主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

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O Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 27 万年看客 字9830 2018-06-10 22:11:29
O 革命2 4 万年看客 字17879 2020-01-22 04:06:07
O 九,革命1 4 万年看客 字17626 2020-01-17 04:22:48
..O 粮食产量跑赢人口,殊为不易 桥上 字0 2020-01-17 23:42:33
O 理性时代以及奴隶与污秽等等7 1 万年看客 字20398 2020-01-15 20:28:17
O 理性时代以及奴隶与污秽等等6 1 万年看客 字21241 2020-01-09 02:21:31
..O 那位都柏林女士是英格兰人还是爱尔兰人? 桥上 字42 2020-01-09 23:10:05
...O 凯尔特语族 4 瓷航惊涛 字463 2020-01-18 00:57:08
...O 苏格兰语 6 宝特勤 字222 2020-01-10 12:04:08
...O 我知道有苏格兰口音 5 万年看客 字154 2020-01-10 01:30:55
O 理性时代以及奴隶与污秽等等5 1 万年看客 字15548 2020-01-01 22:18:55
O 理性时代以及奴隶与污秽等等4 1 万年看客 字22701 2019-12-25 05:14:26
..O forefathers似不应译为父老 1 桥上 字33 2019-12-25 23:17:46
O 理性时代以及奴隶与污秽等等3 1 万年看客 字17405 2019-12-23 22:11:14
O 理性时代以及奴隶与污秽等等2 1 万年看客 字14333 2019-12-18 20:51:30
2018-06-10 22:11:29
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万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25498`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
1 Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 27

在村镇之外有一片沼地。一个温暖的夜晚,一名欲火烧心的孤独男子正在沼地里徘徊,口中念叨着抑扬顿挫的词句。一段段旋律正在他的脑海里翻腾,他搜索枯肠想要为这些旋律配上歌词。他心心念念想要歌颂的是一位同村姑娘——一位他高攀不上的姑娘。

几百年后,另一名男子感到自己辜负了上帝,即将面对不灭的地狱之火。但是此人性情和善,总觉得上帝不可能像教会长老们宣扬的那样冷酷无情。于是他抄起一杆鹅毛笔,展开一卷粗纸,饱蘸墨水,写下了一段专供他本人念诵的祷文。他在动笔的时候口中同样哼唱着曲调。

再接下来是一名深陷地牢的女性,严刑拷打致使她遍体鳞伤无处不痛。她正在向一位衣着寒酸的教士口述一段大逆不道的反诗,主题是抗拒权威。

像这样的女性还会有很多。她们当中有些人处境优渥,端坐在彩绘玻璃窗户之后,室内铺陈着御寒的毛皮;也有些人处境贫苦,生活在二十世纪的伦敦,膝下儿女嗷嗷待哺,负心渣男一去不归。像这样的男性更是远远更多,他们当中既有爱尔兰的神秘主义者也有苏格兰的农夫,既有西部郡县的教士也有沃里克郡的演员。所有这些男男女女都投入了同一项事业:根据韵律组织词语,将每一行语句都像疾驰赛艇上的索具那样牢牢绷紧,将蕴藏在英语当中蔓生滋长的魔力发挥到极致,构建出一台又一台结构紧凑、轰鸣不止、充满意义的袖珍语言引擎。

专攻远古时期的考古学家告诉我们,音乐与旋律出现在语言与字词之前。面对着周遭环伺的黑暗与危险,部落萨满们总会带头起舞,增强部落的凝聚力,彰显无畏的精神。为了保持舞蹈节奏,自然免不了要哼唱、歌唱乃至喊叫。不知多少世代之后,开始有人将歌声与词语结合在一起。要想理解诗歌的起源,不妨看看配备合唱团与面具的古希腊早期悲剧。

在这片名为不列颠的群岛上,我们所知的最早得到诵读与讨论的诗歌出自古罗马的拉丁语诗人之手。诚然,青铜时代的不列颠土著部落——他们已经拥有了相当高超的技术,他们当中既有农夫也有金属匠人,还有矿工与商人——不太可能一首诗歌也没创作过。但是无论他们创作过怎样的诗句,如今都早已散佚失传了。但是罗马治下的不列颠也将会孕育她自己的维吉尔与马提亚尔,以及众多能与古希腊人比肩的诗人。苏塞克斯的街头将会有人举办诵诗大会,短小精悍的荤口打油诗也会在哈德良长城的士兵之间广泛传扬。

随着一轮轮的外来入侵与本土抗击,随着一轮轮的成败交替与疆土易手,英国的种族构成逐渐变成了另一番模样。海外的入侵者操着一口日耳曼语言,不列颠本土的抵抗者则使用掺杂拉丁单词的凯尔特语言,双方的冲撞孕育了英语的前身。在语言学层面上,不列颠群岛恰似一口沸腾不止的大釜,各种配料在接下来几百年间逐一下锅——古挪威语,法语,意大利语,西班牙语,印度语乃至阿拉伯语——最终烹煮出锅的大杂烩则是全世界范围最广、弹性最强的语言。一代代英国人将会使用这种语言来抒发内心最深处最真挚的情感,抒发他们在人世间的喜乐、热爱与恐惧。绝大多数人类文化都有一枝独秀之处,受到其他文化的仰慕。倘若德国没了音乐家,意大利没了画家与建筑师,他们的国家形象与国民认同将会受到怎样的打击呢?英国的音乐传统远不如俄国或者德国那样底蕴深厚,英国的建筑远不如罗马或者巴黎那样生机勃发,英国的世界观远不如古典中国那样自成一体。与上述主要文明圈子相比,英国人的足以自傲之处在于我们具有全世界最丰富、最可观、最一以贯之的诗歌传统。“鸣禽巢窠”(nest of singing birds)的地位至今依然是英国历史成就的核心——在笔者看来,甚至就连日不落帝国的构建或者科学领域的大跃进在这一成就面前也只能甘拜下风。

本书的用意在于以英国诗歌为框架,讲述一首不一样的史诗。通过诗歌以及诗人们的生平来探寻身为英国人的感受。成千上万名英国人都曾通过书信、绘画、各类艺术品、手机短信、电子邮件乃至社交网络更新内容留下过坦露心迹的线索。然而诗歌却是另一回事。诗歌是人类迄今为止发现过的最亲密、最直接的沟通方式。当诗歌打动读者时——诚然,打不动读者的二流诗歌远比一流优秀诗歌多得多——诗歌总能以无与伦比的烈度直指人心。即便身在二十一世纪,我们依然会因为莎士比亚笔下麦克白弑君灭友的心路历程而莫名震撼,负疚感与绝望在麦克白心中的层层覆压依然会看的我们喘不上气来。记录文献固然能告诉我们一战战场多么惨烈,但是为了获得身临其境的感受,我们首先会将目光投向诗人而不是电影工作者,甚至在今天也是这样。这些都是显而易见的例子。与短信、电子邮件乃至电视节目不同,诗歌能让我们与另一个时空的人们直接交谈,无需借助他人传话。无论是中世纪的农夫还是乔治王时期的心碎女性都能直视我们的眼睛。

在2015年写下这段序言的时候,笔者十分清楚“英国”这个词如今具有怎样的争议含义。笔者的许多苏格兰同乡都远远更希望笔者撰写一部专注于苏格兰诗歌的作品——苏格兰诗歌也确实会在本书当中占据大量篇幅。不过无论读者们是否满意,近几年来英格兰的声音确实越发响亮了。许多当代史学家都毫无愧怍地采取了以英格兰为核心的叙事立场,而就在一二十年之前他们还会不假思索地采用“不列颠”这个词。

不过假如笔者接下来仅仅局限于英格兰地区的诗歌,那么难免陷入困境。所谓的“英格里斯”语言(Inglis)早在中世纪初期就已经在苏格兰南部扎根了。甚至就连颂扬罗勃特一世国王的爱国主义史诗所使用的语言也更贴近如今被我们称作英语的萨克逊语-法语混合物而不是苏格兰当地的盖尔语。苏格兰最伟大的诗人们——威廉.邓巴,罗伯特.亨利森,加文.道格拉斯,罗伯特.费格生,罗伯特.彭斯,沃尔特.斯科特以及休.麦克迪尔米德——都留下了不少英语作品。尽管二十世纪有不少本土作家都打定主意要重新拾起古代苏格兰风格的英语,这些愣头愣脑的苏格兰人依然是英格兰人的表亲。其他凯尔特国家的情况也是一样:要想谈论英国诗歌,怎么能漏掉斯威夫特、叶芝与狄兰.托马斯呢?

本书无意挑动地域之争。从古至今,英伦群岛上的居民们有过很多大体一致的共同经历。维京人的登陆地点分布在在不列颠海岸线的周遭各处,他们的定居点更是无处不在,包括奥克尼与设得兰群岛,都柏林与曼恩岛,高尔半岛,约克郡以及英格兰东部大部地区。宗教改革的烈火不仅烧遍了苏格兰,也烧遍了英格兰。瘟疫、农业变革与战争都不会特意绕过英伦群岛上的特定地区或者族群。大部分身为英国人的体验都是共通的,笔者有意彰显这一点。同时笔者也希望尽量体现英国不同地域的特色。

笔者很清楚,在英伦群岛上出现过很多并非用英语创作的伟大诗歌。苏格兰历来都有盖尔语诗歌传统,爱尔兰也有爱尔兰语诗歌传统,威尔士吟游诗人同样佳作颇多。诚然,这些作品大都口口相传,作者身份晦涩不清。但这并不是将这些诗作排除在外的理由。因此只要有机会,笔者就会引入非英语诗歌的英语译文。笔者当然希望能够多包括几首这样的诗歌,但是千百年来的霉菌与雨水导致文稿朽烂并不是笔者的责任。使用译文的另一个原因在于笔者不想让当代读者过于头痛——假如没有译文,读者们大概领会不了早期盎格鲁-萨克逊诗歌,包含大量方言用语的诗歌,以及少数几段拉丁语诗歌。

有些人认为二十一世纪是诗歌复兴的时代,也有些人认为诗歌艺术在二十一世纪已经走上了绝路。在笔者看来,这两种说法从古至今始终相伴相生,也始终各有道理。问题的根源在于读者们如何听取诗歌。如今我们大多数人都要通过印刷品来接触诗歌,尽管我们在幼年时期也曾听过不少节律分明的童谣。诗歌与写作历来密不可分,但是诗歌在历史上往往是一门口头艺术,诉诸于听觉而不是视觉。即便在今天依然有很多诗人坚持不出版诗集,仅仅在本人亲自出面的诗友会上朗读作品。因此广播电台作为当代最主要的口语传播媒介也就成了传扬这部史诗的最理想渠道。接下来大家将要读到的内容将会在2015年10月8日全国诗歌日当天占据BBC广播电台4频道,硬生生插进新闻与天气预报之间的每一寸空隙。创作于千年之前的诗篇将会在这一天再次响彻全国。

本书囊括了许多最伟大的英国诗歌,其中有好几首诗名不见经传,实在可惜得很。笔者希望本书有助于我们重新思考自己的来处与现在的境遇。笔者诚挚邀请各位读者一起踏上这段旅程,充分体味这一路上的惊喜与振奋,以及偶尔发作的茫然若失。


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通宝推:非鱼,九霄环珮,桥上,决不倒戈,mezhan,
2018-06-10 22:11:29
2020-01-22 04:06:07
4464888 复 4344063
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万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25498`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 革命2 4

威廉.布莱克的确是扭转十八世纪英国诗歌发展路线的伟大革命艺术家之一,但是像他一样满腔怒火的诗人还有很多。这些人或许比布莱克更传统,但是笔锋却与他一样直接,比方说以“彼得.品达”为笔名,生性好斗且下巴硕大的讽刺诗人约翰.威尔科特。在他的《皇家巡游》(The Royal Tour)一诗中,威尔科特毫不留情地描绘了乔治三世国王的丑态,就连国王的口吃毛病都没放过。在维茅斯的海滨,国王与王后遇到了一位没有腿的乞丐,此人曾经是皇家海军的一名水手:

A Sailor pops upon the Royal Pair,

On crutches borne, an object of despair :

His squalid beard, pale cheek, and haggard eye,

Though silent, pour for help a piercing cry.

一名水手在御驾面前露头,

腋下夹着双拐,满脸尽是哀愁:

胡子肮脏,脸颊苍白,眼窝深陷,

虽然沉默,却在将求救声尖利呼唤。

“Who, who are you? What, what? hae, what are you?”

"A man, my Liege, whom kindness never knew."

"A sailor, sailor, hae? you've lost a leg."

"I know it, Sire; which forces me to beg.

I've nine poor children, Sir, besides a wife ;

God bless them ! the sole comforts of my life."

“你、你、你是谁?想、想、想干什么?”

“是个苦命人,陛下,人间的善意我从没尝过。”

“你是个水、水、水手?哈?看你少了腿脚。”

“诚然如此,陛下,因此我只得上街乞讨。

我有九个子女,陛下,还有一个老婆;

上帝保佑他们!离了他们我也不想活。”

“Wife and nine children, hae? all, all alive?

No, no, no wonder that you cannot thrive.

Shame, shame, to fll your hut with such a train!

Shame to get brats for others to maintain!

Get, get a wooden leg, or one of cork:

Wood's cheapest; yes, get wood, and go to work.

But mind, mind, Sailor; hae, hae, he? hear, hear :

Don't go to Windsor, mind, and cut one there:

That's dangerous, dangerous ; there I place my traps ;

Fine things, fine things, for legs of thieoing chaps.

Best traps, my traps: take care; they bite, they bite,

And sometimes catch a doxen legs a night.”

“一个老婆九个娃?哈?还都、都、都活着?

难、难、难怪你这日子没法过。

丢、丢、丢人啊,生这么多还不是你的错!

自己下的崽还好意思让别人去养活!

找,找,找条木腿,软木就不错,

那玩意最便宜;然后赶紧去工作。

但是小、小、小心点水手,你可要踢、踢、踢——听好:

可别去温莎森林将木材寻找。

那里危、危、危险,我将捕兽夹布置在林地,

专攻窃贼的双腿,多么精、精、精密。

最好的夹子,我的夹子;它们满嘴尖、尖、尖牙,

有时一晚上就能把十几条腿留下。”

水手解释道自己身无分文,买不起假肢,而且他是在忠君卫国的战场上丢掉了腿,但是国王对此无动于衷:

“How, Sailor, did you lose your leg? hae, hae?"

“I lost it, please your Majesty, at sea,

Hard fighting for my Country and my King.”

“Hae, what? that's comon, very common thing.

Hae! lucky fellow, that you were not drill'd:

Some lose their heads, and many men are kill'd.

......

Must not encourage vagrants; no, no, no :

Must not make laws, my lad, and break 'em too.

Where, where's your parish, hae ? and where's your pass?

Well, make haste home: I've got, I've got no brass.”

“水手,你如何丢了腿?咦?咦?”

“我这条腿是为了报效君王,在海上失去,

为了国家与国王,我也曾英勇奋战。”

“哦,然后呢?这事又不算稀、稀、稀罕。

哈,你运气不错,不要太不知足:

多少人丢了性命,多少人掉了头颅。

……

不能纵容流浪汉,不,不,不。

既然制定了法律,就不能不管不顾。

你的教区在哪里?啊?你从哪里来?

立刻回家去;别找我施、施、施舍钱财。”

这段诗文的犀利程度足以与二十世纪的任何反战诗歌相提并论,也比今天的当代诗歌更加大胆露骨。但是即便像威尔科特这样的激进派也越发不乐意在明面上支持海峡对面法国大革命的恐怖局面。他在《断头台礼赞》(Hymn To The Guillotine)一诗当中反话正说地表明了自己的立场:

Daughter of Liberty! whose knife

So busy chops the threads of life,

And frees from cumbrous clay the spirit;

Ah! why alone shall Gallia feel

The beauties of thy pond'rous steel?

Why must not Britain mark thy merit?

自由的女儿!你手提宝剑

终日忙着将生命的线绳斩断,

让精神从肉体泥胎当中解脱,

为何只有高卢才有幸领教

你的千钧钢刀多么美妙?

英国为什么不能把你的事迹述说?

Hark! 'tis the dungeon's groan I hear;

And lo, a squalid band appear,

With sallow cheek, and hollow eye!

Unwilling, lo, the neck they bend;

Yet, through thy pow'r, their terrors end,

And with their heads the sorrows fly.

听!地牢里传来阵阵呻吟;

看!肮脏的死囚列队走出牢门,

看他们两腮蜡黄,眼窝深陷!

他们不情不愿,只顾低头看地,

你的力量即将终结他们的恐惧,

让他们与脑袋和忧愁说再见。

O let us view thy lofty grace;

To Britons shew thy blushing face,

And bless Rebellion's life-tir'd train!

Joy to my soul! she's on her way,

Led by her dearest friends, Dismay,

Death, and the Devil, and Tom Paine!

啊,请让我们一睹你的万丈光芒;

向英国人彰显你的鲜红面庞,

祝福叛逆者的厌世列阵!

我灵魂的喜乐!她正在往英国赶,

头前开路的是她的挚友凄惨,

死亡,魔鬼,还有托马斯.潘恩!

潘恩与威廉.布莱克其实颇有私交,而且也受到了英国激进派的广泛追捧。他的思想与著作成为了美国与法国两场大革命的催化剂,也被许多穷极思变的英国人视为至宝。约瑟夫.马瑟是一名谢菲尔德的产业工人,生在声名悦耳的吐泻巷。他是一名卫理会信徒,平日爱好作词谱曲。此人将《天佑吾王》的歌词加以修改,当成了献给潘恩的赞歌:

God save great Thomas Paine,

His ‘Rights of Man’ explain

To every soul.

He makes the blind to see

What dupes and slaves they be,

And points out liberty,

From pole to pole.

天佑托马斯.潘恩,

天赋人权令人

心明眼亮。

他让盲人看见

他们为奴受骗,

要让自由传遍

大地四方。

Thousands cry ‘Church and King’

That well deserve to swing,

All must allow:

Birmingham blush for shame,

Manchester do the same,

Infamous is your name,

Patriots vow.

说甚“教会君王”

话说得多漂亮,

活该嫌弃:

伯明翰无地自容,

曼彻斯特脸通红,

你的称号恶名隆:

爱国主义。

Pull proud oppressors down,

Knock off each tyrant's crown,

And break his sword;

Down aristocracy,

Set up democracy,

And from hyprocrisy

Save us good Lord.

压迫者要打倒,

暴君王冠敲掉,

宝剑折断;

要推翻大贵族,

建立民主制度,

驱散虚伪迷雾,

上帝明鉴。

Why should despotic pride

Usurp on every side?

Let us be free:

Grant Freedom's arms success,

And all her efforts bless,

Plant through the universe

Liberty's Tree.

骄傲暴君因何

四处布下网罗?

莫受束缚:

愿自由常得胜,

凡事都能成功,

普天下尽栽种

自由之树。

Facts are seditious things

When they touch courts and kings,

Armies are raised,

Barracks and bastilles built,

Innocence charged with guilt,

Blood most unjustly spilt,

Gods stand amazed.

事实多么可怕,

君王一旦觉察,

燃起烽烟,

建工事把营扎,

无辜者被残杀,

不义鲜血泼洒,

害理伤天。

Despots may howl and yell,

Though they're in league with hell

They'll not reign long;

Satan may lead the van,

And do the worst he can,

Paine and his ‘Rights of Man’

Shall be my song.

暴君歇斯底里,

早晚要下地狱,

统治不长;

纵然魔鬼在前,

将恶事都干完,

潘恩与“天赋人权”

我定弘扬。

身为产业工人的马瑟亲眼见证了工业革命早期阶段怎样用人命换发展,因此很有理由怒火中烧。他的另一首反自然诗歌直接将自己的家乡称作“乌黑的谢菲尔德”:

Where slowly down the vale a river runs,

Of dark complexion like its crooked sons;

In a fair country, stands a filthy town,

By bugs and butchers held in high renown;

Sheffield the Black - in ugliness supreme;

Yet ugly Sheffield is my dirty theme.

一条河流在山谷里流淌缓慢,

比起曲折支流脸色同样黑暗;

这国家虽美,这城镇却稀烂,

虫子与屠夫都将这里交口称赞;

乌黑的谢菲尔德——丑陋天下无双,

特此献上脏歌一曲,为了丑陋的家乡。

Ah, luckless he, who in unhappy hour

Is doomed to walk our streets beneath the shower,

No friendly spout from the projecting paves,

The copious tribute of the clouds receives,

But headlong from the roof, in sooty showers,

Prone on the hapless passenger it pours.

While on our moonless evenings, dark and damp,

Imprudent thrift denies the public lamp

And many a dunghill graces many a street.

倒霉的家伙,实在太不幸,

要在雨中的本地街道行进。

突出的屋檐,汇聚恶意的水柱,

来自漫天乌云的慷慨礼物,

裹挟着屋顶上的层层煤灰

灌注在行人头顶,多么悲催。

没有月亮的夜晚又黑又潮,

节俭的当局不肯将路灯点着,

多少粪堆点缀在多少街头。

Whole streams of rubbish and whole seas of mud;

With turnip tops, potato peelings join,

And to their cast garments, peas and beans combine,

Providing pigs and ducks with goodly cheer;

To pigs and ducks our streets are ever dear,

May no audacious scavenger presume to wield the rake, the shovel or the broom

河一样的垃圾,海一样的烂泥,

撒一层芜菁叶子,加一把土豆皮。

大豆小豆的豆荚也赶来搅局。

猪猡与鸭子都觉得这些街道很好,

猪猡与鸭子都能在街头吃饱。

惟愿没有莽撞的拾荒者前来挥耙抡铲使扫帚。

今天的读者往往更习惯借助狄更斯、恩格斯以及其他维多利亚时代作家的视角来观察英国工业革命早期的人间地狱,但是这幅地狱惨状早在十八世纪末就已经有目共睹了。鞋匠兼教师詹姆斯.伍德豪斯在《科里品纳斯.斯克里布勒斯的生平与钻研》(The Life and Lucubrations of Crispinus Scriblerus)当中对于伯明翰与胡弗汉顿描写就十分栩栩如生:

IN parts, through prospects scattered far and near,

Pale-glowing gleams and fickering flames appear,

Like new volcanoes mid deep darkness nursed,

From cooking coals in ruddy brilliance burst;

While smoky curls in thickening columns rise,

Obscure the landscapes and involve the skies.

Still, as the sanguine blaze, beneath, ascends,

And deepening blushes with heav'n's vapours blends,

Diffusing all around red, lurid light,

And paint in part the negro-cheeks of Night,

Deep, sullen sounds through all the region roll,

Shocking with groans and sighs each shuddering soul!

放眼看去,在或远或近的各处场所

全都是苍白的微光与跳动的炉火,

恰似新生的火山在黑暗深处蕴藏,

生火做饭的煤块发出赤红的光芒;

浓密的烟柱蜿蜒着向上攀升,

模糊了地面景色,遮蔽了天空。

血色的火光从下向上升起,

滚滚浓烟与云朵混在一起,

反射了落日的艳红光芒,

照亮了夜幕的黑色脸庞。

深沉阴郁的声音传遍了这片土地,

多少颤抖的灵魂正在唉声叹气!

像这样描写城市景物的文字在当时并不少见,不过接下来伍德豪斯还进一步绘声绘色地描写了蒸汽机运作的场景:

Here clanking engines vomit scalding streams,

And belch vast volumes of attendant steams,

There thundering forges, with pulsations loud

Alternate striking, pierce the pendant cloud;

While to these distant hills, respiring slow,

Furnaces' iron lungs loud-breathing blow,

Breaking abrupt on Superstition's ear,

And shrink the shuddering frame with shivering fear:

Obtruding on the heart, each heaving breath,

Some vengeful fiend, grim delegate of Death!

铿锵的蒸汽机呕吐出滚烫水流,

打个饱嗝又喷出大团白雾浓稠,

雷鸣般的锤炼,悸动的震耳欲聋,

此起彼伏的锻打声刺破头顶云层;

在遥远的群山间,缓慢的喘息,

熔炉的铁肺响亮地吸气呼气。

骤然发作的声响,迷信的耳朵不得不听,

吓得他们蜷缩颤抖,止不住胆战心惊。

侵入他们的心房,每一声粗重的喘息,

恶毒的恶魔,死亡的铁面先驱!

以上诗文或许并不算多么精致优美,但是倘若没有这些来自工业革命第一线的报道,我们很难充分理解威廉.布莱克究竟在反对什么。当然,并非每一位新兴工业城市的居民都对工业化感到骇然,许多人都创作了颂扬工业化的作品。詹姆斯.比塞特来自苏格兰的珀斯,十三岁那年来到伯明翰,成为了一名搪瓷制品画师。他挣了不少钱,多年后买下了一栋大屋,还开设了伯明翰第一座美术馆。他的长诗《众神游历伯明翰》(Ramble of the Gods Through Birmingham)极力铺陈了这座城市的活力与财富:

THEY visited our WHARFS, and, wond' ring, found

Some thousand tons of COAL piled on the ground,

And scores of boats, in length full sixty feet,

With loads of mineral fuel, quite replete;

Whilst carts, and country wagons, fill'd each space,

And loaded teams stood rang' d around the place.

The GODS behold the whole with great surprise,

And ask'd,‘from whence we gain'd such large supplies?'

祂们拜访了码头,一个个啧啧称奇,

上千吨的煤堆占满了这里的地皮;

六十英尺长的大船足有几十条,

每一条都装载满了矿石燃料;

马车与乡下牛车多么拥挤,

满载的车队包围了这里。

见此情景,众神都十分意外,

“这么多物资究竟从何处来?”

各位神祇接下来参观了化工厂、别针厂、纽扣厂、枪械厂、腰带扣厂以及玩具厂。与激进派不同,比塞特很乐意见到女工与童工在工厂里辛勤劳动,在他看来这一幕很能振奋精神:

Inventions curious, various kinds of toys,

Then occupied the time of men and boys,

And blooming girls at work were often seen,

That twice their ages joined was scarce fifteen,

Sent by their parents out their bread to seek,

Who'd earn, perhaps, some shillings in a week;

And many women, too, you then might see,

With children on the lap, or round the knee,

An honest livelihood intent to gain,

And their sweet infant race help to maintain.

Charmed with the sight, the Gods the whole reviewed,

And seemed with admiration quite subdued.

新奇的发明与各种玩具,

将男子与男童的时间占据,

常能见到幼女在此打工卖力,

岁数翻一倍也不过十四五的年纪。

父母打发她们来到这里自食其力,

每周她们或许能将若干先令拿去;

在这里你还能见到许多妇女,

孩子们守在身边,或者躺在她们怀里。

她们在这里挣一份正经生计,

将怀中甜美婴儿的生机延续。

众神将工厂情景看了个饱足,

一个个充满敬佩,无不心悦诚服。

今天的读者们生活在一个将童工二字视作洪水猛兽的社会,因此以上诗文肯定会令他们大为惊骇,尤其是因为写下这段文字的诗人显然具备敏锐的观察力,并不是什么糊涂蛋。布莱克的观点自然与比塞特大相径庭。他在著名诗作《扫烟囱的男孩》当中悲叹了未成年烟囱清洁工的命运。来自北汉普顿郡的玛丽.阿尔科克也写过同样主题的诗文,题为《烟囱工的申诉》(The Chimney-Sweeper's Complaint):

A chimney-sweeper's boy am I:

Pity my wretched fate!

Ah, turn your eyes; 'twoud draw a tear,

Knew you my helpless state.

我是个通烟囱工的学徒:

可怜我悲惨的命运!

啊,转过脸去流下泪水,

你可知我无助境遇。

Far from my home, no parents I

Am ever doomed to see;

My master, should I sue to him,

He'd flog the skin from me.

远离我的家,我的父母

再也无缘与我相见;

我的师父,若我胆敢央求,

定要抽得我皮开肉绽。

Ah, dearest madam, dearest sir,

Have pity on my youth;

Though black, and covered o'er with rags,

I tell you naught but truth.

各位亲爱的太太先生,

请可怜我的年幼;

尽管满面黝黑,衣衫破烂,

我的话却绝无虚构。

My feeble limbs, benumbed with cold,

Totter beneath the sack,

Which ere the morning dawn appears

Is loaded on my back.

我四肢纤细,在冷风中麻木,

在麻袋底下摇摇晃晃,

每天早晨曙光未显之前

麻袋就要压在我的背上。

My legs you see are burnt and bruised,

My feet are galled by stones,

My flesh for lack of food is gone,

I'm little else but bones.

我的双腿尽是烧伤瘀伤,

我的双脚被石头划破,

饥饿消磨了我的血肉,

除了骨头就不剩什么。

Yet still my master makes me work,

Not spares me day or night;

His 'prentice boy he says I am,

And he will have his right.

可是师父还要逼我干活

没日没夜不得休息;

他说我是他的学徒,

他非要让我使尽力气。

'Up to the highest top', he cries,

'There all out chimney-sweep!'

With panting heart and weeping eyes,

Trembling I upwards creep.

“爬到最高处!”他吼道,

“快上去将烟囱打扫!”

心跳加快,两眼流泪,

我哆嗦着挪动手脚。

But stop! no more -- I see him come;

Kind sir, remember me!

Oh, could I hide me underground,

How thankful should I be!

可是不能再写了——我看见他过来;

好先生,千万别把我忘记!

啊,要是我能在地底下藏身,

那可多么谢天谢地!


通宝推:桥上,
最后于2020-01-22 22:17:00改,共2次;
2020-01-22 04:06:07
2020-01-17 04:22:48
4463095 复 4344063
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万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25498`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 九,革命1 4

十八世纪后半期到十九世纪初的英国经历了一系列深刻的经济与社会冲击,所有这些冲击共同组成了一场自上而下的革命。英伦三岛的外观在这一时期改头换面,英国人的生活方式也发生了激烈变化,他们的生活地点以及他们与世界其他地区的关系更是大不同于过往。好比化学反应一样,这一现象需要多种元素与力量的共同参与。这些元素与力量已经存在了很久,如今突然交汇在了一起。对于诗歌而言影响最大的第一因素在于英国农村的变革。自从古代以来,英国的耕作体制都是开放式农田与公共牧场,土地上没有篱笆或者树篱划分成的格子,由传统社区耕种。共用土地与地皮外延都是常态。自从中世纪以来,一部分土地开始沦为私人财产并且被圈起来,这一现象在都铎时期尤其显著。但是直到十八世纪后半叶,《公有地围圈法》才真正开始激烈转变英国农村的面貌。自古以来的生态系统遭到了驯化与缩减,工业革命则得到了施展拳脚的充裕空间。土地的生产力随即突飞猛进,远比过去更少的农业人口打下了远比过去更多的粮食。

更加精细的轮耕机制,芜菁与苜蓿的引入,犁与打井机械的改良,高产粮食品种的推广——谁能反对此类进步呢?在1700年到1800年之间,英国小麦、大麦、燕麦以及黑麦的平均亩产量翻了一番。更多的粮食意味着更多的人口,因此英国人口在这一百年间也将近翻了一番。十八世纪初英国人口约为580万人。从历史视角来看这个数字还算正常,与中世纪全盛时期(比方说1350年前后)或者内战开始之前相比相差不大。然后农业革命带来的廉价粮食开始推高人口,在十八世纪末上升到了差一点不到900万人。以今天的标准来看这个数字依然小的很,但是当时的人们肯定感到了极大的不同。

人们感到变化显著的另一大原因在于英国人口的分布也发生了变化。英国境内有多条曲折且利于航行的水道,英国的地下则埋藏着丰富的煤、铁与其他矿产。工业革命最初的势头很不起眼,发生在相对偏远的地点,伦敦方面花了很长时间才注意到这一全新的历史趋势。但是早在十八世纪二十年代,德比就出现了水力纺纱工厂。1712年,托马斯.纽科门在康沃尔发明了常压蒸汽机,之后不久就在黑乡得到应用,用来为当地煤矿排水。1709年,什罗普郡的煤溪谷开始应用以焦炭为燃料的高炉。北汉普顿在1743年建立了动力纺纱工厂。就这样,一项项技术革新相互触发,促成了越来越快的变革。工业化所必需的劳动力离开了日益封闭且面目全非的农村,来到新兴的工厂与城市寻找工作。伦敦、伯明翰、特伦特河畔斯托克、曼城以及格拉斯哥都成为了人口流动的终点站。到了十八世纪中期,工业化已经污染了英国头顶的大片天空,而且依然还在疯狂加速。

更多的粮食,更多的机器,更多的人口,更多的物质财富。与此同时英国强大的海军力量意味着全新的商品从中国、印度以及美洲与加勒比海殖民地源源不断地输入了英国本土。甘蔗为英国人提供了廉价且容易上瘾的卡路里来源,茶叶、咖啡、瓷器与烟草等等充满异域风情的轻奢商品也纷纷前来捧场。就这样,没有得到任何政治家或者政党的刻意领导,没有得到任何哲学家的事先指点,英国人一个猛子就投入了名为资本主义的人类行为全球变革当中。

这一过程的感觉怎么样呢?普通英国人对此有什么想法呢?一切变革都会带来威胁,这一次的变革尤其威胁到了千百万人。在农村,古老的生活方式行将告终。在城市,全新的贫民阶层日益膨胀。科技进步带来了全新的工作岗位,然后这些岗位又会在一夜之间悉数消失。尽管全新的奢侈品与财富正在源源不断地注入英国社会,空气当中依然飘荡着革命的危险气息。别忘了,最早提出“天赋人权”这句政治口号的人既不是北美革命者也不是法国雅各宾派,而是家住英格兰的托马斯.潘恩。对于威斯敏斯特与皇家法院的政治精英们来说,新近风靡一时的所谓“民主”理念简直是最为可怖的威胁,一旦应对失当就会导致人头滚滚落长街的血腥局面。

不过对于许多诗人来说,尤其是对于那些英国文学史上最显赫的局外人们来说,这股变革的狂风绝对令人精神振奋。话说至此我们肯定会想起年轻的华兹华斯——尽管到了晚年他会蜕变成一名坏脾气的托利党——革命精神洋溢的雪莱,以及性情激动的青年济慈。事实上这一时期绝不仅仅只有这三位诗人擅长炽烈尖锐的文笔,英国文坛的激进转向也发生在华兹华斯倾心于法国革命风潮之前。头脑火热且缺乏耐心的变革呼声可以追溯到几十年前的基督教废奴文学。在本章当中,笔者打算开拓一下讨论范围,研究一下所谓的英国革命派。

我们首先来看一下最和善且最迷人的一位革命派诗人。威廉.布莱克早在孩提时分就在幻觉当中见到了上帝的面容,毕生当中还屡次见过天使显灵的异象——有一次天使显灵之际他恰好正与妻子在自家花园里裸体对坐坦诚相见。他是许多英国激进派的友人,终其一生都在反对工业化与压迫。从小到大他都是个敏感且激情四溢的人,而且始终在思考一个高于一切的问题:除了单纯的白描与记录之外,艺术家还应当怎样应对一个飞速变化的世界呢?更进一步,倘若这位艺术家已经无法像乔治.赫伯特与约翰.弥尔顿那样依靠传统的诗歌与宗教工具来进行创作,又该怎么办呢?布莱克是蚀刻师与画匠出身,没有接受过当时的精英教育。他对这个问题的回答是创建了一套属于自己的宇宙学体系。他排斥了牛顿的科学与洛克的理性,转而投向了五光十色令人目眩的个人愿景。布莱克认为人类的先祖是一位名叫阿尔比恩的原人,此人分裂成了四种相互敌对的道德个性。他从弥尔顿、圣经以及他本人所理解的英国古代神话与德鲁伊信仰当中广泛取材,创作了一批隐喻复杂的诗歌,时至今日依然没能得到彻底的理解与解读。或许这些诗歌本来就不该得到彻底理解。

布莱克不仅创作了许多英语文学当中情感最激烈、内涵最丰富的诗歌,还留下了许多栩栩如生的异象诗,后者对一般读者的吸引力要小得多,但是的确很值得细细品味。这其中水准最高的一首是1793年的《阿尔比恩女儿们的梦幻》(Visions of the Daughters of Albion),诗中的女主角奥松刚刚出场不久就惨遭强奸。这首诗对于美洲寄予厚望,认为新大陆或许能成为自由的源泉,帮助人们摆脱英国社会的虚伪、残忍与贪婪。此外这首诗很可能还受到了此前一年英国女权先锋玛莉.渥斯顿克雷福特发表的《女权的辩护》一文的影响。只要瞥一眼这首诗就能清楚看到布莱克多么厌恶他所处的时代,从儿童教育的方式到生活各方面的商业化再到乡间生活的面目全非。教士与地主一个个捞得脑满肠肥,榨取得全都是农民血汗:

Does not the great mouth laugh at a gift, and the narrow eyelids mock

At the labour that is above payment? And wilt thou take the ape

For thy counsellor, or the dog for a schoolmaster to thy children?

Does he who contemns poverty, and he who turns with abhorrence

From usury feel the same passion, or are they movèd alike?

How can the giver of gifts experience the delights of the merchant?

How the industrious citizen the pains of the husbandman?

How different far the fat fed hireling with hollow drum,

Who buys whole corn-fields into wastes, and sings upon the heath!

How different their eye and ear! How different the world to them!

With what sense does the parson claim the labour of the farmer?

What are his nets and gins and traps; and how does he surround him

With cold floods of abstraction, and with forests of solitude,

To build him castle and high spires, where kings and priests may dwell;

你没看见巨大的嘴在为礼物而笑?狭隘的眼睑

在嘲笑超然于报酬的劳动?难道你会用猿

作你的顾问?请狗作你孩子的教师?

那谴责贫困之人,与厌恶地弃绝

高利贷的人可会感受相同,或者行动一致?

礼物的给予者怎能体验到商人的快乐?

勤劳的市民怎能体验到农民的痛苦?

被豢养肥胖的狗腿子们敲着空洞的大鼓

他买下整片小麦地使之荒芜,又在荒野上歌唱;

他们的眼与耳何等地不同,世界对于他们多么地两样!

牧师索取农夫的劳动时心中是什么感觉?

他用什么作罗网、圈套和陷阱?他怎样用

抽象的冰冷洪流围住自己,怎样用孤寂之林

为自已建造国王和神父享用的城堡和高塔?【张炽恒译,有修改】

诗中的另一个主要批判对象是宗教虚伪与性观念压抑,女性在这方面受害尤其严重。布莱克相信,盛行于他这个时代的英国的男女关系范式看似规矩,其实却只会滋生淫欲并且败坏真爱,而且婚姻制度还会将此等扭曲变态传递给英国的下一代:

Must chilling, murderous thoughts obscure

The clear heaven of her eternal spring; to bear the wintry rage

Of a harsh terror, driv’n to madness, bound to hold a rod

Over her shrinking shoulders all the day, and all the night

To turn the wheel of false desire, and longings that wake her womb

To the abhorrèd birth of cherubs in the human form,

That live a pestilence and die a meteor, and are no more;

Till the child dwell with one he hates, and do the deed he loathes,

And the impure scourge force his seed into its unripe birth,

Ere yet his eyelids can behold the arrows of the day?

难道令人心寒的凶杀之念,定要

遮蔽她那永恒之春的明净天空;为了承受令人发狂的

严酷而恐怖的冬日风暴,定要整天把棍棒

高举在她绻缩的身体上方,定要整夜地

转动虚假欲望之轮,转动那唤醒她子宫的渴望的轮子,

使她将可怖的基路伯塞进人形生产出来,

这婴孩生如瘟疫,死若流星,归于寂灭;

他与自己所恨的人同居,违心地行事,

不洁的鞭子迫使他的种子化作死胎,

而他的眼睑还来不及看见晨光之箭?【张炽恒译,有修改】

这首诗的结尾华丽地否定了“事物的现状”并且主张了人类生命的美丽与神圣。这一主题是一切布莱克作品的根本基调。这段文字蕴含的活力与激情足以与弥尔顿相媲美:

Does the sun walk, in glorious raiment, on the secret floor

Where the cold miser spreads his gold; or does the bright cloud drop

On his stone threshold? Does his eye behold the beam that brings

Expansion to the eye of pity; or will he bind himself

Beside the ox to thy hard furrow? Does not that mild beam blot

The bat, the owl, the glowing tiger, and the king of night?

The sea-fowl takes the wintry blast for a cov’ring to her limbs,

And the wild snake the pestilence to adorn him with gems and gold;

And trees, and birds, and men behold their eternal joy.

Arise, you little glancing wings, and sing your infant joy!

Arise, and drink your bliss, for everything that lives is holy!

难道太阳穿着辉煌的服装漫步在隐秘的地板上,

看冷情的吝啬鬼撒着金币;难道灿烂的云霞

漫游在他的石头门槛上?难道他的眼睛能看见

给怜悯之眼开拓眼界的光线;难道那柔光未曾

点染蝙蝠、猫头鹰、神采奕奕的虎和夜之王?

海鸭避入寒冷的疾风来遮盖自己的身体;

凶野的蛇避入瘟疫中,用黄金和宝石来打扮自己;

树木、禽、兽和人,看到自己永恒的欢愉。

升起吧,你小小的闪亮的翅膀,歌唱你童稚的欢乐!

升起吧,畅饮你的狂喜,一切生物皆神圣!【张炽恒译】

布莱克真正赖以成名的作品是短诗,不过与他笔下更难读的叙事长诗相比,这些短诗就好比零切碎割的边角料,尽管同样熠熠生辉。短诗当中包含着格局较小但同样能量充沛的道德宇宙,不过这些诗歌类似于某种宣传品,刻意要让读者心神不宁。以下诗文题为《一棵毒树》(A Poison Tree):

I was angry with my friend;

I told my wrath, my wrath did end.

I was angry with my foe:

I told it not, my wrath did grow.

我对朋友有怨气,

我发雷霆,但事后平息。

我对仇人很愤怒,

我闷心中,则成树一株。

And I watered it in fears,

Night and morning with my tears:

And I sunned it with smiles,

And with soft deceitful wiles.

然后我就起早贪黑,

带着恐怖给它浇泪水,

接着用微笑当日光,

再施一些花招和伎俩。

And it grew both day and night.

Till it bore an apple bright.

And my foe beheld it shine,

And he knew that it was mine.

它日日夜夜在长高,

一颗金苹果挂上了枝梢。

我的仇人贼眼盯着它闪烁,

他知道那苹果属于我。

And into my garden stole,

When the night had veiled the pole;

In the morning glad I see;

My foe outstretched beneath the tree.

伸手不见五指之夜晚,

他悄悄溜进了我的果园。

大清早我得意地看到,

仇人躺树下僵直了手脚。【木草堂网友译】

类似的例子还能找出一大堆,但是有两首布莱克的诗歌尤其以最不同寻常的方式钻进了英国人的集体意识深处。第一首自然是《老虎》(The Tyger)。这首诗在自然选择理念刚刚开始酝酿时问世,通篇洋溢着对于造物神工的惊叹。另一方面,诗人也对同一位造物主同时创造了残忍与辉煌而感到大惑不解。《老虎》出自《天真与经验之歌》这部诗集,而天真与经验在这个堕落的世界当中历来难解难分:

TIGER! Tiger! burning bright

In the forests of the night

What immortal hand or eye

Could frame thy fearful symmetry?

老虎!老虎!辉煌灿烂,

烧穿了深夜的林莽黑暗,

怎样超凡的神通手眼

造就了你这身可怕的矫健?

In what distant deeps or skies

Burnt the fire of thine eyes?

On what wings dare he aspire?

What the hand dare seize the fire?

怎样遥远的深海高天

烧出了你眼中的烈焰?

插什么翅膀祂竟敢凌空?

凭什么手段抓一把火种?

And what shoulder and what art

Could twist the sinews of thy heart?

And when thy heart began to beat

What dread hand and what dread feet?

怎样的臂膀,怎样的锻炼,

竟能为你拧出一股股心腱?

等到你的心脏开始蹦跳,

怎样骇人的手,怎样骇人的脚?

What the hammer? what the chain?

In what furnace was thy brain?

What the anvil? What dread grasp

Dare its deadly terrors clasp?

怎样的铁链?怎样的铁锤?

怎样的洪炉锻打出你的脑髓?

怎样的铁砧?怎样的铁臂?

竟敢攥住这致命的恐怖伟力?

When the stars threw down their spears

And water'd heaven with their tears

Did He smile His work to see?

Did He who made the lamb make thee?

待到群星纷纷掷下金枪,

千万滴泪水洒遍了穹苍,

大功告成之际,祂可曾会心一笑?

莫非那造了羔羊的竟也将你创造?

Tiger! Tiger! burning bright

In the forests of the night

What immortal hand or eye

Dare frame thy fearful symmetry?

老虎!老虎!辉煌灿烂,

烧穿了深夜的林莽黑暗,

怎样超凡的神通手眼

造就了你这身可怕的矫健?【卞之琳、郭沫若等译】

 

第二首诗自然是《耶路撒冷》(Jerusalem)。这首诗是诗人讨伐工业化与道德腐败的檄文。搞笑的是,通过后世女性投票权活动家们的传唱,这首诗不知怎的就成为了英国保守派的非官方主题歌。布莱克在天有灵,肯定会对这一结果感到既可笑又骇然。这首诗的本意是针砭时弊,是针对社会现状的讨伐而非颂扬:

And did those feet in ancient time

Walk upon England's mountains green?

And was the holy Lamb of God

On England's pleasant pastures seen?

且问那些远古时代的步履

可曾踩踏英格兰山脉间的葱绿?

且问谁曾目睹至圣的耶稣

在英格兰这片令人愉快的牧地?

And did the Countenance Divine

Shine forth upon our clouded hills?

And was Jerusalem builded here

Among these dark Satanic mills?

且问那圣者之容光

可曾照耀我们的阴霾山巅?

且问耶路撒冷可曾建于此

在暗黑的撒旦磨坊之间?

Bring me my bow of burning gold:

Bring me my arrows of desire:

Bring me my spear: O clouds unfold!

Bring me my chariot of fire.

拿来我的熔金之弓,

拿来我的欲望之箭,

拿来我的矛:噢,乌云尽散!

拿来我的战车散播烈焰。

I will not cease from mental fight,

Nor shall my sword sleep in my hand

Till we have built Jerusalem

In England's green and pleasant land.

我不会停歇这意念之战,

掌中宝剑亦不会休眠,

在我们将耶路撒冷建成于在

葱绿惬意的英格兰土地之前。【苑眉网友译,有修改】


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2 理性时代以及奴隶与污秽等等7 1

到了下一章我们还要重点介绍布莱克。但是在此之前我们还要再接触一位重要的十八世纪诗人。此人就像斯玛特一样也受到精神疾病的困扰,并且在福音派基督教当中找寻到了慰藉。本章节此前介绍的诗歌全都各成一家,其中有些恶搞了英雄体裁,有些表达了对于优雅姿态的强烈渴望,有些彰显了细致入微的白描功夫,有些体现了深切的宗教感情,还有些抒发了对于乡村生活的热爱。可是有没有这样一位诗人能将所有这些套路融为一体呢?在蒲柏的时代已经过去了两代人之后,有没有这样一位诗人能够担当时代精神的化身呢?确实有一位威廉.柯珀应声出列。此人一副神经紧张的样子,但却有着于无声处摧枯拉朽的性格。

柯珀是一位杰出的学生,也是一位求不得的心碎情郎,平生曾经三次自杀未遂。最终他在白金汉郡奥尔尼镇安顿下来并且得到了朋友们的关怀。他在奥尔尼遇到了曾经的黑奴商人、如今的皈依基督徒以及《奇异恩典》的词作者约翰.牛顿,并在其影响下投入了废奴运动。废奴是本时期英国诗歌的一大主题,从丹尼尔.笛福到汉娜.摩尔再到恢复自由的前尼日利亚黑奴奥拉达.艾奎亚诺都创作过涉及这方面的诗歌。但是柯珀围绕这一主题创作的诗歌却比任何其他人的作品都更加优美且怒火中烧。他的同情心比蒲柏更重,或许也因此而更受折磨。他很理解节律、清新文笔以及固定套路对于遏制恐惧维持理智的重要性,并且在这方面竭尽了全力。他是个用心的听众,也是可靠的女性伴侣。他热爱动物,而且热衷于针砭时弊。但是在所有这一切表象之下他并不快乐,因为他总是难以自抑地觉得自己即将永坠地狱。正如前文所见,十八世纪是英国的海洋时代,而柯珀则觉得大海是一个无所不在且饱含威胁的比喻。他以大海为题创作了最著名的一首赞美诗《上主作为何等奥秘》(God moves in a mysterious way),这首诗深刻揭露了英国人的集体意识:

God moves in a mysterious way

His wonders to perform

He plants His footsteps in the sea

And rides upon the storm

上主作为何等奥秘,行事伟大神奇;

海洋之中有其足迹,驾御风暴飞驰。

Deep in unsearchable mines

Of never failing skill

He treasures up His bright designs

And works His sovereign will

上主大能深不可测,历来有成无败,

珍藏各种奇妙设计,由他意旨主宰。

Ye fearful saints, fresh courage take

The clouds you so much dread

Are big with mercy and shall break

In blessings, on your head

圣徒应当鼓勇振奋,不怕天空多云;

云中深藏慈爱怜悯,化为恩雨降临。

Judge not the Lord by feeble sense

But trust Him for His grace

Behind a frowning providence

He hides a smiling face

莫凭感觉臆断上主,一心靠主恩典;

愁云惨雾隐密之处,有主仁慈笑脸。

His purposes will ripen fast

Unfolding every hour

The bud may have a bitter taste

But sweet will be the flower

上主用意迅速成熟,时刻向人彰显。

花蕾或许味道苦涩,鲜花多么香甜。

Blind unbelief is sure to err

And scan His work in vain

God is His own interpreter

And He will make it plain

盲目不信导致错误,观察却不领悟;

惟神自己洞悉其工,向人启发显明。

在另一首更伟大的诗作《落水者》(The Castaway)当中,柯珀做出了一个可怖的比喻。当时海军上将乔治.安森在航行期间有一位水兵不慎落水失踪,柯珀将这一事件与他本人在心理与宗教层面漂泊无着的感受联系了起来。这首诗淋漓尽致地表达了新教个人主义对诗人的影响。这种宗教感受对于蒲柏来说想必十分陌生:

Obscurest night involved the sky,

The Atlantic billows roared,

When such a destined wretch as I,

Washed headlong from on board,

Of friends, of hope, of all bereft,

His floating home forever left.

最晦暗的夜幕笼罩了苍穹,

四面八方都是大西洋的吼声,

一位像我这样命中注定的可怜虫,

被巨浪从甲板上扫到了海中。

失去朋友,失去希望,一切都被夺去,

远离了海上家园,再也回不去。

No braver chief could Albion boast

Than he with whom he went,

Nor ever ship left Albion's coast,

With warmer wishes sent.

He loved them both, but both in vain,

Nor him beheld, nor her again.

阿尔比恩再没有如此勇敢的船长

陪同他一起出海经受磨炼,

离开阿尔比恩的船只全都赶不上

这条船承载的温暖祝愿。

他热爱船长与船,但两者均是徒劳,

船长无处寻觅,船也再见不着。

Not long beneath the whelming brine,

Expert to swim, he lay;

Nor soon he felt his strength decline,

Or courage die away;

But waged with death a lasting strife,

Supported by despair of life.

他并未长久被无边咸水淹没,

因为他水性极佳,漂在海面;

他也并未很快感到体力衰弱,

他的勇气并未消失不见。

但是对抗死亡是一刻不停的斗争,

生命的绝望充斥了他的心胸。

He shouted: nor his friends had failed

To check the vessel's course,

But so the furious blast prevailed,

That, pitiless perforce,

They left their outcast mate behind,

And scudded still before the wind.

他高声呼喊,朋友们并未见死不救,

急忙纠正船只的航向,

只可惜海面上止不住的浪高风骤,

如此毫不留情的力量,

迫使他们只得将落水同伴舍弃,

狂风裹挟着他们迅速远去。

Some succour yet they could afford;

And, such as storms allow,

The cask, the coop, the floated cord,

Delayed not to bestow.

But he (they knew) nor ship, nor shore,

Whatever they gave, should visit more.

他们依然提供了力所能及的帮助,

顶着风暴的强大阻力

将木桶,绳索,以及各种漂浮物

朝他身边抛掷过去。

但是无论抛过去什么,他们心里都知道,

这条船,或者海岸,他都再也见不到。

Nor, cruel as it seemed, could he

Their haste himself condemn,

Aware that flight, in such a sea,

Alone could rescue them;

Yet bitter felt it still to die

Deserted, and his friends so nigh.

这做法看似残酷,但他却实在不能

谴责他们弃他而不顾,

这样狂暴的大海,这样危险的航程,

唯有逃命才是唯一活路。

但是死到临头他心里依然难受,

他的朋友们将他落在了身后。

He long survives, who lives an hour

In ocean, self-upheld;

And so long he, with unspent power,

His destiny repelled;

And ever, as the minutes flew,

Entreated help, or cried, "Adieu!"

他坚持了一个小时,不肯轻易死去

一直在海面上漂浮;

只要他还没有耗尽最后一丝体力

就不肯向宿命屈服。

随着时间分分钟消逝如飞

他不断呼救,直到最后意冷心灰。

At length, his transient respite past,

His comrades, who before

Had heard his voice in every blast,

Could catch the sound no more.

For then, by toil subdued, he drank

The stifling wave, and then he sank.

到头来他再不能苟延残喘,

此前他的船上同伴

在风中听到了他的每一声呼喊,

现在他们再也听不见。

屈服于疲劳,他饱饮了一顿

令人窒息的海浪,然后沉沦。

……

No voice divine the storm allayed,

No light propitious shone;

When, snatched from all effectual aid,

We perished, each alone:

But I beneath a rougher sea,

And whelmed in deeper gulfs than he.

神灵缄口不语,不曾将风暴平复,

从未亮起救苦救难的光芒;

我们总会被夺去所有切实援助,

每一个人都要孤独地消亡。

可我正在更凶险的汪洋里沦落,

更可怖的无底深渊已经将我吞没。

很可能柯珀抵御疯狂的手段就是写诗。他笔下篇幅最长的诗作《任务》(The Task)一开头是仿照蒲柏的恶搞英雄诗风格:他的一位女性资助人请他为一座沙发写一首诗,这可谓是一切诗歌题材当中最不起眼的一种了。柯珀的诗文信马由缰,从冬日雪地漫步写到了阅读报纸的愉悦,从修剪花园写到了爱国主义,从可怖的城市污秽写到了围炉夜读的幸福感,然后又写到了针对奴隶制火力全开的激烈批判。引领这一切内容的全诗开篇只是一句平平无奇的“我为沙发歌唱”。任何其他英语诗歌都无法在这样的开局之后展现出更有文采的内容。以下是他的反奴隶制发言:

Oh for a lodge in some vast wilderness,

Some boundless contiguity of shade,

Where rumour of oppression and deceit,

Of unsuccessful or successful war,

Might never reach me more! My ear is pained,

My soul is sick with every day's report

Of wrong and outrage with which earth is filled.

There is no flesh in man's obdurate heart,

It does not feel for man. The natural bond

Of brotherhood is severed as the flax

That falls asunder at the touch of fire.

He finds his fellow guilty of a skin

Not coloured like his own, and having power

To enforce the wrong, for such a worthy cause

Dooms and devotes him as his lawful prey.

Lands intersected by a narrow frith

Abhor each other. Mountains interposed

Make enemies of nations, who had else

Like kindred drops been mingled into one.

Thus man devotes his brother, and destroys;

And worse than all, and most to be deplored,

As human nature's broadest, foulest blot,

Chains him, and tasks him, and exacts his sweat

With stripes, that mercy, with a bleeding heart,

Weeps when she sees inflicted on a beast.

Then what is man? And what man, seeing this,

And having human feelings, does not blush

And hang his head, to think himself a man?

I would not have a slave to till my ground,

To carry me, to fan me while I sleep,

And tremble when I wake, for all the wealth

That sinews bought and sold have ever earned.

No: dear as freedom is, and in my heart's

Just estimation prized above all price,

I had much rather be myself the slave

And wear the bonds, than fasten them on him.

We have no slaves at home—then why abroad?

And they themselves, once ferried o'er the wave

That parts us, are emancipate and loosed.

Slaves cannot breathe in England; if their lungs

Receive our air, that moment they are free,

They touch our country and their shackles fall.

That's noble, and bespeaks a nation proud

And jealous of the blessing. Spread it then,

And let it circulate through every vein

Of all your empire; that where Britain's power

Is felt, mankind may feel her mercy too.

啊,多希望能在无边荒野当中有一间小屋,

位于无限蔓延的阴影里,

关于压迫与欺骗,

成功与失败的战争的谣言

再也不会传到我这里!我两耳生疼,

日复一日的报告令我的灵魂作呕,

人世间充斥着多少恶行与暴行,

愚顽的人心里没有丝毫血肉,

对他人毫无感情。天然的

兄弟情谊如同麻线一般,

被火舌一撩就立刻绷断。

他发现其他人类同胞犯下了

肤色与他不同的罪状,而且他也有力量

作恶为祸,为了有利可图的事业

祸害了他们,当成自己的合法猎物。

被一水之隔分开的两块陆地

却相互厌恶。区区几道山脉

就能造就多少敌国,其实他们

就像雨滴一般并无区别,终将汇入一体。

于是人类致力于毁灭自己的兄弟;

比一切都更恶劣,并且最为可悲,

人性最大最肮脏的污点,

束缚了他,役使着他,用皮鞭榨取他的血汗,

心中流血的慈悲女神

看到他遭到牲畜般的对待,忍不住落泪。

人是什么?见到此情此景,

凡是还有人性的人,怎会不满脸通红,

低下头颅,因为自己也是人而羞愧?

我绝不会让奴隶为我耕田,

抬我代步,为我睡觉时扇风,

在我醒来时颤抖,无论这奴隶的筋骨

能在一买一卖之间换来多少资财。

绝不,自由多么宝贵,在我心中

超过一切宝物的估价,

我宁愿自身为奴,

披枷带锁,也不愿束缚别人。

既然国内不允许蓄奴——为何国外就行?

他们一旦被渡过了分隔

我们的波涛,就会得到解放与解脱。

奴隶不能在英格兰呼吸;一旦他们的肺

纳入了我们的空气,那一刻他们就自由了,

他们一踏入我们的国土,镣铐就脱落。

多么高尚,这才是一国应有的骄傲。

他国都要嫉妒我们的福祉。将福祉扩散吧,

让它流经你的帝国的每一根

血管,在一切能感到不列颠强权

的土地上,让人们也感到她的慈悲。

作为政论文字而言,这段诗文的力度毫不亚于威廉.威伯福斯的任何一篇演讲。但是《任务》是一首情绪多变的叙事诗,生活的喜悦也是诸多情绪之一。接下来这段关于冬日漫步的诗文足以与托尔斯泰的文字交相辉映:

’TIS the morning, and the sun with ruddy orb

Ascending fires the horizon; while the clouds,

That crowd away before the driving wind,

More ardent as the disc emerges more,

Resembles most some city in a blaze,

Seen through the leafless wood. His slanting ray

Slides ineffectual down the snowy vale,

And, tingeing all with his own rosy hue,

From every herb and every spiry blade

Stretches a length of shadow o’er the field.

The verdure of the plain lies buried deep

Beneath the dazzling deluge; and the bents,

And coarser grass, upspearing o’er the rest,

Of late unsightly and unseen, now shine

Conspicuous, and in bright apparel clad,

And, fledged with icy feathers, nod superb.

The cattle mourn in corners, where the fence

Screens them, and seem half petrified to sleep

In unrecumbent sadness. There they wait

Their wonted fodder; not, like hungering man,

Fretful if unsupplied; but silent, meek,

And patient of the slow-paced swain’s delay.

He from the stack carves out the accustomed load

Deep-plunging, and again deep-plunging oft,

His broad keen knife into the solid mass:

Smooth as a wall the upright remnant stands,

With such undeviating and even force

He severs it away: no needless care,

Lest storms should overset the leaning pile

Deciduous, or its own unbalanced weight.

Forth goes the woodman, leaving unconcerned

The cheerful haunts of men,—to wield the axe

And drive the wedge in yonder forest drear,

From morn to eve his solitary task.

Shaggy and lean and shrewd with pointed ears,

And tail cropped short, half lurcher and half cur,

His dog attends him. Close behind his heel

Now creeps he slow; and now, with many a frisk

Wide-scampering, snatches up the drifted snow

With ivory teeth, or ploughs it with his snout;

Then shakes his powdered coat, and barks for joy.

这样的清晨,太阳是一枚红润的宝珠

向地平线泼洒火焰;天上的流云

被强风聚拢,堆积在天边,

随着日轮逐渐露脸,越发赤红夺目,

恰似烈火熊熊的城市,

透过片叶不存的树林。斜射下来的光线

无力地滑过积雪覆压的山谷,

将一切染上一层玫瑰色,

每一片草叶与每一棵树尖,

在地面上拖曳了漫长的阴影。

青青的草地被深深掩埋

在反炫目的融雪水流之下,芦苇

与更坚韧的粗草,顶开了其他同类,

它们多日以来隐而不显,如今

却慨然露面,身披亮丽的服色,

身披冰霜的羽毛,骄傲地点头。

牛在角落里呻吟,牛棚的围墙

遮蔽着它们,看它们一边昏昏欲睡

一边难过得不肯倒卧。它们等待着

迟迟不至的草料;但却不像饥饿的人类那样

焦躁不安,而是沉静温顺,

耐心等待着脚步缓慢的牛倌。

他从柴火垛中劈砍出了惯常的负荷,

深入的一刀,紧接着同样深入的好几刀,

柴刀即宽且利,插入结实的木材

宛如顺着竖直的墙壁滑落,

他的发力端正且平稳,

将木柴一分两片,不多费神,

也不让倾斜的柴堆被大风吹倒

洒落一地,或者因为重量失衡而坍塌。

接下来,劈柴人踏实地离开了

愉快的男性消遣之所——抡起利斧

去阴暗的森林里制造缺口,

从清晨到夜晚他都孤独地劳动。

皮毛纠结,精瘦结实,竖着一对尖耳朵,

尾巴截断,勒车犬与土狗的串子,

他的狗紧跟着他的脚后跟。

他慢行,它便匍匐。现在它活蹦乱跳,

四处飞奔,露出象牙白的利齿

撕咬着积雪,或者用鼻子拱开雪层,

然后抖掉一身雪粉,快乐地吠叫。

伟大的英国诗人往往喜爱动物,往前数有乔叟,往后数有阿德里安.米切尔,柯珀也不例外。斯玛特养了猫儿杰弗里,柯珀则养了一对兔子。请看《悼野兔》(Epitaph on a Hare):

Here lies, whom hound did ne’er pursue,

Nor swifter greyhound follow,

Whose foot ne’er tainted morning dew,

Nor ear heard huntsman’s hallo’,

长眠在此的生灵,从未与猎犬竞逐,

也没有被更迅捷的灵缇追赶,

他的四脚从未沾染过清晨的露珠,

也没有听过猎人的呼喊。

Old Tiney, surliest of his kind,

Who, nursed with tender care,

And to domesticate bounds confined,

Was still a wild jack-hare.

年迈的蒂尼,脾气恶劣超过一切同类

尽管毕生都受到了温柔的呵护,

尽管一直都被圈养在四壁之内,

但是骨子里依然是一只野兔。

Though duly from my hand he took

His pittance every night,

He did it with a jealous look,

And, when he could, would bite.

尽管每晚他要想领取果腹夜宵

都必须要凑近我的手,

但戾气总是布满他的眼角眉梢,

一有机会就咬我一口。

His diet was of wheaten bread,

And milk, and oats, and straw,

Thistles, or lettuces instead,

With sand to scour his maw.

他的主食是小麦面包,

以及牛奶、燕麦和稻草杆,

若是没有蓟草,莴苣也挺好,

助消化的沙粒也要来一点。

On twigs of hawthorn he regaled,

On pippins’ russet peel;

And, when his juicy salads failed,

Sliced carrot pleased him well.

山楂的幼芽嫩叶是无上美味,

褐红的苹果皮味道真不错,

若是多汁沙拉满足不了肠胃,

那就再给他切几片胡萝卜。

A Turkey carpet was his lawn,

Whereon he loved to bound,

To skip and gambol like a fawn,

And swing his rump around.

土耳其地毯是他的草地,

他就爱在这里连蹦带窜,

恰似小鹿,腾跃着跳来跳去,

后臀摇晃指向左边右边。

His frisking was at evening hours,

For then he lost his fear;

But most before approaching showers,

Or when a storm drew near.

到夜晚他就变得格外活泼,

这时候他不再害怕;

洗澡之前他总是难于捕捉,

暴风雨也会将他惊吓。

Eight years and five round-rolling moons

He thus saw steal away,

Dozing out all his idle noons,

And every night at play.

八年时光,外加五轮满月,

光阴飞逝匆匆过去,

他就这样度过悠闲岁月,

每晚都会尽情嬉戏。

I kept him for his humor’s sake,

For he would oft beguile

My heart of thoughts that made it ache,

And force me to a smile.

我豢养他因为性情契合,

他有一肚子鬼主意;

有时他气得我难过,

有时又让我忍不住笑意。

But now, beneath this walnut-shade

He finds his long, last home,

And waits in snug concealment laid,

Till gentler Puss shall come.

可是现在,这片核桃树的树荫

成了他最终的长眠之地,

他就在这隐秘的小窝里安身,

等着与温顺的普斯团聚。

He, still more aged, feels the shocks

From which no care can save,

And, partner once of Tiney’s box,

Must soon partake his grave.

年龄更大的普斯,这次深受打击,

多少关怀也无法缓解,

他曾与蒂尼在同一间兔舍栖息,

很快也将要死后同穴。

柯珀显然是老派英国的一部分,这个英国依然看重姿态与温文礼让并且相信持中之道,反对清教徒的狂热与复辟时代的犬儒。在这个英国,中上层人物依然会前往乡村度过退休生活,向女性致以最热烈的恭维,并且敬畏上帝。另一方面同样醒目的是,他针对不义的愤怒,面对弱者的感同身受以及跃跃欲试的心魔都表明了他期待着某种全然不同的国内氛围。日后的浪漫主义诗人们将会把他视为他们当中的一员。因此将他作为即将到来的革命时代的切入点可以说是很合适的。


2020-01-15 20:28:17
2020-01-09 02:21:31
4460537 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25498`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 理性时代以及奴隶与污秽等等6 1

这段诗文当中特别提到了桦树枝教鞭,这一点难免让读者们想到十八世纪男性生活的另一个基本方面:体罚盛行的学校生活。这方面的情况在大部分诗歌当中仅仅被附带提及,不过有一首诗是个例外。威廉.申斯通是一位出身什罗普郡的诗人,生前广为人知,身后却声名不显。在《女教师》(The Schoolmistress)一诗中,他描绘了英国农村地区常见的学堂,这些学堂勉强承担了英国的小学教育。诗文在序言中写道:“仿斯威夫特戏谑风格而作。”但是今天的读者们读到这些诗文只怕根本笑不出来:

IN every village marked with little spire,

Embowered in trees, and hardly known to fame,

There dwells, in lowly shed and mean attire,

A matron old, whom we schoolmistress name,

Who boasts unruly brats with birch to tame;

They grieven sore, in piteous durance pent,

Awed by the power of this relentless dame,

And ofttimes, on vagaries idly bent,

For unkempt hair, or task unconned, are sorely shent.

在每一个具备教堂尖顶的小小村镇,

周围绿树环绕,几乎不被外人所知,

都有一间低矮小屋,室内陈设寒碜,

住着一位老年妇女,人人尊称女教师。

她夸口专管熊孩子,全凭一根桦树枝,

他们的疼痛,只能虔诚地在肚里憋着,

在这位无情的女士手下没少找苦吃。

经常只因为这样那样的微小过错,

头发凌乱,忘记看书,就要遭受鞭笞。

And all in sight doth rise a birchen tree,

Which Learning near her little dome did stow,

Whilom a twig of small regard to see,

Though now so wide its waving branches flow,

And work the simple vassals mickle woe;

For not a wind might curl the leaves that blew,

But their limbs shuddered, and their pulse beat low,

And as they looked they found their horror grew,

And shaped it into rods, and tingled at the view.

那棵桦树就竖立在在私塾门前,

校长女士曾亲手将这棵树培养,

曾经只是一根细枝,离远了看不见,

如今却亭亭如盖,树冠随风飘扬,

让多少小孩子将苦头饱尝。

就算有一阵微风甚至无法吹动树叶,

依然吓得孩子们脉搏减慢,手脚冰凉,

眼看桦树的树干,恐惧越发迫切,

化作教鞭的形状,刺痛得愈发强烈。

So have I seen (who has not, may conceive)

A lifeless phantom near a garden placed,

So doth it wanton birds of peace bereave,

Of sport, of song, of pleasure, of repast;

They start, they stare, they wheel, they look aghast;

Sad servitude! such comfortless annoy

May no bold Briton’s riper age e’er taste!

Ne superstition clog his dance of joy,

Ne vision empty, vain, his native bliss destroy.

我曾经见过(没见过的想象一下也行)

毫无生机的鬼怪监视着花园,

凶恶剥夺了欢快鸟儿的和平,

吓得他们不敢唱歌,休憩或者游玩,

一惊一乍,两眼圆瞪,神情骇然。

可悲的奴役!多么生硬无情,

惟愿更年长的英国人不必受此摧残。

希望他的欢乐之舞不会被迷信逼停,

空洞虚荣的执念不会毁坏他的安宁。

Near to this dome is found a patch so green

On which the tribe their gambols do display.

And at the door imprisoning board is seen,

Lest weakly wights of smaller size should stray,

Eager, perdie, to bask in sunny day!

The noises intermixed, which thence resound,

Do Learning’s little tenement betray;

Where sits the dame disguised in look profound,

And eyes her fairy throng, and turns her wheel around.

在房舍附近是一片如茵绿草,

别的孩子们在草地上欢乐嬉戏。

禁锢的木板将门口封堵好,

以免身体瘦小的学生偷偷溜出去。

一心只想将温暖的阳光沐浴!

草地上玩乐的喧闹声响,

穿透了狭小教室的屋门锁闭,

女校长装出一脸高深莫测,

转身打量学生们拥挤就坐。

Her cap, far whiter than the driven snow,

Emblem right meet of decency does yield;

Her apron, dyed in grain, as blue, I trow,

As is the harebell that adorns the field;

And in her hand, for sceptre, she does wield

Tway birchen sprays; with anxious fear entwined,

With dark distrust, and sad repentance filled,

And steadfast hate, and sharp affliction joined,

And fury uncontrolled, and chastisement unkind.

她的头发远比积雪更白,

看上去确实可敬而又体面;

她的围裙染成了蓝色,我猜

就像风铃草将田野铺遍。

恰似权杖握在她手中,只见

桦树枝条上缠绕着不安与恐惧,

暗黑的质疑与悲哀的积怨,

不动不摇的憎恨,尖锐的焦虑,

失控的怒火,以及惩处充满恶意。

到目前为止我们还没怎么听到十八世纪女性诗人的声音。不过既然谈到了童年的话题,那就有必要介绍一下玛丽.巴伯。她是都柏林人,在诗歌创作方面深受斯威夫特的影响。她本人生育了九个孩子,她笔下的最优秀诗作要么以孩子为题,要么是写给他们的。巴伯很不待见当时英国盛行的鞭笞教育法,她的诗作《写给吾子,由他在学校朗读,有感于老师首次亮出教鞭》(Written for my Son, and spoken by him in School, upon his Master's first bringing in a Rod)明确表达了她的观点。在笔者看来,我们不妨将这首作品视为当代教育的第一声呼吁:

Our Master, in a fatal Hour,

Brought in this Rod, to shew his Pow'r.

O dreadful Birch! O baleful Tree!

Thou Instrument of Tyranny!

Thou deadly Damp to youthful Joys!

The Sight of thee our Peace destroys.

Not Damocles, with greater Dread,

Beheld the Weapon o'er his Head.

我们的大人,在那生死攸关的时刻,

抽出这根教鞭,以示自己大权在握。

哦可怖的树枝,哦该死的桦树!

你这器械只会为暴君服务!

少年的欢乐惨遭你的压抑,

和平的景象被你打翻在地。

就算达摩克利斯也从未这般害怕,

悬在他头顶的杀器带不来此等惊吓。

That Sage was surely more discerning,

Who taught to play us into Learning,

By 'graving Letters on the Dice:

May Heav'n reward the kind Device,

And crown him with immortal Fame,

Who taught at once to read and game!

曾经的明师远远更加高明,

寓教于乐的手段真有水平,

骰子刻上字母,用来将知识宣讲,

愿这件教具为他赢得天国的奖赏,

愿他英名流传直到后世,

戏耍之间就教会孩子们认字!

Take my Advice; pursae that Rule;

You'll make a Fortune by your School.

You'll soon have all the elder Brothers,

And be the Darling of their Mothers.

听取我的建议,遵循这条原则,

你将会拥有幸运的教学生活。

学生们都会将你视作兄长,

母亲们都会为你热烈鼓掌。

O may I live to hail the Day,

When Boys shall go to School to play!

To Grammar Rules we'll bid Defiance;

For Play will then become a Science.

愿我能欢呼那一天的来到,

愿孩子们为了嬉戏而前往学校!

再不必死记硬背语法口诀,

玩耍届时将成为一门科学。

看多了十八世纪肖像画的人们都知道,当时的男孩在小时候都要穿裙子而不是裤子。大约在五六岁的时候他们则会改穿紧腿马裤,假领子以及挤脚的鞋子。巴伯对此同样颇有微词。她显然鼓励过自己的儿子当众念诵她的诗作《写给吾子,由他在第一次试穿马裤时朗读》(Written for my Son, and spoken by him at his first putting on Breeches)。

What is it our Mamma's bewitches,

To plague us little Boys with Breeches?

To Tyrant Custom we must yield,

Whilst vanquish'd Reason flies the Field.

Our Legs must suffer by Ligation,

To keep the Blood from Circulation;

And then our Feet, tho' young and tender,

We to the Shoemaker surrender;

Who often makes our Shoes so strait,

Our growing Feet they cramp and fret;

Whilst, with Contrivance most profound,

Across our Insteps we are bound;

Which is the Cause, I make no Doubt,

Why Thousands suffer in the Gout.

Our wiser Ancestors wore Brogues,

Before the Surgeons brib'd these Rogues,

With narrow Toes, and Heels like Pegs,

To help to make us break our Legs.

Then, ere we know to use our Fists;

Our Mothers closely bind our Wrists;

And never think our Cloaths are neat,

Till they're so tight we cannot eat.

And, to increase our other Pains,

The Hat-band helps to cramp our Brains.

The Cravat finishes the Work,

Like Bow-string sent from the Grand Turk.

Thus Dress, that should prolong our Date,

Is made to hasten on our Fate.

Fair Privilege of nobler Natures,

To be more plagu'd than other Creatures!

The wild Inhabitants of Air

Are cloath'd by Heav'n with wondrous Care:

Their beauteous, well-compacted Feathers

Are Coats of Mail against all Weathers;

Enamell'd, to delight the Eye;

Gay, as the Bow that decks the Sky.

The Beasts are cloath'd with beauteous Skins:

The Fishes arm'd with Scales and Fins;

Whose Lustre lends the Sailer Light,

When all the Stars are hid in Night.

O were our Dress contriv'd like these,

For Use, for Ornament, and Ease!

我们的母亲为何遭受迷惑,

让孩童们遭受马裤的灾祸?

我们必须屈服于传统的暴虐,

将飞扬的理性在田野里消灭。

我们的双腿被捆扎束缚,

以至血液循环遭到禁锢。

我们的双脚如此娇嫩,

却要听任鞋匠的蹂躏。

他们的童鞋总是太过逼仄,

正在发育的双脚多么难过。

最别扭的设计,最造作的局限,

紧紧束缚了我们的脚面。

我毫不怀疑,这就是致病根源,

为何许多人日后会患上关节炎。

明智的先辈都穿雕花皮鞋,鞋身镂空,

只可恨外科医师后来与可恶的鞋匠串通。

鞋尖局促狭窄,鞋跟好似木橛,

害得我们随时可能把腿摔瘸。

还没等我们学会使用双手,

母亲就牢牢扎紧了我们的袖口。

她们从不认为我们的衣服合体好看,

除非紧绷在身上,害得我们没法吃饭。

身体其他部位也不让我们好受,

勒住头脑的帽带堪比紧箍咒。

还要再扎一条领巾才算大功告成,

恰似突厥人的弓弦死命勒住喉咙。

服装的本意是便利生活,

如今却成了催命的网罗。

人为万物灵长,衣物蔽体本是特权,

却要饱受折磨,不如鸟兽自由周旋。

自由不羁的群鸟在天空中栖息,

上帝精心为它们织就一身羽衣。

优美的羽毛片片排列致密,

恰似甲胄将雨雪风霜抵御。

鲜艳美丽,为眼目带来欢乐,

恰似天上彩虹的明快彩色。

地上的走兽身披丰美的毛皮,

水里的游鱼身上有鳞又有鳍。

鳞光闪烁,借给水手点点光明,

当他们在无星之夜摸黑航行。

哦,惟愿我们的服装也能如此设计,

为了实用,为了装饰,为了行动便利!

十八世纪的都柏林是英国的诗歌与文学中心之一,这一点并不能完全归功于斯威夫特。哲学家扎堆的爱丁堡则紧随其后。在罗伯特.彭斯出现之前,同时代最著名的诗人是罗伯特.弗格森。爱丁堡的皇家一英里大街上有他的雕像。他的塑像化身看上去既年轻又瘦削,尽管塑像面容是金属质地,但是看上去依然洋溢着营养不良的气质。弗格森在二十四岁得那年就英年早逝了,但是他在生前早已抓紧时间将爱丁堡的权贵阶层骂了个狗血淋头。日后彭斯将会继承他的戏谑诗风并且一炮打响。他的诗作《犯傻的日子》(The Daft Days)描述了苏格兰当地庆祝新年的景象。早在当时苏格兰人的狂放作风就已经举世闻名了。诗文当中的苏格兰腔调很重,但是只要大声念诵出来还是很容易理解的:

Now mirk December’s dowie face

Glours our the rigs wi sour grimace,

While, thro’ his minimum of space,

The bleer-ey’d sun,

Wi blinkin light and stealing pace,

His race doth run.

十二月摆着一张阴沉苦脸,

斜视着我们做出酸涩鬼脸,

露面时间不能再短

的太阳,睡眼惺忪,

光线闪烁,偷偷摸摸把路赶,

一直向前冲。

From naked groves nae birdie sings,

To shepherd’s pipe nae hillock rings,

The breeze nae od’rous flavour brings

From Borean cave,

And dwyning nature droops her wings,

Wi visage grave.

赤裸的树林里没有百鸟鸣唱,

山丘四周听不到牧笛明亮,

空气中闻不到一丝芬芳

源自北风的洞窟,

郁闷的自然将双翼沉降,

触目所及尽是光秃。

Mankind but scanty pleasure glean

Frae snawy hill or barren plain,

Whan winter, ‘midst his nipping train,

Wi frozen spear,

Sends drift our a’ his bleak domain,

And guides the weir.

人类此时找不到多少乐趣,

从大雪封山到贫瘠的平地,

寒冬的队列多么犀利,

用冻结的长矛

驱赶积雪覆盖他的惨淡领地,

水闸无法移动分毫。

……

Fidlers, your pins in temper fix,

And roset weel your fiddle-sticks;

But banish vile Italian tricks

Frae out your quorum,

Not fortes wi pianos mix –

Gie’s Tulloch Gorum.

提琴手们,快调整琴码舒张,

快为琴弓涂一层松香;

难听的意大利曲调可别开张,

你们的乐队要知道——

更不需要钢琴来帮腔——

来一段图洛克.格罗姆的曲调。*

*【以奔放著称的曲调。】

For nought can cheer the heart sae weel

As can a canty Highland reel;

It even vivifies the heel

To skip and dance:

Lifeless is he wha canna feel

Its influence.

要说到怎样让人心花怒放,

高地回旋舞最令气氛高涨;

简直让脚跟忍不住歌唱;

一双双脚步流转,

除非你毫无生气一脸死相,

才不会受到感染。

Let mirth abound, let social cheer

Invest the dawning of the year;

Let blithesome innocence appear

To crown our joy;

Nor envy wi sarcastic sneer

Our bliss destroy.

让欢乐遍及四方,用欢呼连连

迎接即将到来的新一年;

愿愉悦的纯真浮现

为我们的欢笑献上王冠,

不要让尖酸的假笑糟践

我们的快乐联欢。

And thou, great god of Aqua Vitae!

Wha sways the empire of this city,

When fou we’re sometimes capernoity,

Be thou prepar’d

To hedge us frae that black banditti,

The City Guard.

还有你,伟大的美酒之神!

这座城市眼下奉你为尊,

为了你我们偶尔会脑子发昏,

请你做好准备,

保护我们免受黑衣匪徒的袭侵,

那帮所谓的城市守卫。*

*【即爱丁堡警察,当时素有暴力执法的恶名,曾与弗格森多次起冲突。】

苏格兰是全英国宗教氛围最浓厚的地区,更何况当时依然是宗教盛行的时代。十八世纪的宗教复兴主义为英国留下了许多传唱至今的赞美诗。《奇妙十架》(When I survey the Wondrous Cross)的作者以撒.华滋与《灵友歌》(Jesus, Lover of My Soul)的作者查理.卫斯理是两位最著名的赞美诗作者。不过笔者更欣赏另一位诗人,也就是非同寻常的克里斯托弗.斯玛特。此人毕生饱受精神问题折磨,最终死在了债务人监狱里。斯玛特是个天才,也是以塞缪尔.约翰逊为代表的诸多文坛大家心目中的偶像。他的圣诞颂歌《救主基督耶稣诞生礼赞》(The Nativity of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ)在笔者眼中堪称自从乔治.赫伯特以来最优美的宗教作品:

Where is this stupendous stranger,

Swains of Solyma, advise?

Lead me to my Master's manger,

Show me where my Saviour lies.

神奇陌客现在何方,

犹太牧人可知分晓?

带我前去救主身旁,

领我去看我主马槽。

O Most Mighty! O Most Holy!

Far beyond the seraph's thought,

Art thou then so mean and lowly

As unheeded prophets taught?

无上圣洁无上威赫!

炽焰天使亦不能比。

您可也曾如此卑弱,

先知预言谁人记起?

O the magnitude of meekness!

Worth from worth immortal sprung;

O the strength of infant weakness,

If eternal is so young!

何等柔顺既深且远!

永生之源宝中之宝;

赤子虽弱伟力彰显,

永恒竟能如此幼小!

If so young and thus eternal,

Michael tune the shepherd's reed,

Where the scenes are ever vernal,

And the loves be Love indeed!

如此幼小亦能永存,

米迦勒也吹起牧笛,

彼时彼地四季常春,

世间众爱均为一体!

See the God blasphem'd and doubted

In the schools of Greece and Rome;

See the pow'rs of darkness routed,

Taken at their utmost gloom.

希腊罗马学校荒悖,

竟将上帝亵渎质疑;

黑暗权柄一击即溃,

就在最为昏沉时期。

Nature's decorations glisten

Far above their usual trim;

Birds on box and laurels listen,

As so near the cherubs hymn.

自然装饰熠熠生辉

远比平时更加好看;

群鸟栖息黄杨月桂,

凑近倾听天使礼赞。

Boreas now no longer winters

On the desolated coast;

Oaks no more are riv'n in splinters

By the whirlwind and his host.

北风不与寒冬共论

不再横行荒凉海岸;

橡树再不会被阵阵

回旋寒风撕成碎片。

Spinks and ouzels sing sublimely,

"We too have a Saviour born";

Whiter blossoms burst untimely

On the blest Mosaic thorn.

雉鸟黑鸫齐声高唱,

“我们也有救主降世”;

洁白花朵神奇绽放,

开满蒙恩摩西荆刺。

God all-bounteous, all-creative,

Whom no ills from good dissuade,

Is incarnate, and a native

Of the very world He made.

至美上帝造物大能,

万难岂能阻祂为善,

道成肉身人世降生,

来到祂创造的世界。【感谢atr网友的指正】

此外斯玛特还是十八世纪最不同凡响的动物诗歌的作者,尽管这一点看上去有点怪。他在《羔羊颂》(Jubilate Agno)一诗中专门抽出篇幅描写了自己的宠物猫杰弗里。顾名思义,《羔羊颂》首先是一首赞美诗,诗人将神性深切延展进入了动物世界。对于一本像本书这样借助诗歌来品读英国国民性的作品来说,似乎没什么理由选入这首诗。但是笔者实在忍不住还是将这段诗文收录了进来,因为我们英国人确实很喜欢动物:

For I will consider my Cat Jeoffry.

For he is the servant of the Living God duly and daily serving him.

For at the first glance of the glory of God in the East he worships in his way.

For this is done by wreathing his body seven times round with elegant quickness.

For then he leaps up to catch the musk, which is the blessing of God upon his prayer.

For he rolls upon prank to work it in.

For having done duty and received blessing he begins to consider himself.

For this he performs in ten degrees.

For first he looks upon his forepaws to see if they are clean.

For secondly he kicks up behind to clear away there.

For thirdly he works it upon stretch with the forepaws extended.

For fourthly he sharpens his paws by wood.

For fifthly he washes himself.

For sixthly he rolls upon wash.

For seventhly he fleas himself, that he may not be interrupted upon the beat.

For eighthly he rubs himself against a post.

For ninthly he looks up for his instructions.

For tenthly he goes in quest of food.

For having consider'd God and himself he will consider his neighbour.

For if he meets another cat he will kiss her in kindness.

For when he takes his prey he plays with it to give it a chance.

For one mouse in seven escapes by his dallying.

For when his day's work is done his business more properly begins.

For he keeps the Lord's watch in the night against the adversary.

For he counteracts the powers of darkness by his electrical skin and glaring eyes.

For he counteracts the Devil, who is death, by brisking about the life.

For in his morning orisons he loves the sun and the sun loves him.

For he is of the tribe of Tiger.

For the Cherub Cat is a term of the Angel Tiger.

我想起了我家猫儿杰弗里。

他是上帝的仆役,忠诚为祂服务。

他崇拜每天上帝光辉从东方投射的第一瞥。

崇拜仪式是以头顾尾,优雅迅捷地转七圈。

然后他一跃而起去扑麝香花,这是上帝回应他祈祷的恩赐。

他在花丛里撒欢,将香气沾满全身。

完成了职责,领受了恩典,他开始打理自己。

打理过程一共分十步。

第一步他检查前爪是否干净。

第二步他后爪踢土清理污物。

第三步他伸直前爪来一个懒腰。

第四步他在木料上打磨爪子。

第五步他清洁自身。

第六步他继续清洁前半身。

第七步他清除身上的跳蚤,以免出击时遭到干扰。

第八步他在柱子上蹭痒。

第九步他听人训话。

第十步他去找吃的。

礼敬过了上帝,照顾好了自己,之后他将为邻居们考虑。

他若是遇到另一只猫,一定会亲切接吻。

若是抓到猎物,必定玩弄片刻,给予其逃命的机会。

抓到一只老鼠总要七纵七擒才肯罢休。

忙完了白天的工作,他才要开始干正事。

夜里他是上帝的哨兵,负责监视敌人。

因为他的皮毛泛着电光,两眼如火,对抗黑暗的势力。

因为他对抗死亡化身的魔鬼,凭借旺盛的生命力。

每日晨祷之际,他热爱太阳,太阳也热爱他。

他是猛虎的同族。

猫之于虎,恰似基路伯之于天使。【感谢首fool网友的指正】

常言说猫是老虎的师傅,在这里斯玛特笔下的猫肯定是威廉.布莱克的老虎的师傅。


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最后于2020-01-15 20:35:54改,共2次;
2020-01-09 02:21:31
4460759 复 4460537
桥上
3 那位都柏林女士是英格兰人还是爱尔兰人?

有爱尔兰语,是否有苏格兰语?


  • 本帖 3 回复
2020-01-09 23:10:05
2020-01-18 00:57:08
4463447 复 4460759
瓷航惊涛瓷航惊涛`42005`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`8868`737`41065`从一品:开府仪同三司|骠骑大将军`2009-09-11 03:04:40`0
4 凯尔特语族 4

主要存在四个族群,至于如何分组学界一直争执不休,前两个族群的语言已经灭绝。

高卢语:及分支南阿尔卑高卢语,加拉提亚语等,古时候遍布从法国到土耳其,从荷兰到意大利北部的广大地区。

凯尔特伊比利亚语:曾在阿拉贡和西班牙的其他地区使用。

盖尔亚支:包括爱尔兰语、苏格兰盖尔语等。

布立吞亚支:包括威尔士语、布列塔尼语等。


通宝推:桥上,
最后于2020-01-18 07:17:25改,共1次;
2020-01-18 00:57:08
2020-01-10 12:04:08
4460983 复 4460759
宝特勤宝特勤`58761`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`290`839`7346`正八品上:给事郎|宣节校尉`2010-07-26 18:16:04`0
4 苏格兰语 6

苏格兰说三种语言。一是英语,二是和英语相近的苏格兰方言,三是和英语非常不一样的苏格兰盖尔语。苏格兰盖尔语很少人说,但的确是自古以来苏格兰土著的语言。


通宝推:桥上,
2020-01-10 12:04:08
2020-01-10 01:30:55
4460794 复 4460759
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25498`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
4 我知道有苏格兰口音 5

应该没有形成独立的语言,只能算是方言。

我之前做的《我本衰人》的作者就是苏格兰人,不过有河友还是弄混了。


通宝推:桥上,
最后于2020-01-10 01:48:00改,共1次;
2020-01-10 01:30:55
2020-01-01 22:18:55
4458395 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25498`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 理性时代以及奴隶与污秽等等5 1

尽管索莫韦尔笔下景象看上去十分祥和,但是“囊中羞涩的船长”一句还是提醒了我们,十八世纪的英国社会在大部分时候都处于战争状态并且高度军事化。上文中我们见识了乔纳森.斯威夫特的凶猛反战诗歌,下文中我们还要接触到小说家多比亚斯.斯摩莱特旗鼓相当的反战文学。但是战争的确为许多青年男性提供了就业机会与社会地位,待到英国与敌国签订合约时这些人往往痛心疾首。比方说理查森.派克,此人是一位职业士兵,曾经参加过西班牙王位继承战争,退伍后先后定居在伦敦与阿伯丁。1713年英法两国签订了《乌德勒支和约》,就此终结了欧洲的王朝冲突(就是这份协议将直布罗陀割让给了英国)。消息传来举国欢庆,但是派克却另有想法。他以一位“收入微薄、住在乡间的军官”的身份向伦敦的朋友抱怨道:

CURSE on the star, dear Harry, that betrayed

My choice from law, divinity or trade,

To turn a rambling brother o' the blade!

Of all professions sure the worst is war.

How whimsical our fortune! how bizarre!

This week we shine in scarlet and in gold:

The next, the cloak is pawned- -the watch is sold.

Today we re company for any lord:

Tomorrow not a soul will take our word.

Like meteors raised in a tempestuous sky,

A while we gitter, then obscurely die.

Must heroes suffer such disgrace as this?

0 cursed effects of Honourable Peace!

亲爱的亨利,该死的星运竟敢背叛

我遵从法律、神意与技艺做出的决断,

让持剑的兄弟沦为喋喋不休的闲汉!

一切行当当中战争的确最糟糕,

可是我们的命运怎么会如此蹊跷!

这个礼拜我们身穿大红军装,金色勋章多么骄傲,

下个礼拜就要将大衣送进当铺,怀表也要卖掉。

今天我们身边都是各位贵族相伴,

明天磨破嘴皮也得不到正眼相看。

恰似流星划过动荡的天空,

上一刻熠熠生辉,下一刻无影无踪。

大英雄莫非必须蒙尘纳垢?

啊,光荣的和平真该受诅咒!

在战争期间他桃花运不断,喝够了香槟酒。现在的情况可是无法与那时候相比了:

Must now retire, and languish out my days

Far from the roads of pleasure or of praise:

Quit sweet Hyde Park for dull provincial air,

And change the playhouse for a country fair;

With sneaking parsons beastly bumpers quaff,

At low conceits and vile conundrums laugh;

Toast to the Church and talk of Right Divine,

And herd with squires- -more noisy than their swine.

Must heroes suffer such disgrace as this?

0 cursed effects of Honourable Peace!

现在我不得不退伍,徒劳追忆往昔,

远离了享乐道路上的怒马鲜衣,

离开美丽的海德公园,忍受沉闷的农村空气,

将大剧院替换成粗鄙的地方土戏;

獐头鼠目的教区牧师端着大杯牛饮咕咚,

花言巧语和倒霉糗事逗得他们大笑出声;

他们向教会祝酒,胡扯什么神意奥妙,

跟他们厮混的乡绅比猪猡更加聒噪。

大英雄莫非必须蒙尘纳垢?

啊,光荣的和平真该受诅咒!

如今他不仅伙食标准大为下降,而且还丧失了女人缘:

There was a time- -oh yes! there was a time-

(Ere poverty made luxury a crime)

When marigolds in porridge were a jest,

And soups were used to introduce the feast.

Then French ragouts were orthodox and good,

And truffles held no heresy in food.

Nor to eat mackerel was judged high treason,

Though gooseberries as yet were not in season.

But under Harley's frugal dispensation,

These vanities require a reformation.

Scourged by his wand and humbled by his sway,

I've learned to suit my diet to my pay;

And now can sanctify with solemn face

A heavy dumpling with a formal grace.

In awkward plenty, slovenly I dine,

And nappy ale supplies the want of wine.

No nice desserts my learned palate please:

To fill up chinks- -a slice of Suffolk cheese.

And must then heroes nibble Suffolk cheese?

0 cursed effects of Honourable Peace!

曾几何时——啊,确实有过那样的时节,

那时贫困尚未抹杀奢侈与犯罪的区别。

那时粥碗里点缀着金盏花瓣,

汤菜的作用无非是引导正宴;

法式蔬菜炖肉量大味鲜,

松露也不算出格的异端;

来一条鲭鱼算不得叛国重罪,

尽管醋栗的时节总是不对。

但是小气的哈利削减了退伍津贴,*1

上述美食只能长期欠缺。

他一挥魔杖,我只得低头弯腰,

摸索着让伙食符合日常开销。

如今我总是摆出一脸严肃

小口吞咽死沉的汤团果腹。

份量倒是管够,我吃得慢慢腾腾,

喝不起红酒,只能用麦芽啤酒补充。

再也没有餐后甜点让我眉开眼笑,

只能凑合着嚼一片萨福克奶酪。

大英雄干嚼萨福克奶酪?何以沦落至此?

啊,光荣的和平究竟多么可耻!

*1【即罗伯特.哈利,安妮女王时代的首相。】

But ah! the hardest part is still behind-

The fair too, gentle Harry, prove unkind.

Think then how wretchedly my life must pass!

For what's this world, my friend, without a lass?

Poor be my lot, inglorious be my state,

Give me but woman, I'll absolve my fate.

But 'tis in vain. Th' ungrateful sex, as senseless as unjust,

To feed their pride will even starve their lust;

And fooled by equipage and empty show,

Quit the tough soldier for the lathy beau.

I who so oft their forward zeal have showed,

And in their service spent my warmest blood,

Am now reduced (hard fate!) for want of pelf

To fight the Jesuit's battle by myself.

Must heroes suffer such disgrace as this?

O cursed effects of Honourable Peace!

可是啊,最艰难的部分还在后面,

亲爱的哈利,如今美女们对我都不待见。

你想想我的生活现在多么惨淡,

亲爱的朋友啊,我的世界缺少了姑娘的陪伴!

纵然命途多舛,纵然世事艰难,

只要不缺女人,我就能与命运周旋。

可是这不知感恩的性别,全然不讲道理,

为了满足骄傲,就连情欲都置之不理。

花言巧语将她们哄得团团转,

只喜欢小白脸,大头兵看都不看。

她们也曾向我殷勤频献,

我也曾为她们浴血奋战,

如今(艰难的命运!)手头缺少阿堵物,

只能独自将奸人的攻势顶住。

大英雄莫非必须蒙尘纳垢?

啊,光荣的和平真该受诅咒!

以上诗文描写了战争世界不太常见的一面,但是听上去依旧十分真诚。当然,缅怀一场发生在其他国家并且早已过去的冲突的确不太难。这首抱怨诗问世三十年后,英国经受了1745年的詹姆斯二世党人叛乱。这是英国本土上的最后一场全面战斗,决战地点在卡洛登。查尔斯.爱德华.斯图尔特王子的军队在这里被康博兰公爵击败。苏格兰高地随后经受了一轮严酷镇压,留下的伤口很久之后方才愈合。多比亚斯.斯摩莱特是一名人气旺盛且争议缠身的小说家,他离开故乡苏格兰来到伦敦为海军工作。他的小说极少直接涉及政治,但是他最早发表的作品就是一首充满激情的后卡洛登时代挽歌。请看《苏格兰之泪》(The Tears of Scotland):

Mourn, hapless Caledonia, mourn

Thy banish'd peace, thy laurels torn!

Thy sons, for valour long renown'd,

Lie slaughter'd on their native ground;

Thy hospitable roofs no more

Invite the stranger to the door;

In smoky ruins sunk they lie,

The monuments of cruelty.

悲恸吧,加勒多尼亚,尽情的悲恸

桂冠被撕碎,和平遭到断送!

你的子弟,长久以来英勇无双,

如今惨遭屠戮,丧命在家乡;

曾经好客的住宅再也不会

将陌生人请进房门之内;

如今只剩下冒烟的残垣断壁,

提醒人们将残忍行径铭记。

The wretched owner sees afar

His all become the prey of war,

Bethinks him of his babes and wife,

Then smites his breast and curses life.

Thy swains are famish'd on the rocks

Where once they fed their wanton flocks;

Thy ravish'd virgins shriek in vain;

Thy infants perish on the plain.

五内如焚的房主远远看见

战争将他的所有化作焦土一片,

想起他的妻儿如今已然没救,

他捶胸顿足将人生诅咒。

青年曾经在岩地放养牲畜,

如今却躲在这里饥肠辘辘;

惨遭蹂躏的少女嘶喊疯狂,

幼弱的婴儿在平原上夭亡。

What boots it then, in every clime,

Through the wide-spreading waste of time,

Thy martial glory, crown'd with praise,

Still shone with undiminish'd blaze?

Thy towering spirit now is broke,

Thy neck is bended to the yoke;

What foreign arms could never quell

By civil rage and rancour fell.

这一切根源何在,在各种天气当中,

漫长的时光到头来都是一场空,

尚武的荣耀,也曾饱受礼赞,

雪亮的锋刃如今怎堪验看?

高昂的精神如今遭到摧折,

脖颈上被强加了一副重轭;

异邦军队从未能将此地降服,

如今却惨遭内战怨憎的荼毒。

……

O baneful cause, O fatal morn,

Accursed to ages yet unborn!

The sons against their father stood,

The parent shed his children's blood.

Yet, when the rage of battle ceased,

The victor's soul was not appeased;-

The naked and forlorn must feel

Devouring flames and murdering steel!

哦,可恨的根由,哦,致命的哀悼

遭受诅咒的世代眼下尚未来到!

谁成想儿子竟会将父亲攻打,

父辈竟会将子女的鲜血泼洒。

可是待到战争怒火平息之后,

胜利者的灵魂却还嫌不够,

赤裸的难民们必须再经受一遭

吞噬无度的烈火与杀人的钢刀!

The pious mother, doom'd to death,

Forsaken wanders o'er the heath:

The bleak wind whistles round her head,

Her helpless orphans cry for bread;

Bereft of shelter, food, and friend,

She views the shades of night descend;

And, stretch'd beneath the inclement skies,

Weeps o'er her tender babes, and dies.

虔诚的母亲,注定难逃一死,

无助地在荒野里游荡不止。

凄厉寒风刮过她耳边,呼啸声高,

无助的孤儿哭喊着想要面包;

没了家园,没了粮食,没了亲友依靠,

眼看着夜幕降临将天地笼罩;

在冷酷的天空下,她喘出最后一口气,

为了娇儿流下眼泪,然后死去。

While the warm blood bedews my veins,

And unimpair'd remembrance reigns,

Resentment of my country's fate

Within my filial breast shall beat;

And, spite of her insulting foe,

My sympathising verse shall flow.

Mourn, hapless Caledonia, mourn

Thy banish'd peace, thy laurels torn!

火热的血液在我的血管里流淌,

脑海中的记忆永远不会被遗忘,

我怨憎祖国遭到的厄运,

胸怀里跳动着人子的愤恨;

我要怒斥竟敢侮辱她的敌人,

源源不绝地写下同情的诗文。

悲恸吧,加勒多尼亚,尽情的悲恸

桂冠被撕碎,和平遭到断送!

斯摩莱特很熟悉军旅生涯。他曾经在皇家海军担任外科医生,他在小说当中也花费了不少笔墨来描写军队的肮脏暗面。但是如果读者们真想了解在一艘乔治二世国王时期的战舰上生活是怎样的感受,斯摩莱特的文笔还是略逊一筹,倒不如去读一读某无名诗人撰写的讽刺诗:《一名海上随军牧师就船尾瞭望台的使用情况向指挥室各级军官请愿》(A Sea Chaplain's Petition to the Lieutenants in the Ward-room, for the Use of the Quarter Gallery)。诗文的标题虽然拗口,内容却很直白。战舰上的随军牧师不想继续与其他水兵一起在船尾解大手,而是希望能使用相对隐秘舒适的军官们专用厕所。当然,诗人也知道自己仅仅在靠岸期间才有资格与军官同桌吃饭,但是他依然忍不住请求军官们给个方便:

You that can grant or can refuse the pow'r,

Low from the stern to drop the golden show'r

When nature prompts,Oh! patient deign to hear,

If not a parson's, yet a poet's pray'r!

E'er taught the difference, to commissions due,

Presumptuous I aspir'd to mess with you :

But since the diff'rence known 'twixt sea & shore,

That mighty happiness I urge no more,

An humble boon, and of a different kind,

(Grant heav'n a diff'rent answer it may find)

Attends you now (excuse the rhyme I write),

And tho' I mess not with you--let me shite!

你若有权拒绝或者允许

从船尾向下洒落黄金雨

在自然督促之际,哦!请耐心听我分说根由,

就算这不是牧师发言,至少是诗人的祈求。

在下早就学过军衔高低之分,

也曾放肆地胆敢与各位厮混;

但是海上与岸上的规矩不能相提并论,

我自然也再不敢寻求此等天大福分。

只有一点卑微的请求,源自另一方面

(惟愿上天赐予我不同的答案),

允许我加入你们(请原谅我强行押韵)

——我绝无冒犯之意——当我必须排粪!

当然,缺乏隐私还远远算不上是最严重的问题。接下来的诗文更是直言不讳地描述了船上的如厕方式:

Of those more vulgar tubes that downward peep,

Near where the lion awes the raging deep,

The waggish youths, I tell what I am told,

Oft smear the sides with excremental gold,

Say then, when pease, within the belly pent,

Roar at the port and struggle for a vent,

Say, shall I pludge on dung remissly down,

And with unseemly ordure stain the gown?

Or shall I - terrible to think - displode,

Against the unbutton'd plush the smoky load?

The laugh of swabbers? - Heav'n avert the jest !

And from th' impending scorn preserve your priest!

那些更粗鄙的管道自然也会向下窥探,

位置就在那傲视波涛的船首狮头侧面。

那些顽劣的青年——这话也是别人告诉我

——惯于将后门出产的黄金在狮头两边涂抹。

例如当豌豆在某人腹中起劲翻搅,

自然要跑到船舷将宣泄场所寻找。

莫非我排放污秽时只能马虎随意,

听任这身法袍沾染上刺鼻的臭气?

又莫非我只能——天可怜见——原地爆破,

解开绒毛裤,喷发出热气腾腾的负荷?

沦为拖地勤务兵的笑柄?——上天开恩!

别让你们的教士被奚落得无处容身!

十八世纪英语诗歌全都彬彬有礼的成见到此就可以休矣了。接下来随军牧师又抱怨说他嫉妒船上的皮匠,因为皮匠有专属的厕所。他此前空耗光阴接受教育与祝圣,可是现在的如厕条件还赶不上区区一个“收拾皮革的家伙”:

Ah! What avails it, that in days of yore,

The instructive lashes of the birch I bore.

For four long years with logic stuff'd my head,

And feeding thought went supperless to bed,

Since you with whom my lot afloat is thrown,

(O sense! O elegance! to land unknown)

Superiour rev'rence to the man refuse,

Who mends your morals, than who mends your shoes.

啊!这么多年的辛苦,究竟为了什么?

桦树枝教鞭的抽打我曾无数次挨过。

整整四年研究逻辑,塞满我的头脑,

空着肚子上床睡觉,脑子里只顾思考。

现在我与你们几位一起漂流在海上,

(啊理性!啊优雅!都留在了陆地的方向)

诸位却拒绝授予更高一等的尊敬,

振奋士气之人还赶不上鞋匠的处境。

以上诗文肯定无法与蒲柏的手笔相提并论,甚至与斯威夫特都相差甚远。但是诗文当中的确蕴藏着源于个人尊严与阶级歧视的真切愤怒。在笔者看来,这一首诗对于皇家海军生活的描述足以与一大摞历史著作相提并论。


2020-01-01 22:18:55
2019-12-25 05:14:26
4456604 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25498`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 理性时代以及奴隶与污秽等等4 1

就像德莱顿一样,蒲柏也是一名伟大的翻译——他主要翻译荷马而不是维吉尔——但是他为其他诗人留下的最重要遗赠在于彰显了恶搞英雄诗可以用来描绘几乎一切事物。恶搞英雄诗非但没有局限作者的写作范围,反而为他们打开了整个世界。蒲柏最伟大的仰慕者托马斯.格雷学到了这一课。他的《墓园挽歌》(Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard)堪称最广为人知且最具标志性的十八世纪英语诗歌。就像蒲柏一样,我们今天依然会有意无意地引用格雷的诗句。不过早在他创作这首诗之前还写过另一首远远更加接近蒲柏的搞笑精神的诗歌。这首诗让我们看到了英国国民性的另一个重要侧面,即宠爱小动物,尤其是猫。这一特质正在十八世纪迅速成型。这首诗也是一首挽歌,题为《一只心爱的猫在金鱼缸中淹死有感》(Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat, Drowned in a Tub of Goldfishes')。但凡是养猫的人都能看出诗文的描写多么栩栩如生。此外这首诗还提醒我们,贸易与物质主义的新时代正在降临英国——当时来自中国的瓷器是最炙手可热的畅销品。(还记得《卷发遇劫记》里那个从高处落下的“华丽的中国花瓶”吗?)

’Twas on a lofty vase’s side,

Where China’s gayest art had dyed

The azure flowers that blow;

Demurest of the tabby kind,

The pensive Selima, reclined,

Gazed on the lake below.

那是在一个高大的磁缸边上,

中国磁器的色彩多么绚丽明亮;

上面绘有盛开的天蓝花朵,

赛莉玛趴在缸沿思索深沉;

她这只猫最庄严最斯文,

正将脚下湖水紧紧盯着。

Her conscious tail her joy declared;

The fair round face, the snowy beard,

The velvet of her paws,

Her coat, that with the tortoise vies,

Her ears of jet, and emerald eyes,

She saw; and purred applause.

轻摇的尾巴表露出她的喜悦:

她照见漂亮的圆脸,髭须如雪,

她的四爪绒毛像天鹅绒般柔和,

她的皮毛闪着玳瑁般的光泽,

还有墨玉似的耳朵,碧玉似的眼睛;

她发出呜呜的叫声十分高兴。

Still had she gazed; but ’midst the tide

Two angel forms were seen to glide,

The genii of the stream;

Their scaly armour’s Tyrian hue

Through richest purple to the view

Betrayed a golden gleam.

她两眼盯着水面,只见水波荡漾

游荡着一双天仙似的倩影,

那模样就象是一对水妖形象,

披着紫红色的鳞甲将水波引领:

那鳞色好比用海螺浸出的染料,

在浓艳的绛紫中有金光闪耀。

The hapless nymph with wonder saw;

A whisker first and then a claw,

With many an ardent wish,

She stretched in vain to reach the prize.

What female heart can gold despise?

What cat’s averse to fish?

不幸的猫美人她越看越惊奇,

炽热的欲望在她心中升起,

她先探出胡须,又伸爪到水中,

拼命抓捞,但却枉费心机一场空。

哪个女人的心能鄙视黄金?

哪只猫的嘴巴能不馋鱼腥?

Presumptuous maid! with looks intent

Again she stretch’d, again she bent,

Nor knew the gulf between.

(Malignant Fate sat by, and smiled)

The slippery verge her feet beguiled,

She tumbled headlong in.

冒失的猫小姐呵!她两眼似火烧,

不住地探下身,不住地去抓捞;

她不知道脚下是一片深渊,

暗自狞笑的命运等在旁边;

缸沿太滑,她的立足点突然一松,

她一失足就头朝下摔进水中。

Eight times emerging from the flood

She mewed to every watery god,

Some speedy aid to send.

No dolphin came, no Nereid stirred;

Nor cruel Tom, nor Susan heard;

A Favourite has no friend!

她先后八次浮出激荡的水面,

挣扎呼叫向各位水神求援,

快来把她救出这危险;

但既不见海豚,仙女也没出现,

连狠心的汤姆和苏珊也毫无所闻,

心爱的猫啊,临危时竟没一个友人!

From hence, ye beauties, undeceived,

Know, one false step is ne’er retrieved,

And be with caution bold.

Not all that tempts your wandering eyes

And heedless hearts, is lawful prize;

Nor all that glisters, gold.

你们,还未受骗上当的美人,

从此该知道一失足将成千古恨,

你们要大胆,但更须谨慎:

那使你们流盼的秀目和轻浮的心

感到诱惑的,并非都是可取的目标,

那熠熠生辉的并非都是金子在闪耀!【顾子欣译,有修改】

格雷笔下更有名的那首挽歌创作于十八世纪四十年代,其中至少有一部分章节创作于白金汉郡斯托克珀格斯的圣贾尔斯教区教堂的周边墓地里。尽管这首诗的创作起因是一位朋友的逝世,但是诗歌的主题却是对生死关口的整体反思。诗人身处于一个睡眼惺忪、籍籍无名的英国小镇,镇子里的淳朴居民们全都注定将会被历史遗忘。针对小镇风貌的细微描写正是诗文的奇特感染力源自的来源。莎士比亚在十四行诗里不管不顾地表达了对于永世留名的渴望,而我们不妨将这首诗视作针对莎士比亚的回答:

The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,

The lowing herd wind slowly o'er the lea,

The plowman homeward plods his weary way,

And leaves the world to darkness and to me.

晚钟响起一阵阵给白昼报丧,

牛群在草原上迂回,吼声起落,

耕地人累了,回家走,脚步踉跄,

把整个世界留给了黄昏与我。

Now fades the glimm'ring landscape on the sight,

And all the air a solemn stillness holds,

Save where the beetle wheels his droning flight,

And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds;

苍茫的景色逐渐从眼前消退,

一边肃穆的寂静盖遍了尘寰,

只听见嗡嗡的甲虫转圈子纷飞,

昏沉的铃声催眠着远处的羊栏。

Save that from yonder ivy-mantled tow'r

The moping owl does to the moon complain

Of such, as wand'ring near her secret bow'r,

Molest her ancient solitary reign.

只听见常春藤披裹的塔顶地下

一只阴郁的鸱枭向月亮诉苦,

怪人家无端走进它秘密的住家,

搅扰它这个悠久而僻静的领土。

Beneath those rugged elms, that yew-tree's shade,

Where heaves the turf in many a mould'ring heap,

Each in his narrow cell for ever laid,

The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep.

峥嵘的榆树地下,扁柏的荫里,

草皮鼓起了许多零落的荒堆,

各自在洞窟里永远放下了身体,

小村里粗鄙的父老在那里安睡。

The breezy call of incense-breathing Morn,

The swallow twitt'ring from the straw-built shed,

The cock's shrill clarion, or the echoing horn,

No more shall rouse them from their lowly bed.

香气四溢的晨风轻松的呼召,

燕子从茅草棚子里吐出的呢喃,

公鸡的尖喇叭,使山鸣谷应的猎号

再不能唤醒他们在地下的长眠。

For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn,

Or busy housewife ply her evening care:

No children run to lisp their sire's return,

Or climb his knees the envied kiss to share.

在他们,熊熊的炉火不再会燃烧,

忙碌的管家妇不再会赶他的夜活;

孩子们不再会“牙牙”的报父亲的来到,

为一个亲吻爬到他膝上去争夺。

Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield,

Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke;

How jocund did they drive their team afield!

How bow'd the woods beneath their sturdy stroke!

往常是:他们一开镰就所向披靡

顽梗的泥板让他们犁出了垄沟;

他们多么欢欣的赶牲口下地!

他们一猛砍,树木就一棵棵低头!

Let not Ambition mock their useful toil,

Their homely joys, and destiny obscure;

Nor Grandeur hear with a disdainful smile

The short and simple annals of the poor.

“雄心”别嘲讽他们使用的操劳,

家常的欢乐、默默无闻的运命;

“豪华”也不用带着轻蔑的冷笑

来听讲穷人的又短又简的生平。

The boast of heraldry, the pomp of pow'r,

And all that beauty, all that wealth e'er gave,

Awaits alike th' inevitable hour.

The paths of glory lead but to the grave.

门第的炫耀,有权有势的煊赫,

凡是美和财富所能赋予的好处,

前头都等待着不可避免的时刻:

光荣的道路无非是引导到坟墓。【卞之琳译】

上文中笔者提到,尽管亚历山大.蒲柏通常被视为文学经营与罕见的奇才,但却是他开启了描写日常生活现实的大门。他的另一位朋友——同时也是乔纳森.斯威夫特的朋友——是约翰.盖伊。今天的读者们大概最熟悉他在1728年创作的《乞丐歌剧》。此前的英国戏剧从没见识过这样的作品。当时的伦敦痴迷于奢华的意大利歌剧,其中充斥着阉人歌手与一个字都听不懂的咏叹调。盖伊的应对则是推出了一部朴实刚健的英国戏剧,配乐采用民歌曲调,对白全用英文,剧情里遍布着强盗与杀人犯,还毫不留情地讽刺了英国的第一位恐怕也是最腐败的一位首相罗伯特.沃波尔。贝尔托.布莱希特还在二十世纪改编过这部作品。回到我们当下的主题,盖伊笔下描写日常生活最到位的诗歌就是《琐事,或行走于伦敦街道的艺术》(Trivia; or The Art of Walking the Streets of London),一看标题就知道诗歌内容是什么。读者们能够通过这首诗领略一下十八世纪早期的英国城市生活。就像今天一样,上街散步首先要挑个好时候:

For ease and for dispatch, the morning's best;

No tides of passengers the street molest.

You'll see a draggled damsel, here and there,

From Billingsgate her fishy traffic bear;

On doors the sallow milk-maid chalks her gains;

Ah! how unlike the milk-maid of the plains!

Before proud gates attending asses bray,

Or arrogate with solemn pace the way;

These grave physicians with their milky cheer,

The love-sick maid and dwindling beau repair;

Here rows of drummers stand in martial file,

And with their vellum thunder shake the pile,

To greet the new-made bride. Are sounds like these

The proper prelude to a state of peace?

Now industry awakes her busy sons,

Full charg'd with news the breathless hawker runs:

Shops open, coaches roll, carts shake the ground,

And all the streets with passing cries resound.

为了轻松便利,出门最好赶在清早;

汹涌人潮尚未将街道搅扰。

一身又湿又脏的妇人三三两两,

提着鱼篮赶赴比灵门水产市场。

蜡黄脸的挤奶女工在各家门口用粉笔标记收获,

唉,她们的乡间同行可不是这番气色!

在敞亮的门口,前来出诊的毛驴嘶鸣,

它们迈着稳健的步伐占道慢行;

这些拉着长脸的医师给出乳汁甘甜,

化解怨女的相思病,将憔悴的痴男复原;*1

成排鼓手组成严整军阵,

小牛皮的鼓面声若雷震,

向新婚佳偶贺喜,耳听得鼓声不停

难道这也能预示婚后生活的和平?*2

此时各行各业都唤醒了各自人马操劳繁忙

气喘吁吁冲将过来的是传达新闻的卖报郎。

店铺开张,马车隆隆,板车震动地面,

形形色色的吆喝街头巷尾都能听见。

*1【当时英国人认为新鲜驴奶有保健功能,因此挤奶女工会将驴赶到买主家门口当场挤奶。】

*2【当时的英国婚俗,鼓乐队会在婚礼次日清晨来到婚房门口奏乐,领到钱才会离开。】

随着日上三竿,街道上越发繁忙拥挤,因此散步也越来越危险了,尤其要小心弄脏衣服:

If cloth'd in black, you tread the busy town

Or if distinguish'd by the rev'rend gown,

Three trades avoid; oft in the mingling press,

The barber's apron soils the sable dress;

Shun the perfumer's touch with cautious eye,

Nor let the baker's step advance too nigh;

Ye walkers too that youthful colours wear,

Three sullying trades avoid with equal care;

The little chimney-sweeper skulks along,

And marks with sooty stains the heedless throng;

When small-coal murmurs in the hoarser throat,

From smutty dangers guard thy threaten'd coat:

The dust-man's cart offends thy clothes and eyes,

When through the street a cloud of ashes flies;

But whether black or lighter dyes are worn,

The chandler's basket, on his shoulder borne,

With tallow spots thy coat; resign the way,

To shun the surly butcher's greasy tray,

Butcher's, whose hands are dy'd with blood's foul stain,

And always foremost in the hangman's train.

Let due civilities be strictly paid.

The wall surrender to the hooded maid;

Nor let thy sturdy elbow's hasty rage

Jostle the feeble steps of trembling age;

And when the porter bends beneath his load,

And pants for breath, clear thou the crowded road.

But, above all, the groping blind direct,

And from the pressing throng the lame protect.

You'll sometimes meet a fop, of nicest tread,

Whose mantling peruke veils his empty head;

At ev'ry step he dreads the wall to lose,

And risks, to save a coach, his red-heel'd shoes;

Him, like the miller, pass with caution by,

Lest from his shoulder clouds of powder fly.

若是你身穿黑衣来到繁忙路段,

又或者一身教士法袍,那可要小心察看

三大行当必须回避,尤其在拥挤的地方,

理发师的围裙准会将紫貂大衣弄脏;

千万别让香水师触摸你的衣服,

也不要挡住糕点师傅的去路。

你的衣衫若是青春的五彩亮色,

同样有三大行当要避让躲过;

清扫烟囱的孩童满街乱窜,

不留神的人群准得蹭一身煤烟。

一旦听见火炭在烟囱的粗喉中低声诉说,

就要保护大衣不受沾污,再小心也不多。

垃圾工的大车同时冒犯衣衫与眼目,

隆隆驶过街道,掀起一团尘土灰雾;

但是不管你的衣料颜色是浅是深,

都要将蜡烛匠肩头的篮子避让三分,

略碰一下,必然沾染一团油迹,

坏脾气屠夫的盛肉盘也同样油腻。

屠夫的双手浸透了可厌的血污,

经常率先将绞刑师的生意照顾。

话说回来,走在路上必须遵守礼貌,

要为带兜帽的女士让出内侧人行道;

切勿亮出结实的胳膊肘左推右搡,

体弱老者脚步虚浮,经不住此等鲁莽;

倘若看到直不起腰的搬运工扛着重负,

累得直喘粗气,应当主动为他开路。

但最重要的是,遇到摸索的盲人要主动指路,

要在拥挤人流当中将腿脚不便的残疾人保护。

有时你会遇见某人将最精美的假发顶在头上,

假发好似斗篷,遮住他的头顶空空荡荡。

他每走一步都存心内靠紧贴墙根,

为了赶上马车,顾不得爱惜红色鞋跟;

好比磨坊工人,他走起路来小心翼翼,

就怕扑满粉的发套离开肩膀凌空飞去。

显然这些诗文并非单纯的白描,而是包含了针对英国社会的讽刺。此外从地理角度来说这首诗还揭示了另一项有趣的现实:早在1716年本诗成篇的时候,伦敦城就已经出现了东城与西城之分:东城遍布着辛苦的劳动者,空气极其刺鼻,西城则更加高雅祥和:

Or who that rugged street would traverse o'er,

That stretches, O Fleet-ditch, from thy black shore*1

To the Tower's moated walls? Here steams ascend

That in mix'd fumes the wrinkled nose offend.

Where chandlers' cauldrons boil; where fishy prey

Hide the wet stall, long absent from the sea;

And where the cleaver chops the heifer's spoil,

And where huge hogsheads sweat with trainy oil

Thy breathing nostril bold; but how shall I

Pass, where in piles Carnavian cheeses lie;

Cheese,that the table's closing rites denies,

And bids me with th' unwilling chaplain rise?

O bear me to the paths of fair Pall-mall!

Safe are thy pavements; grateful is thy smell;

At distance rolls along the gilded coach,

Nor sturdy carmen on thy walk encroach;

No lets would bar thy ways, were chairs deny'd,

The soft supports of laziness and pride:

Shops breathe perfumes, through sashes ribbons glow,

The mutual arms of ladies and the beau.

若是有人走过这些粗粝街道之间,

这片街道起始于漆黑的舰队沟岸边,*1

通向护城河环绕的伦敦塔城墙脚下,

一路上各种秽气杂糅,令鼻子无法招架。

蜡烛匠煮开了大釜,鱼贩子摊开货物,

离海许久的水产将潮湿的摊位遮住;

大砍刀劈开了一块块硬质牛油,

大木桶壁渗出的鲸脂直往下流,

敢在这里吸气的鼻孔不得不说真有胆色,

遇见成堆的柴郡奶酪,我只得掩鼻而过;

好一堆奶酪,不去充当正餐之后的小菜,

非得逼着我像无奈的家庭牧师那样离开?*2

啊,我多想漫步在美丽的帕尔玛尔大道!

清新怡人的空气,安全放心的人行道;

远处辚辚驶过镀金马车光辉灿烂,

并不与行人争道,车夫也非粗壮莽汉。

路上没有杂乱障碍,不会妨碍坐轿,

柔软地衬托着乘客的慵懒与骄傲;*3

商铺橱窗里缎带生辉,门口飘着香气,

相互挽着臂膀的是情郎与佳丽。

*1【当时伦敦的一条排污明渠】

*2【在英国上游家庭当中,家庭牧师的地位高于仆役,但低于家庭成员与宾客。因此家庭牧师要在正餐结束后离席,没资格留下来享用奶酪之类的餐后甜点。】

*3【帕尔玛尔是步行街,车辆不得进入,但是轿子可以。】

笔者觉得约翰.盖伊的作品读起来很容易上瘾。他笔下的伦敦城如今依旧清晰可见。不过另一方面他也创作了大量乡村诗歌。以下诗文节选自他的《乡间运动:一首牧歌》(Rural Sports: A Georgic),首先是犬戏野兔:

Yet if for silvan sport thy bosom glow,

Let thy feet greyhound urge his dying foe.

With what delight the rapid course I view!

How does my eye the circling race pursue!

He snaps deceitful air with empty jaws,

The subtle hare darts swift beneath his paws;

She flies, he stretches, now with nimble bound.

Eager he presses on, but overshoots his ground;

She turns, he winds, and soon regains the way,

Then tears with goary mouth the screaming prey.

What various sport does rural life afford!

What unbought dainties heap the wholesome board!

若是你胸中涌动着林间运动的热情,

就放纵灵𤟥飞奔,去追逐亡命的敌人。

你追我赶的疾驰,看得我多么愉悦,

紧紧盯着绕圈子的竞赛激烈。

猎犬的利齿几次三番仅仅咬到骗人的空气

灵巧的兔子在利爪之间蹿来跳去。

她飞奔,他扑捉,灵活的动作真堪匹敌,

他纵身扑上去,可惜动作太大过犹不及。

她急转,他掉头,很快重新赶上进度,

张开血盆大口,咬住了尖叫的猎物。

乡间生活包含了多少娱乐花样!

健康的运动将免费的美味献上!

接下来是射猎丘鹬:

Now to the copse thy lesser spaniel take,

Teach him to range the ditch and force the brake;

Now closest coverts can protect the game:

Hark! the dog opens; take thy certain aim;

The woodcock flutters; how he wavering flies!

The wood resounds: he wheels, he drops, he dies.

体格较小的猎鹬犬,灌木丛是用武之地,

教会他跳过沟渠,冲过枝丫,径直向前去。

尽量抵近,让猎物难以逃走,

去!冲着既定目标撒出猎狗;

丘鹬扑腾腾飞起来,半空中摇摇晃晃,

一声枪响震动树林,鸟儿转着圈掉在地上。

除了上述的乡间运动之外,还有其他现代体育活动也正在显露雏形。威廉.索莫韦尔是华威郡的一位乡间士绅,在诗坛的名气相对而言不太显赫。之所以要提到此人是因为他的诗作率先描述了英国人打板球的场面。1734年他创作了一首名为《保龄绿地》(The Bowling-Green)的诗歌,首先描写了平整球场的场景:

Here every morn, while fruitful vapours feed

The swelling blade, and bless the smoking mead,

A cruel tyrant reigns: like Time, the swain

Whets his unrighteous scythe, and shaves the plain:

Beneath each stroke the peeping flowers decay,

And all the' unripen'd crop is swept away:

The heavy roller next he tugs along,

Whift's his short pipe, or rears a rural song ;

With curious eye then the press'd turf he views,

And every rising prominence subdues.

每天清晨,正当饱满的露水滋养孕育

饱满的草叶与晨雾缭绕的草地,

一位残忍的暴君,恰似时光无情,

磨利不义的镰刀,将绿地齐头削平;

每次挥动利刃,都要摧残多少鲜花,

那么多未成熟的植株都要脑袋搬家;

接下来他拖来一具沉重的辊子,

嘴里叼着烟斗,唱着村俗的曲子;

他仔细打量压平过后的草地,

看哪里还有凸起,就强行镇压下去。

接下来比赛选手们纷纷亮相,可谓涵盖了英国乡间的各色人等:

Attornies spruce, in their plate-button'd frocks,

And rosy parsons, fat and orthodox ;

Of every sect, Whigs, Papists, and Highflyers,

Cornuted aldermen and hen-peck'd squires ;

Fox-hunters, quacks, scribblers in verse and prose,

And half-pay captains, and half-witted beaus.

On the green cirque the ready racers stand,

Dispos'd in pairs, and tempt the bowler's hand ;

身穿平板纽扣大衣,律师们纷纷出动,

面色红润的教区教士,身材圆润,信仰端正;

政治派系一应俱全:辉格党,教皇派,高派教会信徒,

老婆偷汉的市议员,乡绅惧内如虎;

猎狐的士绅,二把刀的庸医,寻章摘句的字匠,

囊中羞涩的船长,多情郎的脑子不太灵光。

在绿色的环形场地里,选手们各自站好,

两两一组,等待着投球手的出招。

索莫韦尔本人的板球水平显然不错,至少很清楚这项运动有时会多么令人丧气。例如下面这位神父——诗人套用所罗门王手下大祭司的名讳,将此人称作匝多克————他的球技显然不如自己以为的那样出色。他一开始发球太靠左,后来又向右纠正得太过了:

As if he meant to regulate its course,

By power attractive and magnetic force;

Now almost in despair, he raves, he storms,

Writhes his unwieldy truck in various forms.

Unhappy Proteus! still in vain he tries

A thousand shapes, the bowl erroneous flies,

Deaf to his prayers, regardless of his cries;

His puffing cheeks with rising rage inflame,

And all his sparkling rubies glow with shame.

就好像他有意调整球的轨迹,

似乎他能释放吸引的磁力;

几乎彻底绝望,他狂呼不停,

颟顸的身材扭曲成了各种造型,

不幸的普罗透斯!千番变形全是徒劳,

错误的投球轨迹并不会矫正分毫,

听不见他的祈祷,不顾他的哭号;

他两颊如同火烧,粗气喘不止,

红宝石一般的脸色反映了心中羞耻。


  • 本帖 1 回复
最后于2020-01-01 22:17:43改,共2次;
2019-12-25 05:14:26
4456757 复 4456604
桥上
3 forefathers似不应译为父老 1

父老似乎一般指活着的人


2019-12-25 23:17:46
2019-12-23 22:11:14
4456200 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25498`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 理性时代以及奴隶与污秽等等3 1

住在伦敦的斯威夫特身边有一个由托利党反对派组成的小圈子,亚历山大.蒲柏就是其中之一。蒲柏是一位罗马天主教徒,终日疾病缠身,而且身材矮小近乎侏儒。他是英雄双韵体这一体例的最主要拥护者,一方面继承了弥尔顿的诗风,同时又避免了亦步亦趋的陷阱。1734年他撰写了著名长诗《论人》(Essay on Man),在诗中他试图为上帝对待人类的方式辩护。这首诗的笔调明媚乐观,绝对超出了弥尔顿的想象。诗文当中体现的“存在即合理”式的唯理论世界观日后将会遭到法国哲学大家伏尔泰的嘲讽与排斥。就其本质而言,这一世界观与庞弗雷特的中庸生活之道如出一辙,只是在哲学方面拔高了一层。不过与此同时,虔信天主教的蒲柏也流露出了针对科学理性主义的怀疑:

Know then thyself, presume not God to scan

The proper study of Mankind is Man.

Placed on this isthmus of a middle state,

A Being darkly wise, and rudely great:

With too much knowledge for the Sceptic side,

With too much weakness for the Stoic's pride,

He hangs between; in doubt to act, or rest;

In doubt to deem himself a God, or Beast;

In doubt his mind or body to prefer;

Born but to die, and reas'ning but to err;

Alike in ignorance, his reason such,

Whether he thinks too little, or too much;

Chaos of Thought and Passion, all confus'd;

Still by himself, abus'd or disabus'd;

Created half to rise and half to fall;

Great Lord of all things, yet a prey to all,

Sole judge of truth, in endless error hurl'd;

The glory, jest and riddle of the world.

先了解自己吧,且莫狂妄地窥测上帝,

人的研究对象应该是人类自己;

他愚昧的聪明,拙劣的伟大,

位于中间状态的狭窄地岬;

他要怀疑一切,可是又知识过多,

他要坚毅奋发,可是又意志薄弱;

他悬持中间,出处行藏,犹豫不定,

犹豫不定,是自视为神灵,还是畜生;

犹豫不定,是要灵魂,还是要肉体,

生来要死,依靠理性反而错误不己;

想得过多,想得过少,结果相同,

思想的道理都是同样的愚昧荒懵;

思想和感情,一切都庞杂混乱,

他仍放纵滥用,或先放纵而后收敛;

他生就的半要升天,半要入地,

既是万物之主,又受万物奴役;

他是真理的唯一裁判,又不断错误迷离,

他是世上的荣耀、世上的笑柄、世上的谜。【吕千飞译】

Go, wondrous creature! mount where science guides,

Go, measure earth, weigh air, and state the tides;

Instruct the planets in what orbs to run,

Correct old time, and regulate the sun;

Go, soar with Plato to th’ empyreal sphere,

To the first good, first perfect, and first fair;

Or tread the mazy round his followers trod,

And quitting sense call imitating God;

As Eastern priests in giddy circles run,

And turn their heads to imitate the sun.

Go, teach Eternal Wisdom how to rule—

Then drop into thyself, and be a fool!

去吧,了不起的生物!跟随科学的引领向上攀登,

去丈量大地,去称重空气,去规定潮落潮升;

去指教各大行星沿着哪条轨道奔忙,

去矫正旧日时光,还要去管理太阳;

去吧,跟随柏拉图翱翔到最高天,

去置身于太初既有的尽善尽美之间,

或者踏入他的追随者曾经涉足的迷魂场,

舍弃理智的呼唤,一心将上帝效仿;

恰似东方的教士,不顾眩晕地绕圈,

终日摇头晃脑,模仿太阳行进高天。

去吧,去教训永恒智慧怎样将寰宇统治,

然后赶紧回来老老实实当个傻子!

蒲柏毕生都是个虔诚的基督徒,不过并不是一般人想象当中反宗教改革时期典型的天主教徒——面容死板,心怀狂热。面对弥尔顿的质问,他认为人类理解能力有限,因此应当无条件信任上帝的智慧——换句话说人生在世理应随遇而安:

Hope humbly then; with trembling pinions soar;

Wait the great teacher Death; and God adore!

What future bliss, he gives not thee to know,

But gives that hope to be thy blessing now.

Hope springs eternal in the human breast:

Man never is, but always to be blest:

The soul, uneasy and confin'd from home,

Rests and expatiates in a life to come.

怀抱谦卑的希望,展开战栗的双翼,尽情飞升,

静待死亡这位伟大的教师,将上帝放在心中!

未来有什么福祉,祂可不会向我们说破,

只会给我们希望,让我们静享此时此刻。

永恒的希望,源自于人类的胸腔,

人永远不会幸福,但幸福永在前方;

灵魂远离故乡,受到束缚,局促迷惘,

待到来生降临,尽管可以休憩徜徉。

不过蒲柏与弥尔顿的较劲还催生了另一部人气更旺且更机智的作品。《卷发遇劫记》(The Rape of the Lock)是一首恶搞版的英雄史诗,也是针对气势恢宏但却毫无幽默可言的《失乐园》做出的搞怪回应。本诗发表于1712年,诗文的原型事件是现实生活当中一对青年男女的争执。姑娘名叫阿拉贝拉.弗莫尔,小伙子名叫佩德罗勋爵,两人都出身于信奉天主教的名门望族,因此他们在生活当中就像蒲柏本人一样要收到圣公会英国社会的诸多严格限制。不过这首诗却未曾沾染一丁点阴霾与苦涩。简单说来:佩德罗未经阿拉贝拉许可就剪下了她的一缕秀发,致使两家人吵得不可开交。蒲柏抓住这点鸡毛蒜皮的小事大做文章,将矮妖、精怪与仙灵等等一干神话生物全都请了出来。这些生物就像弥尔顿笔下的天使军团一样缥缈,但是体格却远远更小,因此看起来也远没有那么吓人——实际上这些小家伙们根本就是从《仲夏夜之梦》的片场赶过来客串的。凭借着它们的法力,蒲柏将弥尔顿式的暗黑悲剧硬生生地搅和成了一出轻喜剧。尽管英国的音乐传统无法与欧陆相提并论,但是蒲柏却证明了自己是全英国最接近莫扎特的存在。就像莫扎特的歌剧一样,这首诗一方面跳脱搞怪,同时又洋溢着浓厚的人文精神。诗篇一开头读者们就能看到蒲柏怎样将英雄史诗的套路演绎出了喜剧效果。本诗女主贝琳达一登场就赖在床上不肯起来:

Sol thro' white curtains shot a tim'rous ray,

And op'd those eyes that must eclipse the day;

Now lap-dogs give themselves the rousing shake,

And sleepless lovers, just at twelve, awake:

Thrice rung the bell, the slipper knock'd the ground,

And the press'd watch return'd a silver sound.

Belinda still her downy pillow press'd,

Her guardian sylph prolong'd the balmy rest:

'Twas he had summon'd to her silent bed

The morning dream that hover'd o'er her head;

A youth more glitt'ring than a birthnight beau,

(That ev'n in slumber caus'd her cheek to glow)

Seem'd to her ear his winning lips to lay,

And thus in whispers said, or seem'd to say.

穿过乳白的窗帘,是太阳神的辉光温柔,

唤醒了那对令白昼黯然失色的眼眸。

叭儿狗们长伸懒腰,开始抖擞身材,

彻夜未眠的恋人们在十二点钟醒来。

更衣铃三声脆响,拖鞋踢在地上,

玉手按动报时钟,报时声音清亮。

贝琳达依然赖着枕头,迷瞪着不肯起床,

她的守护仙灵将温存休憩的时刻延长,

召唤一段迷梦,来到安静的床前,

清晨的梦境在她脑海里飞扬盘旋。

梦中的少年,比皇家生日舞会更加光彩照人,

(还睡着的她都不免脸颊飞起红云)

他那迷人的双唇凑到了她的耳际,

似乎对她说了一番耳语私密:

"Fairest of mortals, thou distinguish'd care

Of thousand bright inhabitants of air!

If e'er one vision touch'd thy infant thought,

Of all the nurse and all the priest have taught,

Of airy elves by moonlight shadows seen,

The silver token, and the circled green,

Or virgins visited by angel pow'rs,

With golden crowns and wreaths of heav'nly flow'rs,

Hear and believe! thy own importance know,

Nor bound thy narrow views to things below.

Some secret truths from learned pride conceal'd,

To maids alone and children are reveal'd:

What tho' no credit doubting wits may give?

The fair and innocent shall still believe.

Know then, unnumber'd spirits round thee fly,

The light militia of the lower sky;

“最美丽的凡人,汝可知自己受到周到照顾,

栖身大气当中的成千生灵将汝精心看护!

若汝曾在孩提时分想象过此等景象,

若是乳娘神父的教诲汝还放在心上,

若汝还记得月光投影下现身的缥缈精灵,

献给它们的祈福银币,它们留下的芳草环形,

又或者天使的权柄如何将处女访问,

天使头戴金冠与花环,天国的鲜花多么娇嫩,

那么汝当听当信!汝可知自己多么重要?

切勿被下界的狭隘眼光束缚圈套,

多少秘密隐藏在傲慢的饱学之士眼前,

只会向少女与儿童展现本源。

疑心重重的智慧对它们不屑一顾,

纯真之辈却依然相信是真实事物。

要知道,无数的精灵正在环绕汝飞翔,

天空之下的纵队正在轻盈巡航。”

这段诗文与莎士比亚的继承关系可谓一看便知。但是接下来,随着邪恶的男主即将拿起贝琳达的剪刀剪下她的卷发,诗文风格也变成了恶搞版的弥尔顿史诗:

Just then, Clarissa drew with tempting grace

A two-edg'd weapon from her shining case;

So ladies in romance assist their knight

Present the spear, and arm him for the fight.

He takes the gift with rev'rence, and extends

The little engine on his fingers' ends;

This just behind Belinda's neck he spread,

As o'er the fragrant steams she bends her head.

Swift to the lock a thousand sprites repair,

A thousand wings, by turns, blow back the hair,

And thrice they twitch'd the diamond in her ear,

Thrice she look'd back, and thrice the foe drew near.

Just in that instant, anxious Ariel sought

The close recesses of the virgin's thought;

As on the nosegay in her breast reclin'd,

He watch'd th' ideas rising in her mind,

Sudden he view'd, in spite of all her art,

An earthly lover lurking at her heart.

Amaz'd, confus'd, he found his pow'r expir'd,

Resign'd to fate, and with a sigh retir'd.

就在此时,克拉丽莎凭着诱人的姿态

将一把双刃兵器从精美盒子里拿出来,

满心浪漫的女士们协助她们的骑士,

向他献上长矛,鼓舞他的斗志。

他虔诚地接过赠予,然后轻轻操纵

两道青锋在指端交叠运动。

潜行到贝琳达脑后,他将利刃舒张,

趁着她正低头嗅闻香水的馨香。

一千位仙灵赶紧冲上来将秀发保护,

一千对翅膀轮流扇动秀发,免得被利刃攫住。

为了报示警,它们三次将她耳垂上的钻石转动,

三次她回头观瞧,她的敌人三次蠢蠢欲动。

就在此刻,焦急的爱丽儿想要

向这懵懂的少女发送危险信号;

随着她胸前的香气逐渐消退,

祂看到她心里另有念想,以至于丧失戒备。

突然祂看到,尽管她的头脑玲珑聪慧,

一位俗世情郎却已潜入她心房之内。

既惊又惑,祂的法力迅速消散,

只得听天由命,徒留一声长叹。

The peer now spreads the glitt'ring forfex wide,

T' inclose the lock; now joins it, to divide.

Ev'n then, before the fatal engine clos'd,

A wretched Sylph too fondly interpos'd;

Fate urg'd the shears, and cut the Sylph in twain,

(But airy substance soon unites again).

The meeting points the sacred hair dissever

From the fair head, for ever, and for ever!

贵族青年张开了剪刀,只见寒光湛湛,

一旦两刃咔嚓合拢,卷发就要一刀两断。

当此关头,眼看致命的利刃即将交叠,

一位焦急的仙灵想用身躯挡住这一劫。

可恨命运驱动的利刃,将仙灵活活腰斩,

好在气态身躯立刻复原,结果并不算惨。

可是在锋刃的汇合点,神圣秀发根根截断,

远离了美丽的头颅,永别了,再不相见!

Then flash'd the living lightning from her eyes,

And screams of horror rend th' affrighted skies.

Not louder shrieks to pitying Heav'n are cast,

When husbands or when lap-dogs breathe their last,

Or when rich China vessels, fall'n from high,

In glitt'ring dust and painted fragments lie!

寒光恰似活闪电,在她的眼前掠过,

恐怖的惊叫足以将畏惧的天空刺破。

还从没有更刺耳的惨呼曾向天国射去,

哪怕眼看着丈夫或者叭儿狗寿终断气,

或者眼看着华丽的中国花瓶自高处落下,

化作闪光粉尘,彩绘碎片,一堆稀里哗啦!

就像莫扎特与斯威夫特一样,蒲柏的诗句也在喜剧的表象下潜藏了更加严肃的信息。惯于批判奥地利贵族精英的莫扎特最终贫病而死,斯威夫特临终之前则丧失了神智。喜剧及其所必需的姿态为他们提供了暂且抵挡黑暗的手段。蒲柏的生活也很不容易。由于在政坛与文坛树敌太多,他在泰晤士河畔的推克纳姆兴建了一座精巧的石窟型住宅用来自保,平时出门的时候总是牵着一条大狗,怀揣上膛的手枪。蒲柏毕生都是个局外人,全靠机智的头脑来对抗人生的无意义。他之所以大力抨击各位诗坛庸才,是为了维护自己的理智。在他晚年的作品《与阿布斯诺博士书》(Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot)当中,蒲柏代表古往今来每一位遭到三流粉丝仰慕的明星作家们宣泄了一番怨气:

Shut, shut the door, good John! fatigu'd, I said,

Tie up the knocker, say I'm sick, I'm dead.

The dog-star rages! nay 'tis past a doubt,

All Bedlam, or Parnassus, is let out:

Fire in each eye, and papers in each hand,

They rave, recite, and madden round the land.

快关上,亲爱的约翰,快关上门!我疲惫地说道,

快去固定住门环,就说我病入膏肓,针石无效。

天狼星邪光大作!情况已经显而易见,

文坛群英集体出动,活像掀翻了疯人院;

一个个两眼冒火,两手紧攥着片片纸张,

或狂呼乱叫,或念念有词,在大地上纵横嚣张。

What walls can guard me, or what shades can hide?

They pierce my thickets, through my grot they glide;

By land, by water, they renew the charge;

They stop the chariot, and they board the barge.

No place is sacred, not the church is free;

Ev'n Sunday shines no Sabbath-day to me:

Then from the Mint walks forth the man of rhyme,

Happy! to catch me just at dinner-time.

哪有围墙能保护我,哪有阴影供我躲避?

他们穿过我家树篱,他们翻找我家垃圾;

水上与陆上,他们的攻势源源不断,

他们阻拦我的马车,还要登上我的驳船查看。

他们无视圣所,我在教堂也不得自由,

就连礼拜天也不得安息,让我多么发愁;

然后又有一位文人施施然来自敏特:

好极了!晚餐时分他非得上门做客。

Is there a parson, much bemus'd in beer,

A maudlin poetess, a rhyming peer,

A clerk, foredoom'd his father's soul to cross,

Who pens a stanza, when he should engross?

Is there, who, lock'd from ink and paper, scrawls

With desp'rate charcoal round his darken'd walls?

All fly to Twit'nam, and in humble strain

Apply to me, to keep them mad or vain.

Arthur, whose giddy son neglects the laws,

Imputes to me and my damn'd works the cause:

Poor Cornus sees his frantic wife elope,

And curses wit, and poetry, and Pope.

一位教区牧师,啤酒杯从不离手,

一位忧郁的才女,一位贵族时常来两首,

一位文书官,决心要违背父亲的心意,

只顾涂写诗章,顾不得专心把账记,

一名囚犯,在牢房里搞不到笔墨,

就抓起木炭在墙壁上大搞创作,

全都涌向推克纳姆,央求我指点几句,

好让他们能继续发疯或者虚荣下去。

还有一位阿瑟——他的莽撞儿子惯于违法闯祸

——认为祸根都在于我本人与我的诗作;

可怜的考纳斯,他的老婆私奔偷汉,

因此诅咒文艺、诗歌以及蒲柏那个混蛋。

人生如此严肃,不大笑不足以安然度过。在蒲柏看来,针对文明与理智的最大威胁就是沉闷乏味——这个标签包括了政治宣传、夸大其词、谎言以及我们今天在信息层面上面临的一切威胁——而且这一威胁是生死攸关的大事。智力对于蒲柏来说是一项道德品质,换句话说蠢人就等于坏人。在他的长诗《愚人记》(The Dunciad)的结尾,他难得地点明了小丑的面孔后面潜藏着什么:

Religion blushing, veils her sacred fires,

And unawares Morality expires.

Nor public flame nor private dares to shine;

Nor human spark is left, nor glimpse divine!

Lo! thy dread empire Chaos is restor'd,

Light dies before thy uncreating word;

Thy hand, great Anarch, lets the curtain fall,

And universal darkness buries all.

宗教的尴尬,掩饰了神圣的火焰,

意识不到道德正在衰竭绝断,

明面上无人放火,私下里不敢点灯,

人类灵光荡然无存,只剩一片昏懵!

呜呼!可怖的混沌帝国即将恢复统治,

词语遭到抹杀之前光明就会消逝;

伟大的昏乱,你的手降下了帷幕,

无边的黑暗从此将一切禁锢。


2019-12-23 22:11:14
2019-12-18 20:51:30
4454971 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25498`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
2 理性时代以及奴隶与污秽等等2 1

说到哲学改善人生的效力,还有一个远远更加出色的例子,也就是乔纳森.斯威夫特撰写的关于他本人如何来日无多的著名诗歌。今天的读者们一提到斯威夫特首先就会想到《格列佛游记》与《木桶的故事》,但他同时也是英国历史上最杰出的爱尔兰诗人之一。以下诗文节选自《咏斯威夫特教长之死》(Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift),诗文开篇首先反思了人类幸灾乐祸的心态,然后又以非凡的勇气直视了生死之镜:

The time is not remote, when I

Must by the course of nature die;

When I foresee my special friends

Will try to find their private ends:

Tho' it is hardly understood

Which way my death can do them good,

Yet thus, methinks, I hear 'em speak:

"See, how the Dean begins to break!

Poor gentleman, he droops apace!

You plainly find it in his face.

That old vertigo in his head

Will never leave him till he's dead.

Besides, his memory decays:

He recollects not what he says;

He cannot call his friends to mind:

Forgets the place where last he din'd;

Plies you with stories o'er and o'er;

He told them fifty times before.

How does he fancy we can sit

To hear his out-of-fashion'd wit?

But he takes up with younger folks,

Who for his wine will bear his jokes.

Faith, he must make his stories shorter,

Or change his comrades once a quarter:

In half the time he talks them round,

There must another set be found.

那个日子距离现在不会漫长,

当我由于自然规律必须死亡;

我能预见到我的亲密朋友

从各自角度出发大嚼舌头。

尽管我反复思考还是糊涂,

我死了对他们有什么好处?

但是现在我就能听见他们说话:

“瞧啊,教长他真是老得太不像话!

可怜的老先生,涎水滴答直流,

流得满脸都是,看着叫人犯愁。

多久以前他就整天晕头胀脑,

这毛病到他死那天也好不了。

他的记性一天不如一天,

开口说话总是倒四颠三。

朋友的名字他全都对不上号,

问他上顿饭在哪里吃都不知道。

老掉牙的段子他讲了一遍又一遍,

重复了五十次,真招人不待见。

他还以为我们都有耐心坐下

听他那些老掉牙的陈年闲话?

他拉拢到身边的年轻人格外多,

陪他扯东扯西只为了蹭他的酒喝。

他当真有必要将他的故事精简一通,

要不然每次都要更换四分之一听众。

将全体听众絮叨一遍的时间过半,

就该另找一帮听众前来替换。”

"For poetry he's past his prime:

He takes an hour to find a rhyme;

His fire is out, his wit decay'd,

His fancy sunk, his Muse a jade.

I'd have him throw away his pen;—

But there's no talking to some men!"

“他的诗才早已经日薄西山,

如今押个韵脚都要寻思半天。

他的灵感已经熄灭,他的智力已经枯槁,

他的想象已经沉没,他的缪斯徐娘半老。

要我说他这把年纪就该趁早封笔——

可他要是气出个好歹我可承受不起!”

And then their tenderness appears,

By adding largely to my years:

"He's older than he would be reckon'd

And well remembers Charles the Second.

接下来他们就放软了口气

开始夸奖我这一把年纪:

“他可是比看上去更加高寿,

见识过查理二世主政的时候。”

"He hardly drinks a pint of wine;

And that, I doubt, is no good sign.

His stomach too begins to fail:

Last year we thought him strong and hale;

But now he's quite another thing:

I wish he may hold out till spring."

“他如今几乎滴酒不沾唇,

我觉得这一迹象着实有些愁人。

他的肠胃功能一天不如一天,

去年我们还觉得他老而弥坚。

可他现在看上去气息奄奄,

我希望他能活到明年春天。”

Then hug themselves, and reason thus:

"It is not yet so bad with us."

然后他们相互拥抱,并且得出结论:

“咱们现在身体还行,真是不小的福分。”

这段诗文对于死亡的描写如此露骨,同时又不乏幽默与人性,为约翰.道恩恐惧死亡的诗文提供了响亮的回答,奥古斯都时代英国人对于镇定克制的信念也得到了彰显。诗歌有实用价值吗?笔者认为这首诗肯定有,因为诗人生动且永久地申斥了自艾自怜的心态。不过斯威夫特也会创作没那么有用却同样令人瞠目的诗歌。他的《妙龄水仙女就寝》(A Beautiful Young Nymph Going to Bed)描写了一位胸部下垂的老妓女脱衣上炕的景象,行文实在过于恶心,以至于笔者实在无法收录在此。此外就笔者所知,他的《女更衣室》(The Lady's Dressing Room)也是第一首直接描写大便过程的英文诗歌(“啊,西莉亚,西莉亚,西莉亚,你也拉屎啊!”)。斯威夫特的伟大之处在于戳破了我们对于十八世纪英国诗人的成见:他们绝非只会描写理想化的事物,却对身边的日常生活视而不见。斯威夫特的观察力极其敏锐,他注意到了人们在突然遇到倾盆大雨时会如何表现,也听到了他们在参加某位将军的葬礼时的交头接耳。他的平生挚爱名叫艾丝特.约翰森,他惯于在她生日那天为她写诗祝贺。下面这首《致斯黛拉的生日,1720年》(Stella’s Birthday, 1720)一下就触及了爱情与衰老这两大话题:

ALL travellers at first incline

Where’er they see the fairest sign:

And if they find the chambers neat,

And like the liquor and the meat,

Will call again, and recommend

The Angel Inn to every friend.

What though the painting grows decay’d,

The house will never lose its trade:

Nay, though the treacherous tapster, Thomas,

Hangs a new Angel two doors from us,

As fine as daubers’ hands can make it,

In hopes that strangers may mistake it,

We think it both a shame and sin

To quit the true old Angel Inn.

所有的行路旅人第一眼看到

这最美丽的招牌,都忍不住歇脚。

若是他们喜欢这整洁的房舍,

美酒佳肴消解了他们的饥饿,

那么他们改天必然还会光临,

并且将天使酒馆推荐给友人。

就算招牌上的涂料有些脱落,

这家店永远不必担心生意难做。

只可气那酒保托马斯自以为别出心裁,

在隔壁第三栋房屋挂出了簇新的招牌。

画匠穷尽技艺,天使画得栩栩有神,

他以为这就能诱骗头回顾客走错门。

至于熟客们都觉得真是丢人现眼,

我们可不会离开正牌的天使酒馆。

Now this is Stella’s case in fact,

An angel’s face a little crack’d,

(Could poets or could painters fix

How angels look at thirty-six:)

This drew us in at first to find

In such a form an angel’s mind;

And every virtue now supplies

The fainting rays of Stella’s eyes.

See at her levee crowding swains,

Whom Stella freely entertains

With breeding, humour, wit, and sense,

And puts them but to small expense;

Their minds so plentifully fills,

And makes such reasonable bills,

So little gets for what she gives,

We really wonder how she lives!

And had her stock been less, no doubt

She must have long ago run out.

斯黛拉的境况也与此相同,

略微有些皴裂的天使面容。

(诗人与画家们,求你们用心创造

三十六岁的中年天使该是何等容貌:)

这副面容吸引我们深入寻找

天使具有怎样一副明慧头脑;

人间一切德行无不具备,

斯黛拉的眼神多么妩媚。

看斯黛拉如何应对追求者的拥挤人流

轻松写意,在主顾们之间周到应酬。

凭借气质,幽默,机智以及心思灵巧,

让每一位酒客花钱都不会大手大脚。

客人们都被她招待得满心欢喜,

他们的消费金额自然十分合理。

她的所得这么少,她的付出这么多,

我们都奇怪她究竟如何维持生活!

若是她的家底再薄弱一些,那就毫不稀奇

好久之前她家买卖就要关门大吉。

Then who can think we’ll quit the place,

When Doll hangs out a newer face?

Or stop and light at Chloe’s head,

With scraps and leavings to be fed?

Then, Chloe, still go on to prate

Of thirty-six and thirty-eight;

Pursue your trade of scandal-picking,

Your hints that Stella is no chicken;

Your innuendoes, when you tell us,

That Stella loves to talk with fellows:

所以说我们怎会另寻去处?真是笑话,

就因为布娃娃酒馆将新招牌悬挂?

难道我们还真要去克洛伊酒馆做客?

她家饭菜的用料全都是边角剩货。

克洛伊老板娘还有脸整天叽叽喳喳:

“她都三十六了”——你今年可是三十八!

你老人家的手艺无非是搬弄短长,

明里暗里咒骂斯黛拉不是黄花姑娘。

含沙射影,你散布伤人的八卦:

“那个斯黛拉整天爱跟男人说话!”

And let me warn you to believe

A truth, for which your soul should grieve;

That should you live to see the day,

When Stella’s locks must all be gray,

When age must print a furrow’d trace

On every feature of her face;

Though you and all your senseless tribe,

Could art, or time, or nature bribe,

To make you look like Beauty’s Queen,

And hold for ever at fifteen;

No bloom of youth can ever blind

The cracks and wrinkles of your mind:

All men of sense will pass your door,

And crowd to Stella’s at four-score.

我有一条事实,请你用心牢记,

记住之后你的灵魂活该痛哭流涕:

就算你能看到那个时候,

当斯黛拉终于白发满头,

当岁月在她脸上开垦出沟壑,

眼角眉梢全都不肯放过,

而且你与那帮众星捧你的俗汉

还将艺术、时间抑或自然规律买断,

让你从此变得美若天仙,

永远驻留在十五岁那天,

可你再怎么装嫩也掩饰不了

一颗黑心当中的皱纹与衰老。

凡是明理之辈都将过你家门而不入,

只会争先恐后将斯黛拉的生意光顾。

就像关于他本人的死亡的诗歌一样,这首诗的主旨同样是体面的生存与强大的内心。“气质,幽默,机智以及心思灵巧”全都无惧时间的考验。

接下来这首诗堪称是奥古斯都时代最大胆的发言。每一位受过教育的读者都很清楚,斯威夫特在文坛的主流形象既愤怒又冷峻,尤其是涉及到英格兰在爱尔兰的残暴统治的时候。他在著名散文《一个温和的建议》当中反话正说地主张要将爱尔兰儿童卖给英格兰富人当成美味佳肴,从而一举解决爱尔兰人口过剩与农业衰落的问题。这篇文章堪称是英伦三岛古往今来最犀利最凶残的一篇政治讽刺。此外斯威夫特的讽刺诗歌同样独树一帜。下面这首《已故著名将军讽刺悼词》(A Satirical Elegy on the Death of a Late Famous General)虽然不像《建议》一文那样怒火中烧,但是也差不了多少。在笔者看来,这是截止到当前为止(即1765年)最伟大的英国反战诗歌。诗中的讽刺对象是马尔伯勒公爵、温斯顿.丘吉尔的祖先约翰.丘吉尔。马尔伯勒公爵是一位在英国军事史上名列前茅的伟大将领,他在欧陆各地与法军作战并取得了一连串辉煌胜利,例如布莱尼姆战役,拉米伊战役以及奥登纳德战役等等。他是安妮女王的亲信,对他心怀感激的英国民众还在牛津郊区为他集资兴建了一座宫殿规模的豪宅。但是所有这一切对于斯威夫特来说连个屁都不值。在他眼里,马尔伯勒公爵仅仅只是一个躲藏在荣华富贵的伪装之下的战争贩子与刽子手而已:

His Grace! impossible! what dead!

Of old age too, and in his bed!

And could that mighty warrior fall?

And so inglorious, after all!

Well, since he’s gone, no matter how,

The last loud trump must wake him now:

And, trust me, as the noise grows stronger,

He’d wish to sleep a little longer.

And could he be indeed so old

As by the newspapers we’re told?

Threescore, I think, is pretty high;

’Twas time in conscience he should die

This world he cumbered long enough;

He burnt his candle to the snuff;

And that’s the reason, some folks think,

He left behind so great a stink.

Behold his funeral appears,

Nor widow’s sighs, nor orphan’s tears,

Wont at such times each heart to pierce,

Attend the progress of his hearse.

But what of that, his friends may say,

He had those honours in his day.

True to his profit and his pride,

He made them weep before he died.

好一位大人!不可能!死了吗?

居然还是寿终正寝?还死在自家床上?

难不成伟大的武士就这样陨落?

这么丢人的结局,请容我道一声“呵呵!”

嗨,死都死了,何必费力勉强,

唯有末日审判的号角才能让他睁眼还阳。

相信我,随着审判号角越发刺耳,

他肯定想在坟坑里再多躲一会儿。

他的寿数难道当真年逾花甲,

要是我们听信了报纸的说法?

阳寿六十年,要我说差不多就得了,

他要还有良心,趁早就该别活了。

他在人世间腻歪了太久太长,

油尽灯枯,如今他终于毙亡。

许多人都以为正是因为如此

他的尸体才会散发恶臭不止。

在他的葬礼上可是看不到

孤儿的眼泪与寡妇的哭号。

别人出殡时能刺穿人心的哀鸣

并未陪伴他的灵车向前进行。

不过他的朋友或许会说,这都是小事,

毕竟他还活着那会儿就已经哀荣备至。

为了维护骄傲,为了一己私利,

他在生前就听够了孤儿寡妇的哭泣!

读者们要是觉得斯威夫特的怒火已经达到了极致,不妨继续看看这首诗的结尾:

Come hither, all ye empty things,

Ye bubbles raised by breath of kings;

Who float upon the tide of state,

Come hither, and behold your fate.

Let pride be taught by this rebuke,

How very mean a thing’s a Duke;

From all his ill-got honours flung,

Turned to that dirt from whence he sprung.

都凑过来吧,你们这帮腹内空洞的草包,

你们不过是肥皂泡,被君王的吐息吹高。

你们的浮沉全凭国运潮落潮涨,

都凑过来吧,看看你们命定的下场!

让傲慢之辈将眼前的教训铭记,

所谓的公爵究竟是个什么东西;

一辈子欺世盗名,最终于事无补,

粪土里滋生的玩意毕竟要归于粪土。


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最后于2019-12-22 21:15:21改,共3次;
2019-12-18 20:51:30
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