇拜任何造像,

除非印刷在钞票上。

不可诅咒起誓将人辱骂,

敌人不会因此过得更差。

周日要参与教会活动,

唯此才能得到他人尊重。

要孝敬父母,因为归根结底,

他们的家产早晚都要归你。

你不可杀人,但也不必费力

给半死之人假惺惺吊一口气。

通奸行径万万不可,

因为肯定没好结果

你不可盗窃,这倒无所谓,

撒谎骗人本来就更有油水。

不可作假见证,只需袖手旁观,

给谎言留出满天飞舞的时间。

不可贪恋他人财物,但是要谨记,

我们的传统将一切竞争形式鼓励。

光看这首诗,读者们很容易一位诗人看不起一切宗教信仰,但是情况并非如此。维多利亚时代的英国人在拿不定主意的时候最有趣,一旦拿定主意反而无趣了。请看《上帝并不存在》(There Is No God):

"There is no God," the wicked saith,

"And truly it's a blessing,

For what He might have done with us

It's better only guessing."

“上帝并不存在,”恶人这样说,

“这一点实在喜人,

不然我们实在不敢猜测

祂打算怎样收拾我们。”

"There is no God," a youngster thinks,

"or really, if there may be,

He surely did not mean a man

Always to be a baby."

“上帝并不存在,”年轻人这样想,

“退一步说,就算祂当真存在,

祂也肯定不希望人类

永远处于童稚状态。”

"There is no God, or if there is,"

The tradesman thinks, "'twere funny

If He should take it ill in me

To make a little money."

“上帝并不存在,”商人这样想,

“不过就算存在也无所谓,

我只想赚两个小钱而已,

祂老人家想必不会反对。”

"Whether there be," the rich man says,

"It matters very little,

For I and mine, thank somebody,

Are not in want of victual."

“不管有没有上帝,”富人说,

“其实都差不了太多,

鄙人一家谢天谢地,

从来都不缺吃少喝。”

Some others, also, to themselves,

Who scarce so much as doubt it,

Think there is none, when they are well,

And do not think about it.

还有其他人,在他们心里

几乎没有产生过怀疑,

平时他们想当然地认为上帝

并不存在,不去想这个问题。

But country folks who live beneath

The shadow of the steeple;

The parson and the parson's wife,

And mostly married people;

但是要说起那些乡下居民

在教堂尖顶的阴影里居住;

教区牧师与他的妻子,

还有大多数已婚夫妇。

Youths green and happy in first love,

So thankful for illusion;

And men caught out in what the world

Calls guilt, in first confusion;

陷入初恋的青葱少年

真心感谢这层幻象;

还有人因为一时糊涂

被人世间将罪名加上;

And almost everyone when age,

Disease, or sorrows strike him,

Inclines to think there is a God,

Or something very like Him.

以及几乎所有人,当他们

遭受衰老、悲恸与病恙,

都倾向于相信上帝确实存在,

至少也有某种存在与祂相像。


  • 本帖 1 回复
最后于2020-03-23 02:12:29改,共1次;
2020-03-20 06:21:50
4495151 复 4494689
桥上
3 拉格比好象是橄榄球嘛 1
2020-03-21 00:33:44
4498309 复 4495151
燕人
4 橄榄球起源于拉格比城 4

球以城名。


  • 本帖 1 回复
通宝推:桥上,
2020-03-27 05:59:09
4498324 复 4498309
桥上
5 谢了,和那个拉格比公学有关吗?
2020-03-27 07:16:12
2020-03-27 07:31:57
4498336 复 4498324
燕人
燕人`8681`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`14188`15728`172431`从八品上:承奉郎|御武(侮)校尉`2005-10-26 12:46:38`0
6 传说是该校一个学生首创 4

1823年间的事情。己方球队屡次失分,该生情急之下,一手把球抱起,快速冲向对方大门。对方球员上前拦截云云。没有确实的文字记录。估计现场有点小热闹。这基本成为默认事实。橄榄球世界杯奖杯就以此人名字William Webb Ellis命名。

说实话,这种不伤大雅的反规矩举动在一个贵族学校发生是理所必然的吧。


通宝推:桥上,
2020-03-27 07:31:57
2020-03-20 06:20:34
4494688 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`238`25695`188502`正五品下:朝议大夫|宁远将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 十一,不列颠时代1 1

如果说历史上有任何一个时代可以称作“英国时代”,那么必然就是十九世纪或者说维多利亚时代——人们惯于采用在这一时期统治英国的高寿女王的名字来指代这一时期。在一段短暂的时间里,英国成为了全球第一的强权国家。凭借全世界第一场工业革命的先发优势,英国打造了一个幅员辽阔财富无数的帝国。皇家海军成为了全世界最可畏的军事力量。因此军旅与军事题材诗歌、主流正能量诗歌以及痴迷于物质财富带来的全新社会阶级的诗歌理所当然地在这一时期大行其道。但是另一方面,维多利亚时期的诗人们也在竭力应对着令人不安的全新理念,从基于自然选择的达尔文进化论到不断传播开来的无神论再到新兴的社会主义教条等等。这一时期的大部分诗歌绝非洋洋自得的夸口文字,而是走上了反躬自省自我批评的路线。诗人们热切地复兴了宗教信仰,歌颂了家庭生活,还对更广大的世界产生了越来越浓厚的兴趣。

维多利亚时代的诗歌就像维多利亚时代的建筑一样,好似一座多种文化意象拼贴而成的精灵城市。从丁尼生的《国王之歌》到勃朗宁的威尼斯与佛罗伦萨背景再到爱德华.菲兹杰拉德的波斯风情。此外这也是异域主义与东方主义大行其道的时代。以上这些内容大抵无助于我们试图通过诗歌理解本时代英国人的尝试。但是就像维多利亚时代的建筑一样,这些诗歌当中也充溢着令人着迷的活力与多样性。有些诗歌好比单一色调的宫殿,另一些则好比环绕宫殿的民宅;有些诗歌顶着十四世纪的塔尖,另一些则装饰着从意大利运河区挪用过来的花窗。仔细监视一番就会发现,看似招摇作态的维多利亚诗歌往往英国气质浓厚并且紧跟时代。

首先介绍一位菲利西娅.赫门兹。她的出身家族在很多方面都可以被视为维多利亚时代新英国的缩影。她父亲是兰开夏郡的酒类进口商,她的一位兄弟参军入伍并立下了显赫战功,另一个兄弟当上了爱尔兰警察总局局长,第三个兄弟在加拿大当了高官。她本人嫁给了一位爱尔兰军官,但是这段婚姻并未维持很久。她的第一首诗作献给了威尔士亲王,尽管如此雪莱依然十分仰慕她。她过世之后,华兹华斯为她撰写了悼文。她最出名的作品是《卡萨比安卡》(Casabianca),显然出自一位帝国国运上升时期的爱国女青年之手:

The boy stood on the burning deck

Whence all but he had fled;

The flame that lit the battle's wreck

Shone round him o'er the dead.

少年挺立在燃烧的甲板,

此时其他人都已放弃。

烧毁了战舰的熊熊火焰,

照亮了他和一片尸体。

Yet beautiful and bright he stood,

As born to rule the storm;

A creature of heroic blood,

A proud, though child-like form.

然而他依然挺立,面容清秀俊朗,

似乎生来就要统御风暴;

英雄的鲜血在他体内流淌,

尽管尚未成年,却依然满怀骄傲。

The flames rolled on–he would not go

Without his Father's word;

That father, faint in death below,

His voice no longer heard.

烈焰滚滚,他却不肯抛弃职分,

除非得到父亲的命令。

甲板以下倒卧着他的父亲,

早已牺牲,无法将他的呼唤回应。

He called aloud–'say, Father, say

If yet my task is done?'

He knew not that the chieftain lay

Unconscious of his son.

“下令啊,父亲?”他高声呼喊,

“我的任务是否已经完成?”

他不知道自己的首长已经瘫软,

听不见儿子的阵阵呼声。

'Speak, father!' once again he cried,

'If I may yet be gone!'

And but the booming shots replied,

And fast the flames rolled on.

“说话呀,父亲!”他带着哭腔喊道,

“我现在能不能撤离前线!”

回应他的只有隆隆的殉爆,

以及吞噬一切的熊熊烈焰。

Upon his brow he felt their breath,

And in his waving hair,

And looked from that lone post of death

In still yet brave despair.

他能感到烈火的阵阵呼气,

喷在他的眉毛与头发上;

他孤独地驻守在必死之地

一动不动,满脸勇敢的绝望。

And shouted but once more aloud,

'My father! must I stay?'

While o'er him fast, through sail and shroud,

The wreathing fires made way.

最后一声呼喊,比刚才嗓门更高,

“爸爸!难道我还不能撤走?”

在他背后,沿着船帆向上燃烧,

烈火缓缓张开了血盆大口。

They wrapt the ship in splendour wild,

They caught the flag on high,

And streamed above the gallant child,

Like banners in the sky.

火光灿烂,将整艘战船点亮,

终于攫住了最高处的旗帜,

招摇在英勇少年的头上,

恰似半空中的横幅烈炽。

There came a burst of thunder sound–

The boy–oh! where was he?

Ask of the winds that far around

With fragments strewed the sea!

突然一声雷鸣般的巨响——

那孩子呢?可曾有人看见?

唯有狂风呼啸吹向远方,

破碎的残骸撒满了海面!

With mast, and helm, and pennon fair,

That well had borne their part–

But the noblest thing which perished there

Was that young faithful heart.

桅杆,舵轮,与燕尾旗高高飘荡

它们全都完成了自己的使命——

但要说到何等牺牲最为高尚,

唯有这颗年轻的心最为坚定。

赫门兹的诗歌洋溢着维多利亚时代的高昂爱国主义。不幸的是,这一点也让她的作品在二十世纪沦为了无情恶搞的靶子。她的《堂皇的英格兰之家》(The Stately Homes of England)一诗自从被喜剧演员诺尔.考沃德恶搞之后就再没能恢复元气。先来看看她的原诗:

THE STATELY Homes of England,

How beautiful they stand!

Amidst their tall ancestral trees,

O’er all the pleasant land;

The deer across their greensward bound

Through shade and sunny gleam,

And the swan glides past them with the sound

Of some rejoicing stream.

堂皇的英格兰之家!

他们多么美丽!

有多少参天古树

覆盖这片优美土地!

鹿群啃食着茵茵绿草,

在斑驳树荫下徜徉,

天鹅在水面优美舞蹈,

欢乐的河流源远流长。

The merry Homes of England!

Around their hearths by night,

What gladsome looks of household love

Meet in the ruddy light.

There woman’s voice flows forth in song,

Or childish tale is told;

Or lips move tunefully along

Some glorious page of old.

欢乐的英格兰之家!

夜晚在炉旁围坐,

其乐融融的一家人,

端详着炉火闪烁。

……

The cottage Homes of England!

By thousands on her plains,

They are smiling o’er the silvery brooks,

And round the hamlet-fanes.

Through glowing orchards forth they peep,

Each from its nook of leaves;

And fearless there the lowly sleep,

As the bird beneath their eaves.

英格兰的农舍之家!

成百上千在平原坐落,

面朝粼粼溪流微笑,

组成大大小小的村落。

透过闪亮的果园窥探,

每座小屋都被层层树叶遮蔽;

无惧的人们在树下安眠,

恰似鸟儿在屋檐下休憩。

这几句诗略微肉麻了一点,但是总体而言没毛病是吧?下面是考沃德的恶搞版本:

The Stately Homes of England,

How beautiful they stand,

To prove the upper classes

Have still the upper hand;

Though the fact that they have to be rebuilt

And frequently mortgaged to the hilt

Is inclined to take the gilt

Off the gingerbread,

And certainly damps the fun

Of the eldest son-

But still we won't be beaten,

We'll scrimp and scrape and save,

The playing fields of Eton

Have made us frightfully brave。

堂皇的英格兰之家!

他们多么美丽!

为了证明掌大权的

依然是上层阶级!

他们经常被扒了重建,

还被拿来抵押贷款,

丁点不剩抹净吃干,

姜饼人的糖霜脸。

名门望族的长子,

如今少了乐子。

但我们不肯认输平躺,

哪怕勒紧裤腰活受罪,

伊顿公学的操场,

练就我们的勇猛无畏。

莫非赫门兹就只有这点本事不成?幸运的是并非如此,尽管她的诗才直到最近才刚刚得到人们的进一步认识。赫门兹可算是最早的一批女权主义诗人,或者说她至少是一位反复采用女性受压迫并且难以发声这一题材的诗人。以下是她的长诗《精神的回归》(A Spirit Returns)的开头:

Thy voice prevails - dear friend, my gentle friend!

This long-shut heart for thee shall be unsealed,

And though thy soft eye mournfully will bend

Over the troubled stream, yet once revealed

Shall its freed waters flow; then rocks must close

For evermore, above their dark repose.

这声音胜利了——亲爱的朋友,我温柔的友人!

我将要为你打开这长久关闭的心门,

尽管你那柔和又伤感的视线

将会在激流上弯成一条曲线

一旦揭露,一道道水流就会自由的流淌,

然后巨石将在黑暗水源的头顶永远合上。

自杀一直都是赫门兹作品的隐藏基调。这一倾向与燃烧甲板上与战船共存亡的少年所体现的干脆道德主义完全背道而驰。例如《萨芙的最后之歌》(The Last Song of Sappho)就描写了古希腊女诗人萨芙蹈海自尽之前的场景:

SOUND on, thou dark unslumbering sea!

My dirge is in thy moan;

My spirit finds response in thee,

To its own ceaseless cry–'Alone, alone !'

继续作响吧,你这黑暗的大海不肯宁静!

我的挽歌就是你的啜泣;

你将我的精神回应,

用你那无尽的哭喊——“孤寂,孤寂!”

Yet send me back one other word,

Ye tones that never cease !

Oh ! let your secret caves be stirr'd,

And say, dark waters! will ye give me peace?

你可敢换个字眼将我回复,

你的声调永远不停!

哦!若是搅动了你那神秘的洞府,

黑暗之水啊!你可愿容我安宁?

Away! my weary soul hath sought

In vain one echoing sigh,

One answer to consuming thought

In human hearts–and will the wave reply ?

去吧,我疲惫的灵魂一直在寻觅

应和的叹息声,但总是徒劳枉然,

我想找一个答案用来消耗思绪

在人心当中——海浪可愿与我相谈?

Sound on, thou dark, unslumbering sea!

Sound in thy scorn and pride !

I ask not, alien world, from thee,

What my own kindred earth hath still denied.

继续作响吧,你这黑暗的大海不肯安眠!

这声音是你的骄傲与轻蔑!

陌生的世界,我无意求你垂怜,

毕竟我的地上亲属也不肯将我关切。

And yet I loved that earth so well,

With all its lovely things!

–Was it for this the death-wind fell

On my rich lyre, and quench'd its living strings?

然而我对大地爱得深沉,

它是那么多可爱生灵的家园!

——莫非因此死亡之风才会降临

掀翻我的琴,打湿生命的琴弦?

——Let them lie silent at my feet !

Since broken even as they,

The heart whose music made them sweet,

Hath pour'd on desert-sands its wealth away.

让它们在我脚下安静休憩!

就算像它们这样残破,

也能因为心中的音乐变得甜蜜,

这颗心将它的财富倾倒在沙漠。

Yet glory's light hath touch'd my name,

The laurel-wreath is mine–

–With a lone heart, a weary frame–

O restless deep ! I come to make them thine !

但是荣耀的光明触碰了我的姓名,

桂叶的花冠属于我——

以及孤独的心,憔悴的体型——

哦无尽的深渊!请包容这一切的我!

Give to that crown, that burning crown,

Place in thy darkest hold!

Bury my anguish, my renown,

With hidden wrecks, lost gems, and wasted gold.

我将这一切都向燃烧的皇冠献上,

安置在你最黑暗的坚城里!

将我的痛苦与光荣全部埋葬

与隐秘的船骸、失落的金珠摆在一起

Thou sea-bird on the billow's crest,

Thou hast thy love, thy home;

They wait thee in the quiet nest,

And I, the unsought, unwatch'd-for–I too come!

你们这些海鸟在浪头上栖息,

你们享有大海的爱,分享大海的家;

它们在安稳的鸟巢里等你,

无人寻觅,无人看护的我——我也来啦!

I, with this winged nature fraught,

These visions wildly free,

This boundless love, this fiery thought–

Alone I come–oh ! give me peace, dark sea!

我满目所见都是这些生灵张开双翼,

无拘无束的自由风采,

这无尽的爱,这烈火一般的思绪——

我来了——哦!请给我安宁吧,黑暗的大海!


2020-03-20 06:20:34
2020-03-16 05:21:47
4492526 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`238`25695`188502`正五品下:朝议大夫|宁远将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 浪漫的苦恼6

笔者以为拜伦终其一生都未能真正理解纯真一词的含义。不过说一千道一万,他的诗歌依然华彩绚烂可读性极强。这句评语并不适用于最后一位浪漫主义主要代表人物,拜伦与济慈的共同朋友,1822年溺亡在意大利的珀西.比希.雪莱。就像拜伦一样,雪莱也必须应对拿破仑最终战败之后笼罩欧洲的反动政治氛围,尤其要应付当时僵化高压的英国政府。就像拜伦一样,雪莱胸中的青春革命之火终其一生都未曾熄灭(对于革命派诗人来说,英年早逝往往是一步妙棋)。但是与拜伦不同,雪莱的问题并不在于愤世嫉俗,而是在于过分严肃以至于有些啰嗦。维多利亚时代的读者们一边追捧雪莱一边哀叹他的无神论立场,再往后的读者们则往往认为他笔下篇幅较长且更具幻想的诗歌看上去就像色彩过于浓重的疾风,一方面激情四溢,另一方面又有些不知所云。如今读者意见又逐渐转向了有利于雪莱的方向。他的诗歌集中体现了浪漫主义运动在十九世纪二十年代的绝望与渴望的极致,例如下面这段诗文节选自为悼念约翰.济慈而创作的《阿童尼》(Adonais):

I weep for Adonais—he is dead!

Oh, weep for Adonais! though our tears

Thaw not the frost which binds so dear a head!

And thou, sad Hour, selected from all years

To mourn our loss, rouse thy obscure compeers,

And teach them thine own sorrow, say: "With me

Died Adonais; till the Future dares

Forget the Past, his fate and fame shall be

An echo and a light unto eternity!"

我为阿童尼哭泣——他已经死了!

噢,为他哭泣吧!虽然我们的泪珠

融解不了那冻结他秀额的冰霜!

而你,忧郁的时刻,却被岁月挑出

来承担我们的损失;请向你的同辈

传授你的悲哀吧:你该说:“阿童尼

是和我一同死的;要是‘未来’不敢——

遗忘‘过去’,他的命运和名声必是

一线光明,一种回音,增添到永恒里!【穆旦译】

雪莱具有非凡的抒情造诣。古往今来只有寥寥几首诗钻进了英国人的集体想象,其中就包括雪莱的《奥斯曼狄斯》(Ozymandias)。诗人面无表情地点评了俗世权柄的煊赫阵势以及灰飞烟灭的必然下场。笔者建议将这首诗铭刻在下议院的入口处:

I met a traveller from an antique land

Who said: Two vast and trunkless legs of stone

Stand in the desert. Near them, on the sand,

Half sunk, a shattered visage lies, whose frown,

And wrinkled lip, and sneer of cold command,

Tell that its sculptor well those passions read

Which yet survive, stamped on these lifeless things,

The hand that mocked them and the heart that fed;

And on the pedestal these words appear:

“My name is Ozymandias, King of Kings:

Look on my Works, ye Mighty, and despair!”

Nothing beside remains. Round the decay

Of that colossal wreck, boundless and bare

The lone and level sands stretch far away.

客从古国来,告我古国事。

曾见沙漠中,伫立二石柱。

形制为双股,其上无身躯。

旁有碎石颅,沉沙半掩没。

蹙眉抿双唇,蔑笑真冷酷。

当年雕工巧,必深感其怒。

匠作无处寻,威仪留印记。

妙手琢顽石,苦心摹生气。

细看石柱底,隐约一行字:

“至尊威名赫,奥斯曼狄斯!

功业镇千古,天公亦叹息!”

四周无余物,不见残垣壁。

唯有万里沙,绵延向天际。

不过要说到刻画这一时期身为英国人的体验,拔得头筹的诗歌必然是《暴政的假面游行》(The Mask of Anarchy)。这是英语政治抗议诗歌当中最杰出的一首。1815年的滑铁卢大捷过后,大量英军士兵脱去军装,重返了民间生活。第二年印尼的坦博拉火山爆发,致使欧洲与北美大部分地区遭受了所谓的“无夏之年”,英国当年粮食严重歉收——这将是全球粮食贸易开放之前英国人最后一次经历足以导致饥荒的自然灾害。新近出台的《谷物法》旨在保护地主阶层的利益,向英国进口的粮食征收了高额关税,推高了食品价格,进一步恶化了民众的生活环境。另一方面民间要求政治体制改革的呼声愈发强烈,改革的支持者们希望新兴工业城市能在议会得到相应的代表权,早已不得人心的政府则咬紧牙关不肯让步。简而言之,一场即将席卷英国政坛的完美风暴已经凑齐了一切条件。

1819年8月,正当雪莱被放逐到意大利时,大批曼城民众在圣彼得广场举行示威集会,支持议会体制改革。政府派出骑兵冲击示威人群,当场杀死十五人,另有上百人被马刀砍伤。针对这一事件,雪莱写下了以下诗句:

As I lay asleep in Italy

There came a voice from over the Sea

And with great power it forth led me

To walk in the visions of Poesy.

我在意大利躺着发呆,

一个声音飘洋过海,

一股强力引领我离开,

在诗意的梦境里徘徊。

I met Murder on the way -

He had a mask like Castlereagh -

Very smooth he looked, yet grim;

Seven blood-hounds followed him:

路上我偶遇屠杀,腥风血雨——

象卡斯尔雷戴着面具,

貌似和蔼,其实残暴;

紧随他的是猎狗七条:

All were fat; and well they might

Be in admirable plight,

For one by one, and two by two,

He tossed the human hearts to chew

Which from his wide cloak he drew.

条条硕壮,只只肥美;

处境优渥,值得赞佩,

他从宽大的斗篷

双双对对掏出人心,

扔给他们虎咽狼吞。

Next came Fraud, and he had on,

Like Eldon, an ermined gown;

His big tears, for he wept well,

Turned to mill-stones as they fell.

接着是蒙骗,穿一袭

象埃尔顿裹着的裘皮法衣;*

他伤心恸哭,泣涕涟涟,

滴滴泪珠落地即成磨盘。

*【第一任埃尔顿侯爵约翰.斯科特,时任英国大法官。】

And the little children, who

Round his feet played to and fro,

Thinking every tear a gem,

Had their brains knocked out by them.

幼童们缠绕其膝下,

往返来回,嬉戏、玩耍,

以为滴滴泪珠皆是珍宝,

却被它们砸烂了头脑。

Clothed with the Bible, as with light,

And the shadows of the night,

Like Sidmouth, next, Hypocrisy

On a crocodile rode by.

以圣经作伪装,俨然光明,

而那黑夜的幽灵,

象西德茅斯般,*

接着鳄鱼驮着伪善。

*【即亨利.艾尔顿,1801—1804年和1806—1807年任首相,1804被封为西德茅斯子爵。1819年担任内政大臣】

And many more Destructions played

In this ghastly masquerade,

All disguised, even to the eyes,

Like Bishops, lawyers, peers, or spies.

在恐怖的化妆舞会里

许许多多毁灭在演绎,

人人在伪装,甚至就连双眼,

都貌似主教、律师、贵族、或密探。

Last came Anarchy: he rode

On a white horse, splashed with blood;

He was pale even to the lips,

Like Death in the Apocalypse.

暴政终于来也:

他驾着白马,飞溅喋血;

他苍白的脸色、嘴唇,

酷似启示录中的死神。

And he wore a kingly crown;

And in his grasp a sceptre shone;

On his brow this mark I saw -

'I AM GOD, AND KING, AND LAW!'

他头顶王冠,俨然皇上;

手握权杖,闪闪发光;

只见戳记在其印堂—

“我是上帝,法律,国王!”

With a pace stately and fast,

Over English land he passed,

Trampling to a mire of blood

The adoring multitude,

步伐庄严而快速,

他穿越英格兰的国土,

将敬仰膜拜的苍生

践踏于血泊泥坑。

And a mighty troop around,

With their trampling shook the ground,

Waving each a bloody sword,

For the service of their Lord.

四周布满强悍的士兵,

震撼大地,践踏蹂躏,

个个挥舞带血的刺刀,

在为他们的君主效劳。

And with glorious triumph, they

Rode through England proud and gay,

Drunk as with intoxication

Of the wine of desolation.

因为光荣的凯旋,

趾高气扬踏遍英格兰,

酩酊于欣喜若狂

是那忧伤的酒浆。

O'er fields and towns, from sea to sea,

Passed the Pageant swift and free,

Tearing up, and trampling down;

Till they came to London town.

越过五湖四海、城镇、田园,

迅疾逍遥地穿过盛装庆典,

烧杀凌虐,踩踏蹂躏;

直到他们抵达了伦敦。

And each dweller, panic-stricken,

Felt his heart with terror sicken

Hearing the tempestuous cry

Of the triumph of Anarchy.

惊慌失措的居民,

饱尝了吊胆提心,

聆听暴政的凯旋——

暴风雨般的呼喊。

For with pomp to meet him came,

Clothed in arms like blood and flame,

The hired murderers, who did sing

'Thou art God, and Law, and King.

迎接他的是浮华壮丽,

掩饰如血似火的兵器,

雇佣的帮凶在合唱

“你是上帝、法律、国王。”

'We have waited, weak and lone

For thy coming, Mighty One!

Our purses are empty, our swords are cold,

Give us glory, and blood, and gold.'

“孤独羸弱的我们,等待你的驾临—

我们始终恭候强大的国君!

咱们的钱包空空,刀剑阴森,

赐我们荣耀、鲜血与黄金!”【上善若水网友译,有修正】

十九世纪英国历史的一大部分内容在于革命的缺席。缓慢但稳步推进的议会体制改革与社会改革虽然始终没能平息下层社会的怒火,但却成功地遏制了一切有可能颠覆“上帝、法律、国王”的革命势力。英国人终究还是再次迎来了更美好的时光。英国成为了一个不断成长壮大的帝国,有能力将国内的过剩人口打发到海外去强占其他民族的土地,同时又将世界各地的奢侈品进口回英国。全世界第一个投身于工业革命的国家终于全速发动了起来。换言之,英国人的日子即将越过越好。相比之下,浪漫主义诗歌却是危机时代的产物,属于法国大革命与彼得卢大屠杀之间的时代。因此这一流派也逐渐消沉了下去。英国诗歌即将一本正经地板起面孔。维多利亚时代的诗人们正在系牢马甲上的扣子,整理头上的帽子,等待历史的召唤。


最后于2020-03-23 02:22:20改,共2次;
2020-03-16 05:21:47
2020-03-13 05:22:48
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万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`238`25695`188502`正五品下:朝议大夫|宁远将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 浪漫的苦恼5 1

不过并非所有人都吃济慈这一套。乔治.戈登或者说拜伦勋爵就很看不上济慈并且蔑称后者是“那个肮脏的流氓”。今天我们一谈到浪漫主义运动就把这俩人的名字搁在一起搞捆绑销售,这一点只能表明浪漫主义这个标签多么以全概偏。华兹华斯与柯勒律治将诗歌转变成了对于诗人内心的记述,从而以各自的方式改变了英国诗歌的侧重方向。拜伦则在前人的基础上将诗歌推向了全新的极端:他干脆将日常生活当中的他本人投入了诗歌,将自己塑造成了一名浪漫主义诗歌主人公。诗人的生活成为了诗歌的核心。诗人超越了诗歌,或者说起码也将诗歌当成了更宏大的自我投射项目的一部分。更麻烦的是,拜伦最中意的诗坛偶像都是百年前的前辈,例如蒲柏与德莱顿。而且他的生平要比同时代的任何其他诗人都更接近毕生放荡的约翰.威尔莫特。拜伦是十八世纪贵族、复辟“血脉”以及现代激进派的奇妙合体——不过话又说回来,随着老迈的乔治三世陷入了疯狂,让他那位懒散的儿子掌管国政,拜伦这样的混搭风正是摄政时期的主流风气。

拜伦生于1788年,出生地点不详,要么是多佛要么是伦敦。他生得太晚,没来得及赶上法国大革命初期的狂热气氛。他的父亲是一位苏格兰贵族出身的船长,素有一毛不拔且性格粗暴的恶名;他的母亲是一位体态肥硕的继承人,在儿子看来这个女人十分愚蠢。拜伦一生下来就有脚掌畸形的毛病,因此年纪轻轻就投入了体育与猎艳,借以弥补心理欠缺。用他的诸多情妇之一的话来说,拜伦其人“疯狂而又恶劣,认识他非常危险。”与拜伦同为第二代浪漫主义诗人的雪莱认为他这人“极其有趣”,但是同时又惋惜地表示拜伦是暴力与粗俗偏见的奴隶,而且“脑筋不太正常。”

拜伦其人在很多方面都与我们现今时代不谋而合——他惯于利用我们今天所谓的“明星文化”风气来自我炒作,惯于宣讲出格的三俗笑话,公然搞双性恋男女通吃,等等。在更严肃的层面上,他还热衷于为了遥远异国争取自由的斗争而高声鼓与呼。二十世纪三十年代前往西班牙支持共和派势力的英国诗人在某种意义上都是拜伦的继承人,延续了当年拜伦支持希腊人民反抗土耳其帝国的事业——拜伦正是因此才会在1824年英年早逝。拜伦曾经写过皮打皮闹的打油诗,也曾经写过令人心醉的优美诗句,还写过非常搞笑的私人信件。但是我们今天提起拜伦,首先想到的还是他的两部长诗,《恰尔德.哈洛尔德游记》(Childe Harold's Pilgrimage)与《唐璜》(Don Juan)。两部作品都是抑扬格八行体,这种体例松散灵活,在伊丽莎白时代曾经盛行一时。拜伦采用这种体例尽情挥发了自信、高傲而又洒脱的风格,迷倒了无数仰慕者。

仅就诗歌角度而言,读过柯勒律治与华兹华斯的读者们或许会觉得拜伦的风格有点守旧,不过守旧绝不等于保守。拜伦的战斗力极强,公然宣称他看不起龟缩在湖区的第一代浪漫主义诗人。在《唐璜》的开篇献辞当中,拜伦痛骂了背弃激进立场倒向托利党的骚塞,然后又将火力转向了其他几位同行,比方说刚刚开始研究德国形而上学的柯勒律治:

And Coleridge, too, has lately taken wing,

But like a hawk encumber'd with his hood,

Explaining Metaphysics to the nation—

I wish he would explain his Explanation.

最近,请看柯勒律治也展翅而飞,

可惜像朦目的鹰,为眼罩所蔽,

他尽拿一套玄学来向国人解释——

我希望他把“解释”再加以解释。【穆旦译,有修正】

下一个挨刀的是正忙着撰写叙事长诗的华兹华斯:

And Wordsworth, in a rather long "Excursion"

(I think the quarto holds five hundred pages),

Has given a sample from the vasty version

Of his new system to perplex the sages;

'Tis poetry—at least by his assertion,

And may appear so when the dog-star rages—

And he who understands it would be able

To add a story to the Tower of Babel.

华兹华斯写了篇冗长的《漫游》,

(印在四开本上,大约不下五百页,)

为他新创的体系的博大精深

提供了范例,教圣人也难以理解;

这是诗呀——至少他自己这么说;

对,等有一天天狼星祸害到世界,

也许是的。谁若是理解它,就准能

给巴别的通天塔又加高一层。

You—Gentlemen! by dint of long seclusion

From better company, have kept your own

At Keswick, and, through still continu'd fusion

Of one another's minds, at last have grown

To deem as a most logical conclusion,

That Poesy has wreaths for you alone:

There is a narrowness in such a notion,

Which makes me wish you'd change your lakes for Ocean.

诸位君子呵,由于你们长期以来

不曾见过世面,一意固步自封,

你们死守在凯泽克那一隅落,

仍旧继续在彼此间心灵交融,

于是有了自认为最合理的结论,

即诗的花冠只该落在你们手中;

唉,这种见识未免是所见太窄,

我倒希望你们从湖边迁往大海。【穆旦译】

以上节选诗文体现了拜伦身为社会人的混不吝气质。他这一代英国人是伴随着拿破仑战争的时代背景成长起来的。战争时代的英国创作了许多爱国歌曲,也将全新的英雄姓名传遍了大街小巷。在特拉法尔加大捷与滑铁卢大捷之后,这些名字帮助英国国民养成了全新的自豪情绪,将英国当成了战士的国度。而语不惊人死不休的拜伦偏要与主流正能量舆论作对(就像百年后一战之后的诗人们那样),尽情嘲讽了战争这套杀人流血的行当:

I WANT a hero: an uncommon want,

When every year and month sends forth a new one,

Till, after cloying the gazettes with cant,

The age discovers he is not the true one;

Of such as these I should not care to vaunt, 5

I’ll therefore take our ancient friend Don Juan—

We all have seen him, in the pantomime,

Sent to the devil somewhat ere his time,

说来新鲜,我苦于没有英雄可写,

尽管当今之世,英雄是迭出不穷,

年年有,月月有,报刊上连篇累牍,

而后才又发现:他算不得真英雄;

因此,对这些我就不人云亦云了,

而想把我们的老友唐璜来传颂一

我们都看过他的戏,他够短寿,

似乎未及天年就被小鬼给带走。

Vernon, the butcher Cumberland, Wolfe, Hawke,

Prince Ferdinand, Granby, Burgoyne, Keppel, Howe,

Evil and good, have had their tithe of talk,

And fill’d their sign-posts then, like Wellesley now;

Each in their turn like Banquo’s monarchs stalk,

Followers of fame, “nine farrow” of that sow:

France, too, had Buonaparté and Dumourier

Recorded in the Moniteur and Courier.

上一代有弗农,沃尔夫,豪克,凯培,

刽子手坎伯兰,格朗贝,等等将军,

不论好坏吧,总算被人谈论一阵,

像今日的韦尔斯利*1,招牌上也标过名。

阿,这群声誉的奴仆,母猪的崽仔,

都曾昂首阔步,像班柯的帝王之影;*2

同样,法国有个拿破仑和迪穆里埃,

在《导报》、《醒世报》上都赢得了记载。

*1【即惠灵顿公爵】

*2【本句与上一句均采用了《麦克白》的典故】

Barnave, Brissot, Condorcet, Mirabeau,

Petion, Clootz, Danton, Marat, La Fayette,

Were French, and famous people, as we know;

And there were others, scarce forgotten yet, 20

Joubert, Hoche, Marceau, Lannes, Desaix, Moreau,

With many of the military set,

Exceedingly remarkable at times,

But not at all adapted to my rhymes.

法国还有布里索,康多塞,米拉伯,

拉法叶特,培松,克罗茨,丹东,马拉,巴纳夫,

我们知道,他们都是赫赫有名,

此外还有尚未被遗忘的,例如:

朱拜,荷什,马尔索,兰恩,德赛,摩罗,

以及许多军界要角,难以尽述;

他们有一时都非常、非常烜赫,

然而,用在我的诗上却不太适合。

Nelson was once Britannia’s god of war,

And still should be so, but the tide is turn’d;

There’s no more to be said of Trafalgar,

’Tis with our hero quietly inurn’d;

Because the army’s grown more popular,

At which the naval people are concern’d;

Besides, the prince is all for the land-service,

Forgetting Duncan, Nelson, Howe, and Jervis.

纳尔逊一度是大不列颠的战神,

可惜为时不久,就改换了风尚;

特拉法尔加已不再为人提起,

它已和我们的英雄一起埋葬;

因为陆军的声望一天天隆盛,

海军界的人士岂能不受影响,

更何况,我们王子只为陆军撑腰,

把什么邓肯、纳尔逊、豪与杰维斯早已忘掉。

Brave men were living before Agamemnon

And since, exceeding valorous and sage,

A good deal like him too, though quite the same none;

But then they shone not on the poet’s page,

And so have been forgotten:—I condemn none,

But can’t find any in the present age

Fit for my poem (that is, for my new one);

So, as I said, I’ll take my friend Don Juan.

英雄人物何止一个阿加门农,

在他前后,也出过不少俊杰之辈,

虽然英勇像他,却又各有千秋;

然而,只因为不曾在诗篇里留辉,

便被世人遗忘了。一我无意针砭,

但老实说,当代我实在找不到谁

适用于我的诗(就是这新的诗章),

因此,我说过,我就选择了唐璜。【穆旦译,有修正】

拜伦故意将这段诗文写得极其露骨,为的就是将自矜的资本赋予他的读者,让读者们感到自己要比英法两国各个阶层只会无脑爱国的碌碌庸众更加高明。拜伦瞄准了不满社会现状的年青一代,他的目标受众早已听腻了战争故事,受够了整天端着架子的爱国主义。这些年轻人将拜伦的诗歌当成了对抗易怒长辈们的利器,恰似二十世纪七十年代的年轻人利用摇滚歌曲来故意刺激二战世代的长辈们那样。拜伦就是他那个时代的摇滚歌星,而且他也像后世的摇滚歌星一样竭力营造了一套张扬夺目的个人形象。莫非拜伦就是命途多舛的恰尔德.哈洛尔德吗?莫非他就是邪恶的海盗吗?还是说他其实是唐璜呢?拜伦也像自己笔下的反英雄一样游历了欧洲各地,一路上猎艳无数,其中包括几个小男孩——如果传言可信的话,他甚至还对自己的继妹下过手。阴郁不乐、喜怒无常、好勇斗狠、才华横溢——拜伦的作品浸透了他本人的个性,以至于他本人的现实生活与他笔下的虚构作品难舍难分地纠结在了一起。拜伦在自己身上笼罩了一层神话的外衣,直到死都没有脱下。

对于我们来说,拜伦之所以值得研究,是因为他让我们深入了解了当年一部分英国人的心理状态。在漫长的反拿破仑战争终于胜利结束之后,不少英国人都变得更加愤世嫉俗起来。多年战争促使英国施行了所得税制度,致使大量劳工阶层贫民生活越发艰难,还在大小城镇的中心广场上撒满了缺胳膊断腿的乞讨老兵。1811年至1820年之间,在耽于享乐的摄政亲王的率领下,伦敦上层统治集团似乎完全丧失了道德指针。将英国拖进反美战争与反法战争的老国王已经变成了疯子;摄政亲王、日后的乔治四世倒不是疯子,但是在许多臣民眼中他都是个无道昏君。拜伦笔下充满世俗气息与漠然无感的诗文完美契合了这个时代。而且就像后世主打叛逆人设的明星一样,拜伦也是个什么都想要的人。他在谈政治的时候非常严肃,竭力抨击英国政府镇压爱尔兰叛乱的行径,谈到希腊人民反土耳其起义时也总是一脸肃然。但是拜伦还有油腔滑调的另一面,与严肃二字格格不入:

I would to heaven that I were so much clay,

As I am blood, bone, marrow, passion, feeling -

Because at least the past were passed away -

And for the future - (but I write this reeling,

Having got drunk exceedingly today,

So that I seem to stand upon the ceiling)

I say - the future is a serious matter -

And so - for God's sake - hock and soda water!

我向上天乞求,但愿此身是泥土材质,

现在的我一身骨骼、血气、活力和情感,

因为至少过去的一切皆已流逝,

而将来——(但我下笔时地旋天转,

我今天酩酊大醉不省人事

就好像倒立在了天花板)

我说——未来可是非常严肃——

所以——天呐——快给我苏打水和大肘子果腹!【译者不详,有修改】

这也是《唐璜》里的选段——不过这段文字与针对英国政府迫害爱尔兰人民的真诚怒火怎会出自同一位诗人之手呢?在拿破仑战争后期,卡斯尔雷勋爵成为了英国的外交大臣并且分管爱尔兰事务。他也是1798年爱尔兰叛乱遭到血腥镇压的首要责任人。为了痛击此獠,拜伦请出了共和派的老前辈约翰.弥尔顿:

Think'st thou, could he—the blind Old Man—arise

Like Samuel from the grave, to freeze once more

The blood of monarchs with his prophecies

Or be alive again—again all hoar

With time and trials, and those helpless eyes,

And heartless daughters—worn—and pale—and poor;

Would he adore a sultan? he obey

The intellectual eunuch Castlereagh?

请想想,假如那双目失明的老人:

像撒母耳一样,能从坟墓中起来,

再次宣告他的预言,使帝王颤惊;

或者又活在人间,两鬓都已斑白,

受着种种苦难:那绝望的眼睛,

那冷酷的女儿*,贫困,苍老,病衰——

他可会对一个苏丹拜倒?他可会

听命于那心智上的太监卡斯尔雷!

*【拜伦原注:“据说弥尔顿的两个大女儿劫去了他的书,还在家务管理上骗钱和折磨他,等等。身为父亲和学者,他对这种虐待定会感到特别难受。”——王佐良译】

Cold-blooded, smooth-fac'd, placid miscreant!

Dabbling its sleek young hands in Erin's gore,

And thus for wider carnage taught to pant,

Transferr'd to gorge upon a sister shore,

The vulgarest tool that Tyranny could want,

With just enough of talent, and no more,

To lengthen fetters by another fix'd,

And offer poison long already mix'd.

那个粉面、冷血、泰然自若的恶棍!

爱尔兰的血沾满了他光滑的手,

但这只是小试其锋;接着他奉派

到邻邦去满足他大屠戮的胃口。

这是暴政所需的最卑鄙的工具,

除了必要的才干外,再多也没有:

刚够使他添一节别人打的镣铐,

或者给端上早经人配成的毒药。

An orator of such set trash of phrase

Ineffably—legitimately vile,

That even its grossest flatterers dare not praise,

Nor foes—all nations—condescend to smile,

Not even a sprightly blunder's spark can blaze

From that Ixion grindstone's ceaseless toil,

That turns and turns to give the world a notion

Of endless torments and perpetual motion.

还是一个废话连篇的演说家,

鄙陋不堪,却邪恶得头头是道,

连最下流的捧场人都无从恭维,

而敌人——世界万邦——则不屑于一笑;

他的嘴像地狱的磨盘,但迸不出

一星活跃的火花,越出轨外照耀I

好一个磨石,转个不停,磨个不停,

使人懂了无尽的折磨,不息的运行。

A bungler even in its disgusting trade,

And botching, patching, leaving still behind

Something of which its masters are afraid,

States to be curb'd, and thoughts to be confin'd,

Conspiracy or Congress to be made—

Cobbling at manacles for all mankind—

A tinkering slave-maker, who mends old chains,

With God and Man's abhorrence for its gains.

就论那恶心的行业他也很拙劣:

总是修补又修补,事情弄到终了,

还是剩些破绽使主子放心不下,

还有会议得召开,阴谋一再制造,

或思想还得统制,国家还得镇压,

就这样笨拙地为人类钉着镣铐:

迫害奴隶的拙劣工匠,专修旧锁链,

他的每笔生意只招得天怒人怨。【穆旦译,有修正】

如此冰冷的愤怒着实华丽非凡——假如我们能够完全严肃地对待拜伦的话。不过当年的人们对待拜伦的态度并不太认真,尽管他享誉全欧洲;今天的大多数读者也一样。可惜的是,拜伦笔下最优美的爱情诗歌也遭到了同样的待遇:我们对于诗人的个人生活了解得过于透彻——例如我们知道他与情人做爱时特别喜欢肛交爆菊——以至于很难全心全意地品鉴这些诗文的优美之处。熟悉拜伦尿性的读者们要怎样才能不带杂念地欣赏例如《她举步娉婷》(She Walks in Beauty)这样甘甜纯美的诗句呢?

She walks in beauty, like the night

Of cloudless climes and starry skies;

And all that’s best of dark and bright

Meet in her aspect and her eyes;

Thus mellowed to that tender light

Which heaven to gaudy day denies.

她翩然举步,袅娜而娉婷,

恰似晴朗的夜空缀满繁星;

明暗交织绝美合璧的光影,

在她眉眼与面庞之间汇映:

继而融为醇雅柔和的清辉,

那是上苍不予白昼的明媚。

One shade more, one ray less,

Had half impaired the nameless grace

Which waves in every raven tress,

Or softly lightens o’er her face;

Where thoughts serenely sweet express

How pure, how dear their dwelling-place.

多一丝阴影,少一缕光泽,

都有损这难以言表的婀娜,

那是她云鬓青丝间的涟波,

是面颊上柔柔光辉的映射;

丽颜传送温馨恬静的思想,

那是多么纯洁高贵的地方。

And on that cheek, and o’er that brow,

So soft, so calm, yet eloquent

The smiles that win, the tints that glow.

But tell of days in goodness spent,

A mind at peace with all below,

A heart whose love is innocent!

这样的面颊,这样的眉黛,

如此温柔安祥却不失风采,

摄魂的微笑,夺目的神态,

都在述说她一生德善仁爱,

她心态平和,她与世无争,

满怀慈爱的心纯粹而真诚! 【Rhapsodia网友译】


最后于2020-03-15 20:37:43改,共1次;
2020-03-13 05:22:48
2020-03-11 23:28:03
4489725 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`238`25695`188502`正五品下:朝议大夫|宁远将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 浪漫的苦恼4 1

第二代浪漫主义诗人的领军人物是约翰.济慈,他有意识地应和了华兹华斯的风格,与此同时又对前辈的政治立场感到绝望。后来他定居在伦敦北部,与柯勒律治分别住在汉普特斯西斯地区的两边,由此也结识了后者。济慈在二十五岁就英年早逝,认真投入诗歌创作的时间只有六年,生前饱受评论家们的嘲笑。直到维多利亚时代他的风评才转向正面,被人们当成了终极浪漫派,莎士比亚以来最受爱戴的诗人。如果要从社会角度解读济慈的诗歌,关键词是“不安全感”。济慈的父亲是一位马夫,后来改行成为了伦敦某酒馆的店老板。济慈十四岁那年就父母双亡沦为了孤儿,此后一直穷困拮据直至去世。他的第一份工作是行医,在伦敦接受了培训。但是因为决心要成为诗人,他从未正经给别人看过病。能以一言判定诗人声誉的士绅阶层文论家们很不待见济慈,抨击他出身低微,讥讽他不如趁早改行去化学用品商店当伙计。他们觉得他的感性风格低俗冒犯,属于典型的下里巴人风格。此外济慈的政治观点大概也妨碍了他的作品得到时人的接受。他是个激进共和派,尽管从未像好友与对手雪莱那样强烈表达过自己的主张。

对于英国诗歌史而言,济慈的出身背景之所以重要,是因为济慈对于这一切做出的反应。简而言之,他效仿柯勒律治的先例,也构建了一个专属他本人的诗歌世界,一片温柔而又懒散的音韵天地,这片天地将会吸引后世无数青少年。在受教育方面济慈的运气不错,他在一所作风自由的学校念书,老师们鼓励他研读前代诗人的作品。诗歌就此成为了专供济慈独享的替代世界,在这里乔叟、但丁、弥尔顿、斯宾塞与查普曼就像他的同代人一样真切。在济慈眼中,现实世界里的十九世纪初的伦敦充斥着势利眼、贫困与疾病。他并不打算将诗歌作为描述身边世界的工具,而是利用诗歌营造了另一个更高尚、更敏感的世界。他继承了华兹华斯的个人主义与专注自我,并将其推向了更极端的地步。无论如何,他都迷倒了十九世纪与二十世纪的无数诗坛后辈。

济慈的影响之所以如此深远,首先是因为他的技艺娴熟,擅长搭配音律与感受。他的这项本领比其他任何人都更完美。当然他的确英年早逝,他的感情生活也的确很悲剧,但是这并不是后世铭记他的主要原因。他的名声之所以历久弥新,关键还是因为他的笔下功夫了得。以下选取的诗文是长诗《恩底弥翁》(Endymion)的开头第一段。这段文字尽管在济慈生前备受抨击,但却奠定了他的“诗歌超越生命”的信条:

A thing of beauty is a joy for ever:

Its loveliness increases; it will never

Pass into nothingness; but still will keep

A bower quiet for us, and a sleep

Full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing.

Therefore, on every morrow, are we wreathing

A flowery band to bind us to the earth,

Spite of despondence, of the inhuman dearth

Of noble natures, of the gloomy days,

Of all the unhealthy and o'er-darkened ways

Made for our searching: yes, in spite of all,

Some shape of beauty moves away the pall

From our dark spirits. Such the sun, the moon,

Trees old and young, sprouting a shady boon

For simple sheep; and such are daffodils

With the green world they live in; and clear rills

That for themselves a cooling covert make

'Gainst the hot season; the mid forest brake,

Rich with a sprinkling of fair musk-rose blooms:

And such too is the grandeur of the dooms

We have imagined for the mighty dead;

All lovely tales that we have heard or read:

An endless fountain of immortal drink,

Pouring unto us from the heaven's brink.

凡美的事物就是永恒的喜悦:

它的美与日俱增;它永不湮灭,

永不消亡;它永远都会

为我们保留一处幽亭,让我们安睡,

充满了美梦、健康和宁静的呼吸。

于是,每个翌日的清晨,我们编织

绚丽的彩带,把自己跟尘世系牢捆好,

不管失望沮丧,也不管无情之辈如何缺少

高贵的天性,不管愁苦的岁月,

更不管求索途中经历的一切

疾患与晦暗;是的,将所有这些统统抛弃,

某种形式的美终究总会揭去

笼罩我们心灵的黑幕。看那日月升沉,

古木幼树遮蔽着单纯的羊群,

为它们搭起遮荫凉棚;再看水仙摇曳

以及它们生长其间的绿茵世界;

明澈的溪流,为草木提供丝丝凉意

从而抵御炎夏;林中灌木团团集聚

满洒麝香蔷薇的细碎花朵;

伟人的末日也是这样一番结果,

我们想象他们的命运何等壮丽;

这都构成无尽的不朽仙泉,

从天际注入我们的心田。【译者不详,有修改】

这段文字着实令人心醉,但也令读者略感晕眩,隐约暗示济慈并非像他自己期望的那样是一个纯粹的乡间居民。他的田园牧歌描写得并不是百分之百的正宗英国,而是多少带着一丝地中海地区的可疑气息,诗文背后隐隐能看到意大利画家与希腊文人的身影。相比之下约翰.克莱尔才是如假包换的正宗英国乡间住户,而且他显然抱有同样的观点。在克莱尔看来,济慈“往往按照他自己的臆想来描绘自然,而不是按照他亲眼所见的景象——假如他当真见过的话——来描绘自然。”这番批评不能说没有道理,但是并没有把道理说透。以夜莺为例,上一章我们见过了克莱尔如何栩栩如生地描绘真实的夜莺与真实的夜莺巢。相比之下,济慈在《夜莺颂》(Ode to a Nightingale)当中描绘的夜莺则写意得多。根据诗人自述,他是在一位朋友家的花园里听到夜莺鸣叫之后有感而发创作了这首诗:

My heart aches, and a drowsy numbness pains

My sense, as though of hemlock I had drunk,

Or emptied some dull opiate to the drains

One minute past, and Lethe-wards, had sunk;

'Tis not through envy of thy happy lot,

But being too happy in thine happiness ---

That thou, light-winged Dryad of the trees,

In some melodious plot

Of beechen green and shadows numberless,

Singest of summer in full-throated ease.

我的心在痛,困顿和麻木

刺进了感官,有如饮过毒鸠,

又象是刚刚把鸦片吞服,

于是向着列斯忘川下沉:

并不是我嫉妒你的好运,

而是你的快乐使我太欢欣——

因为在林间嘹亮的天地里,

你呵,轻翅的仙灵,

你躲进山毛榉的葱绿和荫影,

放开歌喉,歌唱着夏季。

O, for a draught of vintage! that hath been

Cooled a long age in the deep-delved earth,

Tasting of Flora and the country green,

Dance, and Provencal song, and sunburnt mirth!

O for a beaker full of the warm South,

Full of the true, the blushful Hippocrene,

With beaded bubbles winking at the brim,

And purple-strained mouth;

That I might drink, and leave the world unseen,

And with thee fade away into the forest dim;

哎,要是有一口酒!那冷藏

在地下多年的清醇饮料,

一尝就令人想起绿色之邦,

想起花神,恋歌,阳光和舞蹈!

要是有一杯南国的温暖

充满了鲜红的灵感之泉,

杯沿明灭着珍珠的泡沫,

给嘴唇染上紫斑;

哦,我要一饮而离开尘寰,

和你同去幽暗的林中隐没:

Fade far away, dissolve, and quite forget

What thou among the leaves hast never known,

The weariness, the fever, and the fret

Here, where men sit and hear each other groan;

Where palsy shakes a few, sad, last gray hairs,

Where youth grows pale, and specter-thin, and dies;

Where but to think is to be full of sorrow

And leaden-eyed despairs,

Where Beauty cannot keep her lustrous eyes,

Or new Love pine at them beyond tomorrow.

远远地、远远隐没,让我忘掉

你在树叶间从不知道的一切,

忘记这疲劳、热病、和焦躁,

这使人对坐而悲叹的世界;

在这里,青春苍白、消瘦、死亡,

而“瘫痪”有几根白发在摇摆;

在这里,稍一思索就充满了

忧伤和灰色的绝望,

而“美”保持不住明眸的光彩,

新生的爱情活不到明天就枯凋。

Away! away! for I will fly to thee,

Not charioted by Bacchus and his pards,

But on the viewless wings of Poesy,

Though the dull brain perplexes and retards:

Already with thee! Tender is the night,

And haply the Queen Moon is on her throne,

Clustered around by all her starry fays;

But here there is no light,

Save what from heaven is with the breezes blown

Through verdurous glooms and winding mossy ways.

去吧!去吧!我要朝你飞去,

不用和酒神坐文豹的车驾,

我要展开诗歌底无形羽翼,

尽管这头脑已经困顿、疲乏;

去了!呵,我已经和你同往!

夜这般温柔,月后正登上宝座,

周围是侍卫她的一群星星;

但这儿却不甚明亮,

除了有一线天光,被微风带过,

葱绿的幽暗,和苔藓的曲径。

I cannot see what flowers are at my feet,

Nor what soft incense hangs upon the boughs,

But, in embalmed darkness, guess each sweet

Wherewith the seasonable month endows

The grass, the thicket, and the fruit tree wild;

White hawthorn, and the pastoral eglantine;

Fast-fading violets covered up in leaves;

And mid-May's eldest child,

The coming musk rose, full of dewy wine,

The murmurous haunt of flies on summer eves.

我看不出是哪种花草在脚旁,

什么清香的花挂在树枝上;

在温馨的幽暗里,我只能猜想

这个时令该把哪种芬芳

赋予这果树,林莽,和草丛,

这白枳花,和田野的玫瑰,

这绿叶堆中易谢的紫罗兰,

还有五月中旬的娇宠,

这缀满了露酒的麝香蔷薇,

它成了夏夜蚊蚋的嗡萦的港湾。

Darkling I listen; and, for many a time

I have been half in love with easeful Death,

Called him soft names in many a mused rhyme,

To take into the air my quiet breath;

Now more than ever seems it rich to die,

To cease upon the midnight with no pain,

While thou art pouring forth thy soul abroad

In such an ecstasy!

Still wouldst thou sing, and I have ears in vain ---

To thy high requiem become a sod.

我在黑暗里倾听:呵,多少次

我几乎爱上了静谧的死亡,

我在诗思里用尽了好的言辞,

求他把我的一息散入空茫;

而现在,哦,死更是多么富丽:

在午夜里溘然魂离人间,

当你正倾泻着你的心怀

发出这般的狂喜!

你仍将歌唱,但我却不再听见——

你的葬歌只能唱给泥草一块。

Thou wast not bonr for death, immortal Bird!

No hungry generations tread thee down;

The voice I hear this passing night was heard

In ancient days by emperors and clown;

Perhaps the selfsame song that found a path

Through the sad heart of Ruth, when, sick for home,

She stood in tears amid the alien corn;

The same that ofttimes hath

Charmed magic casements, opening on the foam

Of perilous seas, in faery lands forlorn.

永生的鸟呵,你不会死去!

饥饿的世代无法将你蹂躏;

今夜,我偶然听到的歌曲

曾使古代的帝王和村夫喜悦;

或许这同样的歌也曾激荡

露丝忧郁的心,使她不禁落泪,

站在异邦的谷田里想着家;

就是这声音常常

在失掉了的仙域里引动窗扉:

一个美女望着大海险恶的浪花。

Forlorn! the very word is like a bell

To toll me back from thee to my sole self!

Adieu! the fancy cannot cheat so well

As she is famed to do, deceiving elf.

Adieu! adieu! thy plaintive anthem fades

Past the near meadows, over the still stream,

Up the hilside; and now 'tis buried deep

In the next valley glades.

Was it a vision, or a waking dream?

Fled is that music --- Do I wake or sleep?

呵,失掉了!这句话好比一声钟

使我猛醒到我站脚的地方!

别了!幻想,这骗人的妖童,

不能老耍弄它盛传的伎俩。

别了!别了!你怨诉的歌声

流过草坪,越过幽静的溪水,

溜上山坡;而此时,它正深深

埋在附近的溪谷中:

噫,这是个幻觉,还是梦寐?

那歌声去了:——我是睡?是醒?【穆旦译】

读者们大概必须承认,这首诗并没有描写现实当中的英国,但是诗文的绚烂瑰丽却远远超越了克莱尔能够企及的上限。再举个例子,下面这首诗是克莱尔的《致秋天》(To Autumn),笔者窃以为这首诗堪称技法娴熟且观察细致的杰作:

The thistledown's flying, though the winds are all still,

On the green grass now lying, now mounting the hill,

The spring from the fountain now boils like a pot;

Through stones past the counting it bubbles red-hot.

静悄悄的风中,蓟絮飘过,

落在草地上,荡到小山坡,

喷泉的水像一壶刚沏的热茶,

翻着气泡从卵石间流下。

The ground parched and cracked is like overbaked bread,

The greensward all wracked is, bents dried up and dead.

The fallow fields glitter like water indeed,

And gossamers twitter, flung from weed unto weed.

干裂土地似一块焦黄的烧饼,

耷拉的干草,没有生命的草坪,

闪闪的犁沟,幻觉的水槽,

细细的蛛丝,悬挂在干草枯蒿。

Hill-tops like hot iron glitter bright in the sun,

And the rivers we're eying burn to gold as they run;

Burning hot is the ground, liquid gold is the air;

Whoever looks round sees Eternity there.

骄阳下的山包,似一个个烧红的熨斗,

眼前的小河,像熔化的金属慢慢地流,

炽热的土地,滚烫的空气,

放眼四野,无边无际。【木草堂网友译】

笔者承认,“娴熟”二字说得还是不够公道。单就技法而言这首诗的工整程度在英语作品当中可谓首屈一指。但是常言说不怕不识货就怕货比货,下面是济慈的《秋颂》(Ode to Autumn):

Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness,

Close bosom-friend of the maturing sun;

Conspiring with him how to load and bless

With fruit the vines that round the thatch-eves run;

To bend with apples the moss'd cottage-trees,

And fill all fruit with ripeness to the core;

To swell the gourd, and plump the hazel shells

With a sweet kernel; to set budding more,

And still more, later flowers for the bees,

Until they think warm days will never cease,

For summer has o'er-brimm'd their clammy cells.

雾气洋溢、果实圆熟的秋,

你和成熟的太阳成为友伴;

你们密谋用累累的珠球,

缀满茅屋檐下的葡萄藤蔓;

使屋前的老树背负着苹果,

让熟味透进果实的心中,

使葫芦胀大,鼓起了榛子壳,

好塞进甜核;又为了蜜蜂

一次一次开放过迟的花朵,

使它们以为日子将永远暖和,

因为夏季早填满它们的粘巢。

Who hath not seen thee oft amid thy store?

Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may find

Thee sitting careless on a granary floor,

Thy hair soft-lifted by the winnowing wind;

Or on a half-reap'd furrow sound asleep,

Drows'd with the fume of poppies, while thy hook

Spares the next swath and all its twined flowers:

And sometimes like a gleaner thou dost keep

Steady thy laden head across a brook;

Or by a cyder-press, with patient look,

Thou watchest the last oozings hours by hours.

谁不经常看见你伴着谷仓?

在田野里也可以把你找到,

弥有时随意坐在打麦场上,

让发丝随着簸谷的风轻飘;

有时候,为罂粟花香所沉迷,

你倒卧在收割一半的田垄,

让镰刀歇在下一畦的花旁;

或者.像拾穗人越过小溪,

你昂首背着谷袋,投下倒影,

或者就在榨果架下坐几点钟,

你耐心地瞧着徐徐滴下的酒浆。

Where are the songs of spring? Ay, Where are they?

Think not of them, thou hast thy music too,—

While barred clouds bloom the soft-dying day,

And touch the stubble-plains with rosy hue;

Then in a wailful choir the small gnats mourn

Among the river sallows, borne aloft

Or sinking as the light wind lives or dies;

And full-grown lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn;

Hedge-crickets sing; and now with treble soft

The red-breast whistles from a garden-croft;

And gathering swallows twitter in the skies.

啊.春日的歌哪里去了?但不要

想这些吧,你也有你的音乐——

当波状的云把将逝的一天映照,

以胭红抹上残梗散碎的田野,

这时啊,河柳下的一群小飞虫

就同奏哀音,它们忽而飞高,

忽而下落,随着微风的起灭;

篱下的蟋蟀在歌唱,在园中

红胸的知更鸟就群起呼哨;

而群羊在山圈里高声默默咩叫;

丛飞的燕子在天空呢喃不歇。【穆旦译】

就像刚才一样,这首诗写得绝对不是英国的乡村,而是全然不同的另一种乡村——济慈描绘的是心境当中的乡村,是看待生命状态的一道视线,是一处由他创造并且永远与读者同在的想象世界。这样看来,济慈之所以能迷倒这么多后世诗人也就不难理解了。


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2020-03-11 23:28:03
4489895 复 4489725
桥上
3 想起了百草园
2020-03-12 02:46:13
2020-03-10 23:27:32
4488986 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`238`25695`188502`正五品下:朝议大夫|宁远将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 浪漫的苦恼3 1

华兹华斯毕生的挚友、对手以及战友是来自德文郡的塞缪尔.泰勒.柯勒律治。就像华兹华斯一样,柯勒律治早年也是个革命派,一度曾计划前往美国宾夕法尼亚州建立一个互助社区,借此逃避英国生活的规范与限制。与华兹华斯不同,柯勒律治的诗歌极少涉及政治。但是一旦涉及了政治,他的笔锋甚至要比华兹华斯更加凶残。十八世纪九十年代末正值小皮特政府掌权,这届政府向法国保皇派在旺底发动的叛乱提供了军事支持并且导致了血腥的后果。柯勒律治为此创作了《烈火、饥荒与屠杀:战争牧歌》(Fire, Famine and Slaughter: A War Eclogue)一诗。在以下选段当中,屠杀告诉自己的两位好姐妹烈火与饥荒,是皮特首相打发她过来的:

Slau: He came by stealth, and unlocked my den,

And I have drunk the blood since then

Of thrice three hundred thousand men.

Both: Who bade you do it ?

Slau: The same! the same !

Letters four do form his name.

He let me loose, and cried Halloo!

To him alone the praise is due.

Fam: Thanks, sister, thanks! the men have bled,

Their wives and their children faint for bread.

I stood in a swampy field of battle ;

With bones and skulls I made a rattle,

To frighten the wolf and carrion-crow

And the homeless dog--but they would not go.

So off I flew: for how could I bear

To see them gorge their dainty fare ?

屠:他鬼鬼祟祟地前来,解锁了我的房门,

然后我就开怀痛饮,鲜血不离唇,

份量足足有三倍的三十万人。

烈/饥:谁下的命令?

屠:还是他!还是他!

那个四字母的名字着实堪夸!*

他释放我大杀四方,还高呼干的真棒!

所有的赞美都要归于他的头上!

饥:谢谢姐妹!让人流血滔滔,

他们的妻儿纷纷晕厥,因为吃不上面包。

我站在血泥遍地的战场,

将白骨踢得咯啦啦作响,

却吓不退食腐的乌鸦与饿狼

以及无家的野犬——只想填饱肚肠。

我只得赶紧飞走,实在不忍直视

这帮大嚼的食客吃相多么雅致!

*【既皮特(Pitt)】

柯勒律治的笔锋一发而不可收——尽管日后他向小皮特首相表示了歉意。这首诗的批判范围还进一步覆盖了1797年叛乱之后英国政府针对爱尔兰的野蛮镇压。这一次开腔的是烈火:

Fire: Sisters! I from Ireland came!

Hedge and corn-fields all on flame,

I triumph'd o'er the setting sun!

And all the while the work was done,

On as I strode with my huge strides,

I flung back my head and I held my sides,

It was so rare a piece of fun

To see the sweltered cattle run

With uncouth gallop through the night,

Scared by the red and noisy light!

By the light of his own blazing cot

Was many a naked Rebel shot:

The house-stream met the flame and hissed,

While crash! fell in the roof, I wist,

On some of those old bed-rid nurses,

That deal in discontent and curses.

烈:姐妹们!我来自爱尔兰!

我将树篱与玉米地全都点燃!

太阳落山后,我还在将天地照亮,

我干起活来任凭谁也赶不上,

我甩开双腿向前迈出大步,

昂首挺胸开辟出一条道路;

这么搞笑的乐子实属罕见,

眼看入夜后的牛群吓得乱窜,

粗笨的牛蹄蹬踏彻夜响个不停,

哔啵响的火光把它们吓得不行!

多少反贼的床铺也难免熊熊燃烧,

他们未及穿衣蔽体就被一枪报销:

房前溪水遇到火焰,烧得滋滋怪叫

与此同时屋顶塌落!我知道

屋顶下躺着好些老妪常年卧床,

她们临死前的咒骂多么凄惶。

柯勒律治对于华兹华斯的影响很深。两人一度都曾与革命激情密不可分,此外柯勒律治也华兹华斯一样有些不适应生活环境。日后他在闭塞的农村地区自行隐居了下来,这样做是谨慎之举。在交通基础设施尚不发达的那个时代,他们眼中的英国想必远比今天更为广大,当时的偏远地区也肯定远比今天更令人感到偏远。在《午夜霜》(Frost at Midnight)一诗中,柯勒律治将读者们带回了很久以前德文郡的一个暗夜,并且邀请大家蜷坐在他与熟睡的子女身边休息片刻:

The Frost performs its secret ministry,

Unhelped by any wind. The owlet's cry

Came loud—and hark, again! loud as before.

The inmates of my cottage, all at rest,

Have left me to that solitude, which suits

Abstruser musings: save that at my side

My cradled infant slumbers peacefully.

'Tis calm indeed! so calm, that it disturbs

And vexes meditation with its strange

And extreme silentness. Sea, hill, and wood,

This populous village! Sea, and hill, and wood,

With all the numberless goings-on of life,

Inaudible as dreams! the thin blue flame

Lies on my low-burnt fire, and quivers not;

Only that film, which fluttered on the grate,

Still flutters there, the sole unquiet thing.

Methinks, its motion in this hush of nature

Gives it dim sympathies with me who live,

Making it a companionable form,

Whose puny flaps and freaks the idling Spirit

By its own moods interprets, every where

Echo or mirror seeking of itself,

And makes a toy of Thought.

寒霜履行着它的秘密使命,

不借助半丝风力。小枭的叫声很尖厉

——听,又来了!跟上次一样。

我住的村舍里,大家全都安静了,

把我留给了寂寞,寂寞,适宜于

更深的沉思:只是,在我的身旁,

我的婴儿在襁褓里安然酣睡着。

真安静!安静到这样,竟然能干扰、

能打断我的冥想,由于那奇怪的、

极度的岑寂。大海,山岳,树木,

人烟稠密的村庄!海岳,森林,

人世间无穷无尽的纷纭扰攘,

梦一样悄无声息!淡蓝的轻焰

倚着将尽的炉火,一动也不动;

只有那飘在炉栅上面的淡烟,

仍然袅动着,是惟一不知安静的。

无声的宇宙间,只有它在运动,而我

依然清醒,它恰好与我相伴,

也许在暗地里与我交流感情,

闲游的精灵按照自己的心态

解释淡烟的飘动和奇形怪状,

到处寻觅自己的回声和映像,

凭遐想而逸兴遄飞。 【屠岸译】

至少在较短的一个时期内,柯勒律治与华兹华斯的关系可谓焦不离孟,以至于我们几乎不可能分清究竟是谁对谁的影响更大。但是柯勒律治不容于世界的疏离感至少也像湖畔诗人一样强烈。在笔者看来,《消沉:一首颂歌》(Dejection:an Ode)表明柯勒律治对于这种感受的表达更高一筹。笔者刚才提到过,柯勒律治的诗歌当中的政治倾向并不像华兹华斯那样显著。但是浪漫主义疏离感本身就是一种政治观点,在海涅与舒伯特这样的欧陆激进派身上同样能够得见。对于艺术家来说,疏离就意味着拒绝接受事物的既成状态:

A grief without a pang, void, dark, and drear,

A stifled, drowsy, unimpassioned grief,

Which finds no natural outlet, no relief,

In word, or sigh, or tear—

O Lady! in this wan and heartless mood,

To other thoughts by yonder throstle woo'd,

All this long eve, so balmy and serene,

Have I been gazing on the western sky,

And its peculiar tint of yellow green:

And still I gaze—and with how blank an eye!

And those thin clouds above, in flakes and bars,

That give away their motion to the stars;

Those stars, that glide behind them or between,

Now sparkling, now bedimmed, but always seen:

Yon crescent Moon, as fixed as if it grew

In its own cloudless, starless lake of blue;

I see them all so excellently fair,

I see, not feel, how beautiful they are!

My genial spirits fail;

And what can these avail

To lift the smothering weight from off my breast?

It were a vain endeavour,

Though I should gaze for ever

On that green light that lingers in the west:

I may not hope from outward forms to win

The passion and the life, whose fountains are within.

一种无疼痛的痛苦,空虚,黑暗,枯郁,

一种窒息,昏倦,无激情的痛苦,

在言辞,叹息,或泪水中无法寻到

天然的出路,也无解脱—

哦,女士!在这苍白而麻木的心境中,

远方的画眉招来了另一种思绪,

整个漫长的黄昏,宜人又安详,

一直以来我凝望着西边的天空,

以及它黄绿色的奇异色调:

此刻我仍在凝望—用一种木然的眼神!

还有上空这些薄薄的云,成块成缕,

他们为星星乍现自己的形姿;

那些星星,在云后或云间滑翔,

时而闪耀,时而昏糊,但总是可见:

那边新月牢牢固定,仿佛它

生长于自己无云无星的蓝湖;

我看到它们全部极其善美,

我看到,而非感受到它们多么美丽!

我的精神天生衰颓;

还有什么能帮助

从我胸口掀开这块令人窒息的重负?

这是徒劳的努力,

尽管我应永远凝望

那道流连西天的绿色光芒:

我或许不该求助外界的光景

去赢得源自内心的热情与生命。【L网友译】

与华兹华斯不同,柯勒律治应对疏离感的方式是创造完全属于自己的世界。首次出版于《歌谣集》的《古舟子咏》(The Rime of the Ancient Mariner)与1797年创作的幻觉诗歌《忽必烈汗》(Kubla Khan)都以各自的方式反映了世纪之交的现实英国。惊险的航海故事与中国的探索传说在当时的英国很流行,但是柯勒律治却借助宛如魔法的音律掌控力将这两者都转换成了质地更丰富、气质更诡异的另类存在。以下诗章节选自前者,描绘了海上航船被诅咒魇住动弹不得之后的景象。即便对于当时最聪明最有知识的头脑来说,这个世界依然充满了神秘与威胁:

All in a hot and copper sky,

The bloody Sun, at noon,

Right up above the mast did stand,

No bigger than the Moon.

“正午血红的太阳,高悬在

灼热的铜黄色的天上,

正好直射着桅杆的尖顶,

大小不过像一个月亮。

Day after day, day after day,

We stuck, nor breath nor motion;

As idle as a painted ship

Upon a painted ocean.

“过了一天,又是一天,

我们停滞在海上无法动弹;

就像一幅画中的航船,

停在一幅画中的海面。

And the Albatross begins to be avenged.

Water, water, every where,

And all the boards did shrink;

Water, water, every where,

Nor any drop to drink.

“水呵水,到处都是水,

船上的甲板却在干涸;

水呵水,到处都是水,

却没有一滴能解我焦渴。

The very deep did rot: O Christ!

That ever this should be!

Yea, slimy things did crawl with legs

Upon the slimy sea.

“大海本身在腐烂,呵上帝!

这景象实在令人心悸!

一些长着腿的粘滑的东西,

在粘滑的海面上爬来爬去。

About, about, in reel and rout

The death-fires danced at night;

The water, like a witch's oils,

Burnt green, and blue and white.

“到了夜晚死火出现在海上,

在我们四周旋舞飞扬;

而海水好似女巫的毒油,

燃着青白碧绿的幽光。【译者不详】

《古舟子咏》与《忽必烈汗》的重要性不只在于它们是两首最伟大的英国幻想诗歌,而且还在于它们将会激励一代代后世诗人去营造属于自己的、同样光怪陆离的幻想世界,通过语言来逃避城市化、商业化且单调无聊的十九世纪英国生活现实。不过谁也赶不上柯勒律治的水平:

In Xanadu did Kubla Khan

A stately pleasure-dome decree:

Where Alph, the sacred river, ran

Through caverns measureless to man

Down to a sunless sea.

忽必列汗在上都曾经

下令造一座堂皇的安乐殿堂:

这地方有圣河亚佛流奔,

穿过深不可测的洞门,

直流入不见阳光的海洋。

So twice five miles of fertile ground

With walls and towers were girdled round:

And there were gardens bright with sinuous rills,

Where blossomed many an incense-bearing tree;

And here were forests ancient as the hills,

Enfolding sunny spots of greenery.

有方圆五英里肥沃的土壤,

四周给围上楼塔和城墙:

那里有花园,蜿蜒的溪河在其间闪耀,

园里树枝上鲜花盛开,一片芬芳;

这里有森林,跟山峦同样古老,

围住了洒满阳光的一块块青草草场。

But oh! that deep romantic chasm which slanted

Down the green hill athwart a cedarn cover!

A savage place! as holy and enchanted

As e'er beneath a waning moon was haunted

By woman wailing for her demon-lover!

但是,啊!那深沉而奇异的巨壑

沿青山斜裂,横过伞盖的柏树!

野蛮的地方,既神圣而又着了魔--

好象有女人在衰落的月色里出没,

为她的魔鬼情郎而凄声嚎哭!

And from this chasm, with ceaseless turmoil seething,

As if this earth in fast thick pants were breathing,

A mighty fountain momently was forced:

Amid whose swift half-intermitted burst

Huge fragments vaulted like rebounding hail,

Or chaffy grain beneath the thresher's flail:

And 'mid these dancing rocks at once and ever

It flung up momently the sacred river.

巨壑下,不绝的喧嚣在沸腾汹涌,

似乎这土地正喘息在快速而猛烈的悸动中,

从这巨壑里,不断迸出股猛烈的地泉;

在它那断时续的涌迸之间,

巨大的石块飞跃着象反跳的冰雹,

或者象打稻人连枷下一撮撮新稻;

从这些舞蹈的岩石中,时时刻刻

迸发出那条神圣的溪河。

Five miles meandering with a mazy motion

Through wood and dale the sacred river ran,

Then reached the caverns measureless to man,

And sank in tumult to a lifeless ocean:

And 'mid this tumult Kubla heard from far

Ancestral voices prophesying war!

迷乱地移动着,蜿蜒了五英里地方,

那神圣的溪河流过了峡谷和森林,

于是到达了深不可测的洞门,

在喧嚣中沉入了没有生命的海洋;

从那喧嚣中忽必列远远听到

祖先的喊声预言着战争的凶兆!

The shadow of the dome of pleasure

Floated midway on the waves;

Where was heard the mingled measure

From the fountain and the caves.

It was a miracle of rare device,

A sunny pleasure-dome with caves of ice!

安乐的宫殿有倒影

宛在水波的中央漂动;

这儿能听见和谐的音韵

来自那地泉和那岩洞。

这是个奇迹呀,算得是稀有的技巧,

阳光灿烂的安乐宫,连同那雪窟冰窖!【屠岸译】


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