主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

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O 六,只要大笑就好吗?英国的毛拉与快感问题1 1 万年看客 字13236 2019-11-12 21:23:33
O 只要大笑就好吗?英国的毛拉与快感问题2 1 万年看客 字15222 2019-11-12 21:24:49
O 快点耍起来似乎可以用快点嗨起来好点 桥上 字0 2019-11-12 23:39:57
O 借地再问一遍, 桥上 字66 2019-11-12 23:41:53
O 马尔科姆.X的出身是nation of islam 4 万年看客 字219 2019-11-12 23:47:49
O 只要大笑就好吗?英国的毛拉与快感问题3 1 万年看客 字16630 2019-11-24 21:42:34
O 十四行诗是十四行吗? 桥上 字0 2019-11-24 23:46:17
O del 万年看客 字0 2019-11-25 00:44:19
O 是的 1 万年看客 字0 2019-11-25 04:08:48
O 只要大笑就好吗?英国的毛拉与快感问题4 1 万年看客 字7788 2019-11-25 04:10:03
O 与特定乐曲有关吗? 桥上 字0 2019-11-25 23:17:01
O 只要大笑就好吗?英国的毛拉与快感问题5 1 万年看客 字15763 2019-11-26 21:16:45
O 七,复辟了个啥?讽刺与科学以及英国政坛的诞生1 1 万年看客 字16537 2019-11-28 04:15:08
O 复辟了个啥?讽刺与科学以及英国政坛的诞生2 1 万年看客 字18563 2019-12-03 04:37:49
O 好像有个大科学家叫卡文迪许——卡文迪什 桥上 字0 2019-12-03 23:13:02
2019-11-12 21:23:33
4442672 复 4344063
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万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25499`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
六,只要大笑就好吗?英国的毛拉与快感问题1 1

英国各地全都不太平。在北方,阿伯丁正在经受苏格兰的改革阵痛;在南部沿海,英格兰农村的德文与康沃尔教区正在动荡不休。从乌尔斯特的种植园到克伦威尔势力位于英格兰东部的大本营,十七世纪对于英国来说是宗教极端主义乃至宗教狂热的时代。当然这其中也少不了夹杂着政治因素,中世纪的君权神授信条正在与中产阶级日益高涨的自信与理性精神迎头冲撞。但是在长达半个世纪的时间里,所有英国人都看着其他英国人不顺眼。正如前文所见,许多最伟大的英国诗人看穿了宗教狂热的障眼法或者干脆采取了见怪不怪的态度,从而创作出了英语世界里最为熠熠生辉的属灵表达作品。还有些诗人则反其道而行之,干脆将虔诚与严肃抛在脑后,大摇大摆地创作出了一批与死亡无关的情诗乃至黄诗。

安德鲁.马维尔可以十分合宜地归属于上述两类诗人当中的任何一类,实际上就算为他本人单独设立一个门类也不为过。此人是清教宣传家,克伦威尔的辩护士,居住在乡间的诗人以及猎艳成性的登徒子。下面这首诗是他的名作《致羞怯的情人》(To His Coy Mistress)。或许世界文学史上还没有哪一首诗作的创作目的像这首诗一样是一门心思为了地将一位不情不愿的女性哄骗上床。而且诗文本身也很幽默:

Had we but world enough and time,

This coyness, lady, were no crime.

We would sit down, and think which way

To walk, and pass our long love’s day.

Thou by the Indian Ganges’ side

shouldst rubies find; I by the tide

Of Humber would complain. I would

Love you ten years before the flood,

And you should, if you please, refuse

Till the conversion of the Jews.

My vegetable love should grow

Vaster than empires and more slow;

An hundred years should go to praise

Thine eyes, and on thy forehead gaze;

Two hundred to adore each breast,

But thirty thousand to the rest;

An age at least to every part,

And the last age should show your heart.

For, lady, you deserve this state,

Nor would I love at lower rate.

假若有足够的空间和光阴,

姑娘哟,你的羞怯就不算无情。

我们可以坐下来认真思索

该在哪条路上度过爱的时分。

你可以去印度的恒河边,

去寻觅那闪光的红宝石,

我会在汉伯河畔望水悲叹,

会在洪水前十年就对你钟情,

如果你愿意,你可以拒绝,

直到犹太人成为基督的教民。

我的爱可像草木缓慢地生长,

长得比帝国的疆域更宽广无垠。

我可以用上整整一百个年头

来凝视你的面庞,赞美你的眼睛,

用两百年来爱慕你的酥胸,

用三万年来崇仰你的全身;

你的每根头发都得爱一个世纪,

待世界末日才窥视你的芳心。

因为,姑娘哟,你值得这般爱恋,

我决不会降低我火一般的爱情。

But at my back I always hear

Time’s wingèd chariot hurrying near;

And yonder all before us lie

Deserts of vast eternity.

Thy beauty shall no more be found;

Nor, in thy marble vault, shall sound

My echoing song; then worms shall try

That long-preserved virginity,

And your quaint honour turn to dust,

And into ashes all my lust;

The grave’s a fine and private place,

But none, I think, do there embrace.

但是我常常听见在我身后

时间的飞轮正匆匆逼近;

那边哟,那边,在我们面前

是荒野的浩渺、沉寂的永恒。

你的美貌风韵将不复存在,

你的墓中也不会有我的歌声;

那时只剩下虫豸蠹蛆

来品尝你长久保持的童贞,

你高洁的名誉将变为尘土,

我情欲的烈焰也将烧成灰烬。

坟墓倒是个美好幽静的地方,

但谁也不会在那儿拥抱温存。

Now therefore, while the youthful hue

sits on thy skin like morning dew,

And while thy willing soul transpires

At every pore with instant fires,

Now let us sport us while we may,

And now, like amorous birds of prey,

Rather at once our time devour

Than languish in his slow-chapped power.

Let us roll all our strength and all

Our sweetness up into one ball,

And tear our pleasures with rough strife

Through the iron gates of life:

Thus, though we cannot make our sun

stand still, yet we will make him run.

所以哟,趁你青春的红颜

像清晨的露珠晶莹娇嫩,

趁你绸缪的心灵正春情荡漾,

趁熊熊欲火煎熬你根根神经,

能欢娱之时让我们尽情欢娱,

就像一对相亲相爱的飞鹰,

在狂欢的瞬间吞下全部岁月,

也不让时光来慢慢消磨青春。

让我们把力量溶为一体,

让我们把柔情聚在一身,

让我们为欢乐而奋力搏击,

冲破生活那铁铸的囚门。

我们纵然不能阻止年华流逝,

但可以让那欢乐的佳期早临。【曹明伦译】

这首诗的主题——人生苦短及时行乐——与机智的文笔都是通常所谓“骑士派诗歌”(cavalier poetry)的显著特色。之所以叫这个名字是因为大多数专精这一流派的诗人都是保皇派。斯图亚特王朝的御用词人们随随便便就能谱写出连篇累牍的精彩艳情诗,以至于笔者不得不略举几个例子。总体而言,笔者认为这一流派的兴起是针对上一章节严苛冷硬文风的必要反制。上一代的诗人们往往抱有某种近乎中二的惨淡理念,认为人间就是个即将完蛋的黑暗世界。骑士派诗人们的应答则是:“快点耍起来!”下面这首诗是约翰.萨克林的《致一个失恋的小伙子》(Why so pale and wan fond lover?):

Why so pale and wan fond lover?

Prithee why so pale?

Will, when looking well can’t move her,

Looking ill prevail?

Prithee why so pale?

为什么这样子苍白,憔悴,痴心汉?

请问,为什么这样子苍白?

红光满面既不能叫她心转,

难道哭丧脸就换得回来?

为什么这样子苍白?

Why so dull and mute young sinner?

Prithee why so mute?

Will, when speaking well can’t win her,

saying nothing do’t?

Prithee why so mute?

为什么这样子发呆,发愣,小伙子?

请问,为什么这样子发愣?

漂亮话尚且嵌不进她的心模子,

难道装哑巴反而会成?

为什么这样子发愣?

Quit, quit for shame, this will not move,

This cannot take her;

If of herself she will not love,

Nothing can make her;

The devil take her.

算了,算了,争点气?这样子不行,

这样子你一点也降不了她;

如果她自己一点也并不动情,

随你怎样也勉强不了她:

魔鬼准保放不了她!【卞之琳译】

接下来的诗作是理查德.洛夫莱斯的《致贝拉》(La Bella Bona-Roba)。洛夫莱斯也是保皇派军队的一员,他在这首诗里描写一位身材尺码略大的妓女,这位女士可谓是后世所有胖女孩的主保圣人:

I cannot tell who loves the skeleton

Of a poor marmoset, naught but bone, bone.

Give me a nakedness with her clothes on.

我不知道谁会热爱瘦小的身材

恰似可怜的狨猴,一身只有骨头剩下来。

脱衣见肉的丰腴才值得我的爱。

such whose white-satin upper coat of skin,

Cut upon velvet rich incarnadin,

Has yet a body (and of flesh) within.

你的皮肉好比白绸质地的大衣,

白里透红,像天鹅绒在身上披,

衣衫里还包裹着另一具肉感的躯体。

sure it is meant good husbandry in men,

Who so incorporate with aery lean,

To repair their sides, and get their rib again.

男士身材胖大,说明境遇良好,

一心扑向纤细佳丽,最爱身材窈窕,

为了从她们身上取回遗失的肋条。

Hard hap unto that huntsman that decrees

Fat joys for all his sweat, whenas he sees,

After his 'say, naught but his keeper's fees.

这位猎人没得到好运的眷顾,

汗流浃背,誓言要捕捉肥美的猎物,

可是放眼望去,今天怕是要徒劳忙碌。

Then Love, I beg, when next thou takest thy bow,

Thy angry shafts, and dost heart-chasing go,

Pass rascal deer, strike me the largest doe.

爱神啊,我乞求你,当你下次将猎弓端起,

射出愤怒的箭矢,瞄准猎物的心里,

请为我刺穿最壮硕的牝鹿,将痩鹿放过去。

这些诗歌直接将目光投向了一个更加粗放的时代,继承了本.琼森的风格。创作诗歌的目的是为了给宫廷假面剧提供素材,但是诗文当中往往夹杂着愤世嫉俗甚至厌恶女性的基调。不妨回顾一下本.琼森的《可爱的真容》(sweet Neglect):

still to be neat, still to be dressed,

As you were going to a feast;

still to be powdered, still perfumed;

Lady, it is to be presumed,

Though art's hid causes are not found,

All is not sweet, all is not sound.

总是在梳妆,还要再打扮,

好像你要去参加个晚宴。

不停扑白粉,使劲喷香水,

女士,我这样认为,

尽管美容术能把原貌遮盖,

可一点不完美,一点不可爱。

Give me a look, give me a face,

That makes simplicity a grace;

Robes loosely flowing, hair as free;

such sweet neglect more taketh me

Than all th'adulteries of art.

They strike mine eyes, but not my heart.

请给我个真容,给我个素面,

让优雅尽显于简单。

柔发飘逸,衣袍宽松,

这番潇洒更将我的心打动,

胜过了所有艺妓的做作,

妆扮仅触动我眼睛,而非心窝。【木草堂网友译】

这首短诗的核心意象就是被“打动”的情人,好比咬钩的鱼儿。这一意象在笔者最喜欢的一首骑士派诗歌当中也得到了体现。这首诗的作者是德文郡的教士罗伯特.赫里克,题目叫做《朱莉娅的衣裙》(Upon Julia's Clothes),虽然只有短短六行,但却近乎完美:

Whenas in silks my Julia goes,

Then, then, methinks, how sweetly flows

That liquefaction of her clothes.

一袭霓裳步妖娆,

她,她衣袂香飘,

罗绮流波漾清瑶。

Next, when I cast mine eyes and see

That brave vibration each way free;

O how that glittering taketh me!

凝神投目来审细,

但见颤颤光陆离,

啊,闪熠摄魂迷!【晚枫网友译】

琼恩身处詹姆斯一世的宫廷当中,见惯了九转十八弯的宫心计。他歌颂清纯美就好比当代好莱坞女星声称自己从不节食,一听上去就觉得有猫腻。但是在身为教士、终日卡在德文郡不得脱身的赫里克笔下,同样的主题则要可信的多。他的笔法显然很诚恳,例如下面这首《无章的情趣》(Delight in Disorder):

A sweet disorder in the dress

Kindles in clothes a wantonness.

A lawn about the shoulders thrown

Into a fine distraction;

An erring lace, which here and there

Enthralls the crimson stomacher;

A cuff neglectful, and thereby

Ribbons to flow confusedly;

A winning wave, deserving note,

In the tempestuous petticoat;

A careless shoestring, in whose tie

I see a widely civility;

Do more bewitch me than when art

Is too precise in every part.

有一种美好的边幅不修,

使无拘的衣衫显得荡荡悠悠;

上等细麻布披在身上随风飘舞,

纷纷扬扬自有一种优美的风度;

胸前紧衣上系错了根把束带,

却迷住了猩红色的胸前饰彩,

袖口是疏忽了,然而正好

任凭丝带下垂,随意拂飘;

有一种迷人的波浪(值得注意),

那是狂风漫卷裙子引起;

一双鞋带,系时漫不经心,

我倒觉得潇洒而文明:

这些无章的情趣使我着迷,

远胜过那些精雕细刻的技艺。【何功杰译】

赫里克的文风虽说有些干巴巴的,但却十分流畅。他惯于阐述自己面临的悖论:他明明是一位习惯了大城市生活的诗人,但却因为形势所迫不得不在农村教区谋生。尽管如此,他的作品依然面向了一个在十七世纪四十年代迅速壮大起来的读者群体。请看这首《对德文郡不满》(Discontents in Devon):

More discontents I never had

since I was born, than here;

Where I have been, and still am, sad,

In this dull Devonshire.

Yet justly too I must confess,

I ne'er invented such

Ennobled numbers for the press,

Than where I loath'd so much.

自从我出生,也就是这里,

我从没有过那么多的不满意,

在这个无聊透顶的德文郡,

无论去哪儿,至今我都很压抑。

我还要非常公平地宣布,

我从没为那些报纸出力,

搞那号称诗歌的专栏,

就因为此处让我痛恨不已。【木草堂网友译】

这首诗的重大意义在于提到了报纸这一媒体。随着英伦三岛被政治冲突所分裂,人们对于新闻与时评的胃口也与日俱增。这正是英国新闻行业的开端。这一时期有许多伟大诗人——包括邓恩、赫伯特与马维尔——都很鄙视印刷品。他们的最重要诗作都通过手抄本形式在金主与友人之间流传,直到他们去世后才得到刊印。尽管如此,此时依然是政治宣传册的第一个黄金时代,识字的英国人的人数正在飞速攀升。马维尔与他的挚友约翰.弥尔顿都是热切的宣传册作者,两人的观点通过散文的传播还要比通过诗歌更加广泛。


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只要大笑就好吗?英国的毛拉与快感问题2 1

不过在这个宗教大辩论与爱情诗歌的时代,我们却很难听到女性的声音。现代英国初期的厌女风气尤其在清教革命期间得到了强化,因为当时人们广泛地将原罪与夏娃联系在一起。因此接下来的情况就很有趣了:在凤毛麟角的几位最早将诗作付梓的女性英国诗人当中,有一位的最成功诗作的主题正是为夏娃——换句话说就是女性的整体地位——进行辩护。这位艾米莉亚.拉尼尔也是当时汇聚在宫廷的艺术精英阶层的一员。她的父亲是伊丽莎白一世女王从威尼斯招来的乐师,她本人与一位年长的贵族公开维持了多年恋情,然后不太幸福地嫁给了一位表亲,最终高寿而亡。有些学者相信拉尼尔一家是犹太人,而且她本人就是莎士比亚在十四行诗里提到的“黑肤女郎”,不过这方面的证据很稀少。对于我们来说远远更加重要的她本人的诗作。在她的名作《万福上帝,犹太人的国王》(salve Deus Rex Judaeorum)当中,她辩称亚当要为背叛上帝与原罪承担比夏娃更大的责任:

Till now your indiscretion sets us free,

And makes our former fault much lesse appeare;

Our Mother Eve, who tasted of the Tree,

Giving to Adam what she held most deare,

Was simply good, and had no powre to see,

The after-comming harme did not appeare:

The subtile serpent that our sex betraide,

Before our fall so sure a plot had laide.

您的失察倒是让我们得到了解脱,*

极大地遮掩了我们曾经的过失;

我们的母亲夏娃,品尝了禁果,

觉得是至上的宝贝,才叫来亚当同吃;

她用心纯良,不知已闯下大祸,

后患尚未显露,日后结果她无力预知;

阴险的蛇背叛了我们全体女性,

在我们堕落之前就将毒计敲定。

*【“您”在上文中指代彼拉多。“您的失察”指的是彼拉多处死耶稣。】

That undiscerning Ignorance perceav'd

No guile, or craft that was by him intended;

For, had she knowne of what we were bereavid,

To his request she had not condiscended

But she (poore soule) by cunning was deceav'd,

No hurt therein her harmelesse Heart intended:

For she alleadg'd Gods word, which he denies,

That they should die, but even as Gods, be wise.

纯真的夏娃尚且不知区分善恶,

毫无机心,怎能看穿蛇的满腹奸计?

若是她早知道我们将会被剥夺什么,

绝不会听从蛇的佞言如蜜。

但她那可怜的灵魂终究被狡诈骗过,

尽管她心里从没有害人之意。

她引用了上帝的训诫,却被蛇驳斥,

“你们不会死,而是会像上帝一样明智。”

But surely Adam can not be excus'd,

Her fault, though great, yet hee was most too blame;

What Weaknesse offerd, strength might have refus'd,

Being Lord of all, the greater was his shame:

Although the serpents craft had her abus'd,

Gods holy word ought all his actions frame:

For he was Lord and King of all the earth,

Before poore Eve had either life or breath.

但是亚当在这件事里也难辞其咎,

她的过错虽大,他却更加值得责备;

弱者动摇之际,强者兴许不会被左右

他既是万物之主,理应更加感到羞愧。

诚然,她没能经得起蛇的巧言劝诱,

可他的一切举止更不该将上帝圣言违背。

当上帝封他做地土的主宰与君王之际,

可怜的夏娃还未得生命,未曾喘一口气。

...And then to lay the fault on Patience backe,

That we (poore women) must endure it all;

We know right well he did discretion lacke,

Beeing not perswaded thereunto at all;

If Eve did erre, it was for knowledge sake,

The fruit beeing faire perswaded him to fall:

No subtill serpents falshood did betray him,

If he would eate it, who had powre to stay him?

……这样说来,莫不是老实人多受欺负,

我们可怜的女性必须独自受过?

我们知道他心里其实也是一团糊涂,

甚至都不用蛇出面来将他诱惑。

夏娃犯错是为了获得知识的缘故,

他的堕落却是因为果实味道不错。

他可没有受到阴险之蛇的诡计蒙蔽,

他自己非要吃,谁能从他口中夺去?

...If any Evill did in her remaine,

Beeing made of him, he was the ground of all;

If one of many Worlds could lay a staine

Upon our sexe, and worke so great a fall

To wretched Man, by satans subtill traine;

What will so fowle a fault amongst you all?

Her weakenesse did the serpents words obay;

But you in malice Gods deare sonne betray.

若是有任何邪恶在女性身上残存,

根源也在男性,因为男性是造女性的材料。

若是大千世界之一能将女性染上污痕,

在撒旦的筹划之下布设了层层圈套,

这才导致了堕落,坑害了可悲的男人;

你们当中最肮脏的过错又有谁知道?

她因为软弱才受到了蛇的巧言欺骗,

你们却出于恶意将上帝的爱子背叛。

仅就文采节律而言,这几段诗文并不算特别朗朗上口。但是诗文内容却堪比短兵相接,直接挑战了伊丽莎白时代英国将女性贬斥为原罪容器的男性意识形态。除了本诗以外几乎再没有其他作品发起过类似的挑战。接下来拉尼尔更是勇敢地得出了她自己的结论:

Then let us have our Libertie againe,

And challendge to your selves no sov'raigntie;

You came not in the world without our paine,

Make that a barre against your crueltie;

Your fault beeing greater, why should you disdaine

Our beeing your equals, free from tyranny?

If one weake woman simply did offend,

This sinne of yours, hath no excuse, nor end.

所以让我们夺回自由,大胆发声,

且看你们有何颜面继续将我们辖制;

若非女性承受痛苦,男性怎能降生?

你们的残忍理应因此受到限制。

凭什么鄙视我们,你们的过错远远更重,

我们只想与你们平等,摆脱暴政统治。

若是一名弱女子的过错要被反复批判,

你们的罪孽更没有借口,更加长流不断。

就算拉尼尔平生仅仅写了这一首诗,她也完全有资格成为这一时期最值得研究的诗人之一——她的作品显然极大地动摇了我们对于伊丽莎白时代以及詹姆斯一世时代的固有理解。但是在同一部诗集的先前篇章里,拉尼尔还写了一首献给金主多赛特女伯爵的诗,在诗中将批判矛头指向了贵族阶级与贵族出身。请看《致多赛特女伯爵安妮女士》(To The Lady Anne, Countess of Dorset)的节选:

Greatness is no sure frame to build upon,

No worldly treasure can assure that place;

God makes both even, the cottage with the Throne:

All worldly honours there are counted base …

显赫的血统绝非稳固的地基,

人间的财宝买不到天堂的位置;

在上帝看来,农舍与王座平等如一,

人间的尊号在天堂一文不值……

Titles of honour which the world bestows

To none but the virtuous doth belong;

As beauteous bowers where true worth should repose,

And where his dwelling should be built most strong.

But when they are bestowed upon her foes,

Poor Virtue’s friends endure the greatest wrong;

For they must suffer all indignity,

Until in heaven they better graced be.

人间的头衔在天堂并无一席之地

唯有德行才能在那里放心安度;

恰似美丽的树荫下,真正的价值得以休憩,

他也要在那里将住宅修建得最为坚固。

但是各种头衔时常被赋予美德的仇敌,

伤害了美德的朋友,真是最为可恶。

他们在人间不得不蒙尘纳垢,

到了天堂才能将恩典享受。

What difference was there when the world began;

Was it not virtue that distinguished all?

All sprang but from one woman and one man;

Then how doth gentry come to rise and fall?

创世之初,人与人哪里有贵贱之分,

还不是靠德行高低区分贤与不肖?

既然世人都源自一个女人与一个男人,

士绅们凭什么冒出来将家世夸耀?

在拉尼尔看来,就算某人生为贵族,也无法说明此人的老祖先就一定比别家高贵。因此假如他们表现得残忍贪婪,就理应失去一切贵族出身赋予他们的权利:

Nor is he fit for honour, or command,

If base affections over-rules his mind;

Or that self- will doth carry such a hand,

As worldly pleasures have the power to blind

so as he cannot see, nor understand

How to discharge that place to him assigned:

God's stewards must for all the poor provide,

If in God's house they purpose to abide.

他不适合尊号加身,不适合发号施令,

若是卑劣的欲念掌控了他的心灵;

又或者自以为是,终日任意而行,

俗世的享乐确实能遮蔽人的眼睛,

让他既不能理解,也无法看清

如何履行上天托付给他的使命:

既然身为上帝的仆役,为上帝看家守门,

理应遵从上帝号令,照顾好天下穷人。

艾米莉亚.拉尼尔确实是个心中藏着惊涛骇浪的女性。她的诗文虽然明面上是献给伊丽莎白女王与各路贵族女性金主的效忠诗,但是今天的读者们甚至无需细品就能察觉到诗行之间蕴藏着终将推翻斯图亚特王朝的革命精神。不过话又说回来,拉尼尔兴许的确是这一时期最特别的女性诗人,但却绝不是唯一一位。玛丽.罗斯夫人的出身要远比拉尼尔更高——她是西德尼家族的一员,家里出过不止一位相互纠结的诗人与政客——而且她的生平大部分时间都在伊丽莎白女王与詹姆斯一世国王的宫廷里度过。她作为舞者参加过本.琼森排演的假面剧,当时的顶尖诗人都与她交情颇深。她的丈夫罗伯特.罗斯爵士是詹姆斯国王的宠臣,但是在个人生活方面既不忠于婚姻又有酗酒的恶习。玛丽与自己的表亲、莎士比亚的金主之一、第三任彭布罗克侯爵威廉.赫伯特维持了多年的婚外恋关系,但是尽管他远比罗斯家更有钱,却始终没有娶她。

玛丽.罗斯创作了一系列惊艳的十四行诗,此外他也是第一位出版散文作品的女性作家。在古典隐喻的轻薄掩饰之下,她的诗歌与散文都直面了身为女性在男性主导的世界里遇到的各种问题。她的十四行诗乍一看去与众多男性诗人们在十四行诗最火爆的时代创作的大量作品并没有多少区别,但是仔细品一品就会发现她对于爱情以及自由的看法与男性诗人们大相径庭。比方说她的第六十八首十四行诗,将自己比作了受困海滩的船只。古德温海滩是当时英国臭名昭著的船只触礁地点:

My pain, still smothered in my grieved breast,

Seeks for some ease, yet cannot passage find

To be discharged of this unwelcome guest;

When most I strive, more fast his burdens bind,

我的痛苦,依然将悲哀的胸口死死压住,

想要寻求解脱,但却找不到出路。

我不欢迎这位恶客,却又无法将他驱逐,

我越是挣扎,就越受到他的沉重禁锢。

Like to a ship, on Goodwins cast by wind

The more she strives, more deep in sand is pressed

Till she be lost; so am I, in this kind

Sunk, and devoured, and swallowed by unrest,

就像狂风里的船只,在古德温的浅滩上困住,

她越是挣扎,就越陷进沙子的深处,

船只已经无法脱身,我也已经走投无路

沉默,沦陷,被动荡吞进了肚腹。

Lost, shipwrecked, spoiled, debarred of smallest hope,

Nothing of pleasure left; save thoughts have scope,

Which wander may: Go then, my thoughts, and cry

船只迷失搁浅毁坏,最小的希望也被夺走,

只剩下胡思乱想,一丁点快乐也无法拥有,

任你流浪到何方吧,我的思绪,去痛哭流涕。

'Hope's perished; Love tempest-beaten; joy lost

Killing despair hath all these blessing crossed.'

Yet faith still cries, 'Love will not falsify.'

希望夭折,爱火熄灭,喜乐丧尽,

杀人的绝望扫清了一切福分。

但是信仰依然叫嚷:“爱不会扯谎做戏。”

在第九十首十四行诗当中,罗斯将同时受到多位相互嫉妒的廷臣的追求比作深陷迷宫:

Except my heart which you bestowed before,

And for a sign of conquest gave away

As worthless to be kept in your choice store

Yet one more spotless with you doth not stay.

除去我的心,此前你曾经给与过我,

以此作为我被你征服的象征

你觉得这是一件贱物,不值得留在店里,

可是送你一件无瑕珍宝你也只会乱扔。

The tribute which my heart doth truly pay

Faith untouched is, pure thoughts discharge the score

Of debts for me, where constancy bears sway,

And rules as Lord, unharmed by envy's sore.

我的心及时奉上从未被染指的信念

作为贡品,纯净的思想清偿了我的债务

此后忠贞再也不会遭受嫉妒的憎厌,

在那个让它称王且一言九鼎的国度。

Yet other mischiefs fail not to attend,

As enemies to you, my foes must be;

Curst jealousy doth all her forces bend

To my undoing; thus my harms I see.

但是其他的不幸依然不肯退场,

你的仇雠自然也是我的死敌;

可恨的嫉妒使尽了浑身伎俩

来加害我,我眼里看着心里着急。

So though in love I fervently do burn,

In this strange labyrinth how shall I turn?

尽管爱情烧得我如同全身着火一样,

在这奇怪的迷宫里我该往哪里转向?

罗斯显然是一位饱含激情的女性。在生前她就因为胆敢触犯宫廷隐私的惯例而饱受辱骂。但是对于罗斯与拉尼尔来说,真正的问题在于情欲与自由之间的长久角力。被爱情征服对于她们来说无异于一败涂地。请看罗斯的第十四首十四行诗:

Am I thus conquer'd? have I lost the powers,

That to withstand which joyes to ruine me?

Must I bee still, while it my strength devoures,

And captive leads me prisoner bound, unfree?

就这样被你征服?莫非我已丧失了力量,

无法抵御怎样的快乐会毁灭我?

任凭力气被吞噬,而我却只能像木石一样

沦为俘虏,失去自由,披枷带锁?

Love first shall leave men’s fancies to them free,

Desire shall quench love’s flames, spring hate sweet showers,

Love shall loose all his darts, have sight, and see

His shame, and wishings hinder happy hours;

想让我束手,除非爱不再打扰男人们想入非非,

除非欲望能熄灭爱火,除非春天憎恨雨露的甘甜,

除非爱射光箭矢,解下眼罩,不再两眼一抹黑

好让他看清自己的耻辱,将快乐时光向后拖延;

Why should we not Loves purblinde charmes resist?

Must we be servile, doing what he list?

No, seeke some host to harbour thee: I flye

半瞎的爱情,你的魔咒我们凭什么无法抵御?

凭什么我们必须听你差遣,当牛做马低声下气?

不,你去另寻栖身之处吧,我要逃离。

Thy Babish tricks, and freedome doe professe;

But O, my hurt makes my lost heart confesse:

I love, and must; so farewell liberty.

你的伎俩多么幼稚,假装不会将自由侵犯;

但是啊,我如此痛苦,因此还能怎么办:

我爱,而且不得不爱,因此只得与自由别离。


  • 本帖 1 回复
2019-11-12 21:24:49
4442722 复 4442672
桥上
快点耍起来似乎可以用快点嗨起来好点
2019-11-12 23:39:57
4442723 复 4442673
桥上
借地再问一遍,

那个伊斯兰国度在英文里和伊斯兰国是一个词吗?


  • 本帖 1 回复
2019-11-12 23:41:53
2019-11-12 23:47:49
4442725 复 4442723
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25499`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
马尔科姆.X的出身是nation of islam 4

伊斯兰国是isis,Islamic State of Iraq and Syria,伊拉克与叙利亚伊斯兰国家。《高天火柱》里指出,nation of islam甚至不宣讲古兰经,而是其领导人穆罕默德.以利亚的作品。


通宝推:桥上,
2019-11-12 23:47:49
2019-11-24 21:42:34
4446945 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25499`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
只要大笑就好吗?英国的毛拉与快感问题3 1

玛丽.罗斯于1652年去世,那时十四行诗这种体裁早已不再时兴了,英国人争夺自由的工具也从笔墨变成了钢铁与火药。这名女性在少女时期曾经在彭斯赫斯特为伊丽莎白女王献舞,在晚年则看到了英伦三岛被宗教与政治冲突所撕裂。今天我们惯于将当年的各种冲突统称为内战。这些战争如此血腥,战争的后果如此凄惨,以至于绝大部分英国诗人都对其退避三舍,不敢直接描述战场的惨状。当然还有另一种解释:战争诗歌大都十分乏味,除非是反战诗歌。亚伯拉罕.考利是保皇派的密探兼士兵,留下了许多关于内战的第一手资料,还创作了长篇史诗《内战》(The Civil War),可惜未能在生前完成。以下选段描写了1643年的纽伯里之战。这是保皇派势力的一次著名败仗。在笔者看来,这段诗文的文采虽然差了点,但却以现场亲历者的立场栩栩如生地传达了战争的真实感受:

The cannon next their message 'gan to say--

On came the dreadful business of the day.

Here with sharp neighs the spriteful horses sound

And with proud tramplings beat the putrid ground.

The drums' grave voice and sullen noise of guns

With the shrill trumpets' brighter accent runs

(A dismal consort!) through the trembling air

Whilst groans of wounded men the burden bear.

Through dust and smoke (that day's untimely night)

The powder's nimble Aames and restless light

Of glittering swords amaze and fright the eyes,

So through black storms the winged lightning flies!

Death in all shapes and in all habits dressed

(Such was his sportful rage) the feld possessed.

Could nought on earth at once afford the sight,

Variety so great without delight:

No place but saw some unexpected wound,

(Such was his sportful rage) the field possessed.

Could nought on earth at once afford the sight,

Variety so great without delight:

No place but saw some unexpected wound,

No part of man but some wild bullet found,

Uncertain fate o'er all the field did range-

Here strange deaths seen, and there escapes as strange.

接下来大炮再一次开口表明态度,

再一次展开了当天的可怖事务。

战马高亢嘶鸣,充满了昂扬的战意,

骄傲的铁蹄践踏着腐臭的土地。

一阵阵的战鼓,火枪闷声低沉,

尖利的喇叭鸣奏刺破青云

(多么混乱的合奏曲!)令空气为之震颤,

伤员的呻吟声宛如压在肩头的重担。

尘土硝烟遮天蔽日,让夜晚提前降临,

枪炮口的火光明灭,刀剑寒光逼人,

炫花了人们的眼目,令人心惊胆战,

恰似穿透黑色风暴的飞驰闪电!

纵然死亡惯于变幻形态,使出百般花样

(他历来性情恶劣)倘若他盘踞在战场之上。

地面上的情形也肯定看得他暗生胆怯,

死法过于多样,令他感不到愉悦。

无处见不到意料之外的血肉糜烂,

人体各处都可能挨一记横飞流弹,

战场上的人们见惯了命运无常,

不可思议的逃生,更不可思议的死亡。

保皇派们一度似乎占据了上风,将议会军领袖埃塞克斯赶下了指挥部所在的高地:

More equally no fight did ere dispense

The acts of fortune or of providence.

At last bright victory over Charles his head

Thrust forth some beams- -the clouds before it fed.

We forced the enclosures and the hill we won;

Ah, how much sweat and blood did down it run!

从未有哪场战斗如此难分高下,

双方的运势几乎毫无相差,

到头来明亮的胜利终于向查理展颜微笑,

在饱食之前拨开阴云,缕缕光明将他照耀。

我们奋力冲破敌阵,拿下了这座山头,

啊,只见汗水掺血水顺着山坡往下流!

但是此时战场态势发生了转折,保皇派的指挥官们先后阵亡。福克兰子爵卢修斯.卡利也中枪而死。诗人对此悲痛欲绝。下面的诗文提醒我们,个体指挥官在当年的战场上究竟多么重要——即便到了今天往往依然如此:

An eastern wind from Newbury rushing came: .

It sighed, methought, it sighed out Falkland's name;

Falkland, methought, the hills all echoed round,

Falkland, methought, each bird did sadly sound.

A muse stood by me and just then I writ

My King's great acts in verses not unfit.

The troubled muse fell shapeless into air-

Instead of ink dropped from my pen a tear.

Oh, 'tis a deadly truth: Falkland is slain!

His noble blood all dyes the accursed plain.

从纽波利呼啸而来一阵东风,

我听到福克兰的名字伴随着叹息连声。

福克兰啊,我听到你的名字在群山间回荡,

福克兰啊,我听到漫天飞鸟都在悲哀鸣唱。

在我动笔之际,缪斯女神就站在我身旁,

吾王的伟绩怎能装进这寥寥几段诗行?

烦乱的缪斯丢了形体,化作了空气,

我的笔下不是墨字,而是斑斑泪迹。

啊,致命的事实,福克兰已经身亡命丧!

他那高贵的鲜血洒在了被诅咒的土地上。

要说起对于战争以及弑君的最生动描写,还是要看宣传册里的愤怒散文。不过确实有一部分诗歌采取了剑拔弩张的姿态。上文提到的安德鲁.马维尔就是个好例子。在之前引用的诗歌里他全然是一副登徒浪子的形象,但是他还有另外一副面目:后来他成为了克伦威尔的坚定支持者,担任过议员,以泼辣犀利的笔触抨击过克伦威尔的海外政敌——当时主要是荷兰人。此外他还为克伦威尔创作了一首《祝克伦威尔自爱尔兰班师颂歌》(An Horatian Ode upon Cromwell’s Return from Ireland),尽管此时克伦威尔的形象早已从反抗王权的解放者蜕变成了即将成型的军事独裁者。这首诗是关于英国内战的重要文献。顾名思义,诗歌创作于克伦威尔自爱尔兰返回之后不久。他在爱尔兰粉碎了由保皇派与天主教联合组成的反联邦势力,这其中包括来自爱尔兰、英格兰以及苏格兰的雇佣兵。克伦威尔麾下的兵马在爱尔兰犯下了无数暴行,时至今日这些惨剧依然鲜明地留存在爱尔兰的集体记忆当中,例如通过饥饿来迫使当地民众就范,以及在围城战取胜之后残忍屠杀平民、天主教神父乃至投降士兵——卓格达大屠杀就是这方面的典型例子。不过所有这些战争罪行在马维尔笔下几乎没有显现出来。与他的政论宣传文章不同,这首诗在当时甚至没有得到出版,诗歌的气质则是毫无掩饰的耀武扬威:

The forward youth that would appear

Must now forsake his Muses dear,

Nor in the shadows sing

His numbers languishing.

’Tis time to leave the books in dust,

And oil th’ unused armour’s rust,

Removing from the wall

The corslet of the hall.

So restless Cromwell could not cease

In the inglorious arts of peace,

But thorough advent’rous war

Urged his active star.

And like the three-fork’d lightning, first

Breaking the clouds where it was nursed,

Did through his own side

His fiery way divide.

For ’tis all one to courage high,

The emulous or enemy;

And with such to enclose

Is more than to oppose.

Then burning through the air he went,

And palaces and temples rent;

And Cæsar’s head at last

Did through his laurels blast.

’Tis madness to resist or blame

The force of angry Heaven’s flame;

And, if we would speak true,

Much to the man is due,

Who from his private gardens where

He liv’d reserved and austere,

As if his highest plot

To plant the bergamot,

Could by industrious valour climb

To ruin the great work of time,

And cast the kingdom old

Into another mould.

奉劝跃跃欲试的精壮青年

暂且将缪斯女神推到一边,

也不要躲在阴影里唱什么

大好年华只得白白度过。

是时候将蒙尘的书本抛弃,

用油脂擦去盔甲上的锈迹。

快快将甲胄从墙上摘下,

莫让它们在厅堂里高挂。

闲不住的克伦威尔怎能满足

苟安一时的卑劣招数?

他必要发动大胆的战争,

让自己的星运径直飙升。

恰似那三叉的闪电,首先

显现在孕育它的云端,

在那闪电的两侧

喷吐无数条火舌。

无论敌友,鼓舞全部的勇气,

在雷霆一击面前也只是儿戏。

眼看天火冲着眼前逼近,

谁还能抵抗?全都胆气丧尽。

雷霆一击,烧穿了空气,

烧得宫殿与圣殿徒留四壁。

就算凯撒的雕像也不得幸免,

闪电炸碎了他头上的冠冕。

面对天火之怒,谁敢说个不字?

除非鬼迷心窍,丧失理性神智。

我们可以真诚地宣称,

克伦威尔其人是应时而生。

平时他在自家花园里踱步,

他的生活内敛而又朴素。

乍一看去他最大的抱负

无非是栽种几棵香柠檬树。

谁成想他还有如此的勇武气力,

竟能将时间的伟业拆毁倒地?

他将古老的王国当成原材料

塞进全新的模具,将新世界创造。

这段诗文将克伦威尔比作闪电,不仅能击垮宫宇,也会烧伤自己人。这一意象暗示了这位伟大独裁者的形象确有一言难尽之处。万幸的是,马维尔的诗才过于优秀,以至于无法将自己局限在油腻的歌功颂德当中。在同一首诗里,他也相当大度地承认了查理一世国王在断头台前体现出来的勇气——一般人恐怕想不到他这样一位热切的共和派也能写出以下诗文:

That thence the royal actor borne

The tragic scaffold might adorn,

While round the armed bands

Did clap their bloody hands.

He nothing common did or mean

Upon that memorable scene,

But with his keener eye

The axe’s edge did try;

Nor call’d the gods with vulgar spite

To vindicate his helpless right,

But bowed his comely head

Down as upon a bed.

那位生为皇家贵胄的演员

来到了悲惨的断头台前。

全副武装的军士看守着刑场,

举起染血的双手为他鼓掌。

他的举止毫无卑下怯懦之气,

面对这片必将载入史册的场地。

他两眼有神,仔细打量,

将断头斧的利刃再三端详。

他也没有出口伤人或者怨天怨地

尽管这是他仅剩的一点权利。

他镇定地将头颅在砧板上安放,

就好比临睡之人躺到了床上。

正是这样宽厚的文风——以及相当滑不留手的政坛手腕——才使得马维尔在克伦威尔去世、查理二世复辟之后躲过了许多共和派同志们的悲惨下场。他得到了新国王的赦免,成为了复辟议会的议员,而且还创作了不少讽刺这个议会的作品。这还不算完,甚至就连文坛地位更高而且脾气更加火爆的共和主义者约翰.弥尔顿在谈到他的时候都没有多少恶言。

当然,要是与著名的《掘地者之歌》(Digger’s Song)相比,马维尔的作品听上去确实挺温和的。今人一般认为这首诗的作者名叫吉拉德.温斯坦利,是一位来自韦根的织工。此人可谓是这一时期的英国最接近革命领袖的人物。十七世纪四十年代的英国充斥着饥饿与困苦,在国王与议会交战不休的大背景下,诗中的掘地者们体现了最纯正的共产主义思潮——他们也正是莎士比亚最害怕的那种乱民。他们强占士绅们的土地,然后在上面耕种。这是针对社会现状的挑衅。在这首歌词当中,温斯坦利则敦促他们采取进一步的手段:

You noble diggers all stand up now, stand up now

You noble diggers all stand up now

The wasteland to maintain seeing cavaliers by name

Your digging does maintain and persons all defame

Stand up now, stand up now

高贵的掘地者都起立啊,都起立啊

高贵的掘地者都起立啊

连片的荒地顶着骑士老爷们的名号

全靠你们来打理,世人却将你们讥笑

都起立啊,都起立啊

Your houses they pull down stand up now, stand up now

Your houses they pull down, stand up now

Your houses they pull down to fright your men in town

But the gentry must come down and the poor shall wear the crown

Stand up now diggers all

他们将你们的房子推倒,建起来吧,建起来吧

他们将你们的房子推倒,建起来吧

你们的房子被推倒,是为了恐吓你们的乡亲父老

但是士绅老爷们必将倒台,穷人将把王冠戴好

高贵的掘地者都起立啊

With spades and hoes and plows stand up now, stand up now

With spades and hoes and plows, stand up now

Your freedom to uphold seeing cavaliers are bold

To kill you if they could and rights from you to hold

Stand up now diggers all

拿铲子扛锄头扶犁的都起立啊,都起立啊

拿铲子扛锄头扶犁的都起立啊

骑士老爷横行霸道,你们的自由要自己维护

他们一旦得势就会杀了你们,丝毫不留活路

高贵的掘地者都起立啊

The gentry are all round stand up now, stand up now

The gentry are all round stand up now

The gentry are all round on each side the are found

Their wisdom so profound to cheat us of our ground

Stand up now stand up now

肥胖滚圆的士绅们都起立啊,都起立啊

肥胖滚圆的士绅们都起立啊

肥胖滚圆的士绅们全都精明能干

深奥的智慧,专门将我们的土地欺骗

都起立啊,都起立啊

The lawyers they conjoin stand up now stand up now

The lawyers they conjoin stand up now

To rescue they advise, such fury they devise,

The devil in them lies, and hath blinded both their eyes

Stand up now, stand up now

坑蒙拐骗的律师们都起立啊,都起立啊

坑蒙拐骗的律师们都起立啊

为了补救歪主意,想出了多少鬼奸计

魔鬼在他们肚里藏,遮挡他们两眼盲

都起立啊,都起立啊

The clergy they come in stand up now, stand up now

The clergy they come in stand up now

The clergy they come in and say it is a sin

That we should now begin our freedom for to win

Stand up now diggers all

教士们进来之后都起立啊,都起立啊

教士们进来之后都起立啊

教士们进来之后说我们犯了罪

为了赢得自由,现在就该着手准备

全体掘地者都起立啊

The tithes they yet will have, stand up now, stand up now,

The tithes they yet will have, stand up now.

The tithes they yet will have, and lawyers their fees crave,

And this they say is brave, to make the poor their slave.

Stand up now Diggers all.

他们还要收十一税,都起立啊,都起立啊

他们还要收十一税,都起立啊

他们还要收十一税,支付律师们的账单

把穷人变成他们的奴隶,就是他们所谓的勇敢

全体掘地者都起立啊

'Gainst lawyers and 'gainst Priests, stand up now, stand up now,

'Gainst lawyers and 'gainst Priests stand up now.

For tyrants they are both even flatt againnst their oath,

To grant us they are loath free meat and drink and cloth.

Stand up now, Diggers all.

打倒律师,打倒教士,都起立啊,都起立啊

打倒律师,打倒教士,都起立啊,

他们俩都是暴君,说瞎话空口白牙

整天诓骗我们,白吃白喝白拿

全体掘地者都起立啊

The club is all their law, stand up now, stand up now,

The club is all their law, stand up now.

The club is all their law to keep men in awe,

But they no vision saw to maintain such a law.

Stand up now, Diggers all.

棍棒就是他们的法律,都起立啊,都起立啊

棍棒就是他们的法律,都起立啊

棍棒就是他们的法律,好让人恐惧

可他们从没想过怎样长久维持这样的法律

全体掘地者都起立啊

The Cavaleers are foes, stand up now, stand up now,

The Cavaleers are foes, stand up now;

The Cavaleers are foes, themselves they do disclose

By verses not in prose to please the singing boyes.

Stand up now, Diggers all.

骑士是我们的敌人,都起立啊,都起立啊

骑士是我们的敌人,都起立啊,

骑士是我们的敌人,他们自己暴露了自己,

不是用文章,而是用诗文,取悦歌童的乐曲

全体掘地者都起立啊

To conquer them by love, come in now, come in now

To conquer them by love, come in now;

To conquer them by love, as itt does you behove,

For he is King above, noe power is like to love,

Glory heere, Diggers all.

用爱征服他们,都进来啊,都进来啊

用爱征服他们,都进来啊,

用爱征服他们,正如你也被赐予了爱

因为祂是万王之王,任何权柄也不如爱

全体掘地者,多荣光啊

作为宣传革命的战斗口号,这段文字的效力的确不弱,就诗歌而言只能说写得不怎么样。掘地者集体以及革命运动本身很快就与克伦威尔以及他建立的军事独裁体制闹翻了脸。


  • 本帖 2 回复
2019-11-24 21:42:34
4446998 复 4446945
桥上
十四行诗是十四行吗?
2019-11-24 23:46:17
del
最后于2019-11-25 04:08:37改,共1次;
2019-11-25 00:44:19
2019-11-25 04:10:03
4447138 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25499`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
只要大笑就好吗?英国的毛拉与快感问题4 1

不过克伦威尔治下最接近桂冠诗人的存在也正是最伟大的英国诗人之一。约翰.弥尔顿的鸿篇巨制《失乐园》是一部定义了英国新教想象的史诗。这部煌煌巨著的篇幅实在太长,笔者在此就不摘录了。话说回来,仅凭几段摘录也全然无法展现这部作品的风采,因为弥尔顿的行文颇为佶屈,时而充塞了大量古典文化与圣经典故,令读者们望而生畏。不过就像瓦格纳的歌剧只要看进去就会入迷一样,《失乐园》也会迷住看进去的读者们——换句话说下一点苦功夫也是值得的。在《失乐园》当中上帝的形象很不讨喜,日后威廉.布莱克将这一版本的上帝称作“管束灵魂的小学校长”。此外读者们也都知道弥尔顿在诗中对魔鬼颇为中意。简而言之,他肯定不是个正统派基督徒。

弥尔顿的作品集中体现了清教革命的自相矛盾。一方面他彰显了直面宗教与政治专政坚定不移的反对立场。他是一名真诚的革命者,相信建制派权威必然压垮个人的精神。他为出版自由撰写的辩护词无论是在十七世纪中叶还是在今天都同样振聋发聩。但是另一方面,弥尔顿坚定反对政治专政的基础却在于他对所谓“家庭专政”——这个说法毫无夸张之意——的全新拥护。清教徒的妻子理应是一名低眉顺眼唯唯诺诺的弱女子,为丈夫当牛做马。长期以来女权主义批评家们一直抨击弥尔顿将妻子女儿变成了服侍自己搞创作的苦工——不过平心而论,自从失明之后他也只有这样才能继续创作下去。当代读者们切莫不能将我们对于婚姻平等的信念与清教时代英国的婚姻现实混为一谈,因为当时的男性完全可以一边强硬主张父权一边又深切热爱妻女。弥尔顿的第二任妻子在生产之后几个月就去世了,他则为亡妻创作了一首挽歌,也就是他的第二十三号十四行诗《梦亡妻》(On his deceased wife)。这首诗的行文痛苦不堪,充斥着几乎失控的情绪,但是却又被诗人用最严整的格律结构强行压制了下来:

Methought I saw my late espoused saint

Brought to me, like Alcestis, from the grave,

Whom Jove's great son to her glad husband gave,

Rescu'd from death by force, though pale and faint.

Mine, as whom wash'd from spot of child-bed taint

Purification in the old Law did save,

And such as yet once more I trust to have

Full sight of her in Heaven without restraint,

Came vested all in white, pure as her mind;

Her face was veil'd, yet to my fancied sight

Love, sweetness, goodness, in her person shin'd

So clear as in no face with more delight.

But Oh! as to embrace me she inclin'd,

I wak'd, she fled, and day brought back my night.

我仿佛看见我最近死去的爱妻,

被送回人间,像赫克里斯当初

从死亡手里抢救的亚尔塞斯蒂,

苍白无力,又还给她的丈夫。

她好像古时洗身礼拯救的妇女,

已洗涤干净原来产褥的血污;

她穿着她心地那样纯净的白衣,

正如我相信我会无拘无束

有一天在天堂里面遇见她那样。

她虽然蒙着面纱,我好像看见

她全身透出亲热,淑善,和温纯,

比任何人脸上显露的都叫人喜欢。

但她正俯身要和我拥抱时,我醒了,

人空了,白天带来了黑夜漫漫。【金发燊译】

弥尔顿是创作哀歌的高手。他的早期诗作《利西达斯》(Lycidas)从明面上看是为了悼念他的剑桥大学同学爱德华.金,此人在1637年死于海难。不过诗文当中并没有直接提到金这个人。弥尔顿刻意选取了古典诗歌的风格,根植于维吉尔及其追随者们——其中自然也包括斯宾塞——的牧歌诗作。就像斯宾塞一样,弥尔顿即便在创作生涯早期也能将地中海地区的古典文化典故与凛冽的英国北方气质结合在一起。这首诗的行文有点干涩,刻意而为地呈现出了不合时令的肃杀,显然属于宗教改革时期而非奥古斯都时代:

Yet once more, O ye laurels, and once more,

Ye myrtles brown, with ivy never sere,

I come to pluck your berries harsh and crude,

And with forced fingers rude

Shatter your leaves before the mellowing year.

Bitter constraint, and sad occasion dear,

Compels me to disturb your season due;

For Lycidas is dead, dead ere his prime,

Young Lycidas, and hath not left his peer.

然而再一次,噢汝月桂树,再一次

汝褐色的桃金娘,和永不枯涸的长春藤,

我来采摘你生涩粗糙的浆果,

被迫用粗鲁的手指

在醇熟之前将你的叶片揉碎。

辛酸的克制,悲愁的宝贵因由,

迫使我扰乱自然的节奏:

因利西达斯死去了,死在盛年之前,

年轻的利西达斯,未曾离开他的友伴:

在接下来的诗文当中,年轻的清教徒诗人抨击了英国国教会的懈怠与腐败,此时国教会依然位于劳德大主教的影响之下,教会主流思潮尚未转向抵制查理一世与宫廷:

And when they list, their lean and flashy songs

Grate on their scrannel pipes of wretched straw;

The hungry sheep look up, and are not fed,

But swoll'n with wind, and the rank mist they draw,

Rot inwardly, and foul contagion spread;

Besides what the grim wolf with privy paw

Daily devours apace, and nothing said;

But that two-handed engine at the door

Stands ready to smite once, and smite no more.

而当他们愿意,那枯瘦俗艳的歌谣

摩擦着毁败的稻草做成的刺耳长笛,

于是饥饿的羊儿抬起头来,不被喂养,

却在风里膨胀,他们召来的恶臭迷雾,

从内部腐烂,让恶病传染:

那阴森的饿狼挥舞秘密的脚爪

终日一言不发,急速吞咽,

更有那两只手的刑具伺在门边,

准备好了致命一击,无需第二下。【Jasmim网友译,有修改】

如此汪洋恣肆的笔锋将会导致弥尔顿的政论与诗歌在宗教改革结束后遭到公开焚烧。弥尔顿终其一生都是共和主义革命的坚定支持者,出版自由的坚定捍卫者,以及英国国教会罗马化倾向的坚定批评者。当然,在结束弥尔顿的段落之前,我们不得不欣赏一下他创作的最伟大的一首十四行诗,因为这首诗的主题是他本人的失明。这也是英语诗歌当中第一首从当事人角度出发描写残疾的著名诗作:

When I consider how my light is spent,

Ere half my days in this dark world and wide,

And that one talent which is death to hide

Lodged with me useless, though my soul more bent

To serve therewith my Maker, and present

My true account, lest He returning chide;

"Doth God exact day-labor, light denied?"

I fondly ask. But Patience, to prevent

That murmur, soon replies, "God doth not need

Either man's work or His own gifts. Who best

Bear His mild yoke, they serve Him best. His state

Is kingly: thousands at His bidding speed,

And post o'er land and ocean without rest;

They also serve who only stand and wait."

每当我想到此前我如何利用光明

那时每天也有一半时间身处无边黑暗,

要我隐藏才能,真比死还难办,

如今这才能却被我所困,纵然我的魂灵

只想侍奉上帝,向祂如实表明

我的所思所想,以免祂回首将我责难——

“上帝不给光明,怎还让我在白天把活干?”

我天真地发问,可是忍耐消解了我的不平

并且很快答道:“上帝并不稀罕

凡人的劳作或者天赋,谁最能身体力行

承受柔顺的轭,谁就是他最好的仆人;

诚然祂威灵显赫,千万天使供祂驱遣,

飞驰过陆地和海洋,绝不稍停,

可那些站着待命的也是在将神意奉行。”


2019-11-25 04:10:03
4447552 复 4447137
桥上
与特定乐曲有关吗?
2019-11-25 23:17:01
2019-11-26 21:16:45
4447880 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25499`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
只要大笑就好吗?英国的毛拉与快感问题5 1

既然说到站着待命的人们,我们不妨考虑一下妻子们对于清教革命的感受如何。她们是生孩子的人,是家里的仆人,也是清教革命的助力之一。今天我们很容易将清教与当代伊斯兰信仰等量齐观,将其视为男性压迫女性的阴谋,却忽视了这些女性本身也是虔诚坚定的清教徒。比方说安妮.布莱德斯特里特,她是马萨诸塞殖民地的最早一批殖民者之一,她的大部分创作生涯都在北美度过。她于1612年生在北安普顿的一户殷实中产家庭,十八岁结婚,并且于1630年陪同丈夫西蒙.布莱德斯特里特以及父亲远渡重洋前往了马萨诸塞。殖民地的生活条件极其艰苦,但是安妮也是个极其坚强的女性。而且她还是个不走寻常路的作家,在一个强烈抵制女性从事文学创作的社会站稳了脚跟。不过她的诗歌的最显著特点还是对于婚姻生活的热忱,这些诗歌为我们提供了一位虔诚的新教妻子与母亲的视角。请看《致我亲爱的丈夫》(To my dear and loving Husband):

If ever two were one,then surely we.

If ever man were loved by wife, then thee;

If ever wife was happy in a man,

Compare with me, ye women, if you can.

I prize thy love more than whole mines of gold

Or all the riches that East doth hold.

My love is such that rivers cannot quench,

Nor ought but love from thee, give recompense.

Thy love is such I can no way repay,

The heavens reward thee manifold, I pray.

Then while we live, in love let’s so persevere

That when we live no more, we may live ever.

若是有哪两人好比并蒂连理,那定是我们。

若是有哪位丈夫被妻子珍爱,那定是你,我的爱人。

若是有哪位妻子沉浸于丈夫的宠溺,

没有哪个女人能同我相比。

这份爱胜过金山银山,

胜过东方所有的绫罗绮衫。

奔腾的江流无法浇灭我的爱,

只盼你以真心回馈这份爱。

这份爱我无以为报,

唯愿上苍赐你福祉,予你关照。

当我们活着,我们恩爱一生。

待我们死后,获得生命的永恒。【李晨阳译,有修改】

安妮.布莱德斯特里特传授给我们的另一项教训在于不能一味依赖同时代的绘像来理解古人。画像上的安妮总是一脸肃穆,白布巾裹头,温良贤惠而又圣洁。但是只要看一看她在丈夫离家公干期间写给他的另一首诗,我们就会意识到这对夫妻的私生活就像约翰.邓恩一样充斥着肉感。请看《致远任赴职的爱夫》(A Letter to Her Husband Absent upon Public Employment):

My head, my heart, mine eyes, my life, nay more,

My joy, my magazine, of earthly store,

If two be one, as surely thou and I,

How stayest thou there, whilst I at Ipswich lie?

So many steps, head from the heart to sever,

If but a neck, soon should we be together.

I, like the Earth this season, mourn in black,

My Sun is gone so far in's zodiac,

Whom whilst I 'joyed, nor storms, nor frost I felt,

His warmth such fridged colds did cause to melt.

My chilled limbs now numbed lie forlorn;

Return; return, sweet Sol, from Capricorn;

In this dead time, alas, what can I more

Than view those fruits which through thy heart I bore?

Which sweet contentment yield me for a space,

True living pictures of their father's face.

O strange effect! now thou art southward gone,

I weary grow the tedious day so long;

But when thou northward to me shalt return,

I wish my Sun may never set, but burn

Within the Cancer of my glowing breast,

The welcome house of him my dearest guest.

Where ever, ever stay, and go not thence,

Till nature's sad decree shall call thee hence;

Flesh of thy flesh, bone of thy bone,

I here, thou there, yet both but one.

我脑中、心中、眼中,甚至整个生命中,你无处不在。

你为我带来欢乐,让我顷情相爱。

若有两人合一,必是你我无疑,

可你怎能远走他乡,舍我孤独无依?

恰似头脑和心灵已被远远分离,

若不是被脖颈分开,我们早已在一起。

如同此时世间万物,我也忧郁叹哀,

只因我的太阳远处黄道轨带。

他使我快乐,让我不再经历暴雨风霜,

他给我温暖,融化了心中的坚冰如钢。

如今我却手脚冰冷麻木,凄惨躺卧;

归来吧,美好的太阳,莫要流连在摩羯座。

在这冷清时节,怎堪回首往事,

只得打量你我孕育的果实,聊以度日。

他们的笑脸暂且缓解了我的心痛,

打量他们,就看到了他们父亲的面容。

此情切切!而今你离家向南,

终日慵倦,叹何时才能团圆。

待君北还之期,重新回到我身边,

惟愿骄阳熊熊,终日再不向西偏,

驻守在巨蟹宫,点亮我的温暖胸怀,

好似迎宾客房,欢迎挚爱早日归来。

愿你今后常住,相随再无离别,

直到大限之际,暂且分离两界;

我仍是君肉中肉,骨中骨,

你我永相依,纵使身在两处。【周英莉,李正栓译,有修改】

如今英国史学家言必称英国内战的时期已经过去很久了,幸好如此。这场冲突吞噬了英伦三岛,即便在大洋彼岸的殖民地也能感受到战争的余波。在她的《新旧英格兰对话》(A Dialogue between Old England and New)一诗当中,安妮.布莱德斯特里特假想了一场发生在英伦本土与殖民地之间的对话。她将本土描绘成了一位遍体鳞伤的母亲,向身为女儿的殖民地哭诉了自己近来遭受的苦难:

Well, to the matter, then. There's grown of late

'Twixt king and peers a question of state:

Which is the chief---the law, or else the king?

One said, it's he; the other, no such thing.

'Tis said my better part in Parliament

To ease my groaning land showed their intent,

To crush the proud, and right to each man deal,

To help the church, and stay the commonweal.

好吧,那就说正事。近来确实有个问题

国王与贵族们都在将国家根本质疑:

两者孰轻孰重——是法律,还是国王?

君主自然以自身为重,法律则斥之为荒唐。

我要说议会构成了我的大部分身躯,

为了缓解国土的呻吟,他们的用心切实不虚:

要粉碎傲慢,要伸张每个人的权利,

要扶助教会,要将公共福祉维系。

但是布莱德斯特里特接下来又解释道,尽管用心良好,但是人民与国王之间的关系还是变得越发紧张起来。战争一旦开始就很难终止,直到英国的存亡本身遭到威胁为止。从一名马萨诸塞殖民地居民的视角看来,英国似乎已经走上了绝路:

But now I come to speak of my disaster.

Contention grown 'twixt subjects and their master,

They worded it so long they fell to blows,

That thousands lay on heaps. Here bleed my woes.

I that no wars so many years have known

Am now destroyed and slaughtered by my own.

But could the field alone this strife decide,

One battle, two, or three I might abide.

But these may be beginnings of more woe

Who knows but this may be my overthrow!

Oh, pity me in this sad perturbation,

My plundered towns, my houses' devastation,

My weeping virgins, and my young men slain,

My wealthy trading fallen, my dearth of grain.

The seed-times come, but ploughman hath no hope

Because he knows not who shall in his crop.

The poor they want their pay, their children bread,

Their woful mothers' tears unpitied.

但是现在我要述说我的灾殃,

臣民与君主之间也要动刀动枪。

连篇累牍的舌战,多少人被击倒在地,

千万具尸骸堆成小山,我只能流血哭泣。

多少年来我未曾经受过战争蹂躏,

如今我的子民却相互杀戮,将我摧残殆尽。

可是,假如仅凭战场胜负就能解决纷争,

一场、两场、三四场战乱我也能咬牙硬撑。

悲乎!战争只是进一步祸乱的开端,

难道我真要看到惨遭颠覆的那一天?

可怜我吧!如此悲哀的动荡混乱,

城镇遭到洗劫,房舍化为焦炭,

姑娘们惨遭欺凌,小伙子横死受戮,

财富贸易一蹶不振,地里粮食不够果腹。

春耕时节来了又去,农夫却看不到希望,

自己打下的谷物只怕自己吃不上。

穷人领不到工钱,他们的子女没有面包,

无人垂怜孩子们的母亲苦泪滔滔。

细想一下倒也有趣,英国本土最优秀的诗人们全都站定了相互冲突的政治立场,反而要让一名大洋彼岸的清教女性来悲悼这场冲突的毁灭性后果。不过话又说回来,布莱德斯特里特绝非只会温良悲叹。在她笔下,身为女儿的新英格兰怒火中烧地宣泄了一通反天主教的咒骂:

These are the days the church's foes to crush,

To root out popeling's head, tail, branch, and rush.

Let's bring Baal's vestments forth to make a fire,

Their mitres, surplices, and all their attire,

Copes, rochets, croziers, and such empty trash,

And let their names consume, but let the flash

Light Christendom, and all the world to see

We hate Rome's whore, with all her trumpery.

时机已到,要将教会的敌人悉数粉碎,

断头切尾,斩草除根,消灭教皇的匪类。

剥除巴力的袍服,点一堆熊熊烈火多么好看,

烧掉主教冠,唱诗罩衣,还有其他杂碎破烂。

祭衣,法衣,牧杖,以及各种无用的垃圾,

让它们的名字被烈焰吞没,火光起伏高低。

愿这光明照耀基督教领土与整个人间,

我们与浓妆艳抹的罗马娼妓不共戴天。

这当然并不是我们英国人最后一次将目光投向美国寻求宗教建议。但是尽管这是个充斥着宗教狂热与战争的时期,在远离硝烟与弃绝的地方依然存在着创造力与真心实意的虔诚,历来都是如此。笔者以安德鲁.马维尔的诗歌作为本章开篇,在本章结尾笔者还打算介绍他的另一首著名田园诗。这篇文辞甘美的《花园》(The Garden)尽情描述了英国乡间的丰饶景象,描述了英国未经战火摧残的另一面,同时还体现了诗人的深沉心念,可以说是针对当时大气候的尖锐驳斥。《花园》一诗是对于心智的辩护——赞美的心智的自主与心灵的内在力量——这份辩护词抵御得则是繁杂且令人失望的日常生活抛出来的各种诱惑与纠结。换句话说,这首诗也可算是对于诗歌艺术本身的辩护。就像许多读者一样,笔者对这首诗的偏爱也更胜于任何约翰.弥尔顿笔下的作品:

How vainly men themselves amaze

To win the palm, the oak, or bays,

And their uncessant labours see

Crown’d from some single herb or tree,

Whose short and narrow verged shade

Does prudently their toils upbraid;

While all flow’rs and all trees do close

To weave the garlands of repose.

世人是多么无益地神经错乱

去博取棕榈、橡叶和桂冠;

他们无休止的辛劳只得到

借以炫耀的草木的枝条;

枝条那又短又窄的阴影

实堪责备世人徒劳的艰辛,

而大千世界的树丛花园

正交织成宁静的花环花冠。

Fair Quiet, have I found thee here,

And Innocence, thy sister dear!

Mistaken long, I sought you then

In busy companies of men;

Your sacred plants, if here below,

Only among the plants will grow.

Society is all but rude,

To this delicious solitude.

我找到了你哟,美妙的宁静,

还有与你亲如姊妹的纯真!

长久以来我一直找错地方,

竟在忙碌的人群中寻觅你俩。

你们神圣的花木若长在人间,

只有在这大自然中才能繁衍。

与这美妙的幽静孤寂相比,

文明社会近乎是蛮荒之地。

No white nor red was ever seen

So am’rous as this lovely green.

Fond lovers, cruel as their flame,

Cut in these trees their mistress’ name;

Little, alas, they know or heed

How far these beauties hers exceed!

Fair trees! wheres’e’er your barks I wound,

No name shall but your own be found.

未见过红的胭脂白的粉黛

能比得上这碧绿美丽可爱。

那些情焰如火升腾的恋人

在这些树上刻下情人的名姓;

可叹他们不知,也很少留意,

花木之美远胜过女人的容姿!

美丽的树哟,若让我来刻锓,

那刻下的只会使你的芳名。

When we have run our passion’s heat,

Love hither makes his best retreat.

The gods, that mortal beauty chase,

Still in a tree did end their race:

Apollo hunted Daphne so,

Only that she might laurel grow;

And Pan did after Syrinx speed,

Not as a nymph, but for a reed.

当我们跑完了热恋的路途,

这里便是爱情最好的归宿。

那些追求世间仙姝的天神

终归也都在树上结束其行程;

阿波罗曾这样把达佛涅追逐,

最后她终于变作月桂一株;

潘神也曾把西冷克丝紧追,

追到的不是仙女,而是芦苇。

What wond’rous life in this I lead!

Ripe apples drop about my head;

The luscious clusters of the vine

Upon my mouth do crush their wine;

The nectarine and curious peach

Into my hands themselves do reach;

Stumbling on melons as I pass,

Ensnar’d with flow’rs, I fall on grass.

我在园中的生活真是奇观!

成熟的苹果在我头顶垂悬;

一串串香气四溢的葡萄,

向我嘴里挤入佳酿醇醪;

颗颗仙桃饱含玉液琼浆,

竟自觉自愿掉到我的手上;

漫步时被瓜果花藤绊倒,

我也只是轻轻地扑卧芳草。

Meanwhile the mind, from pleasure less,

Withdraws into its happiness;

The mind, that ocean where each kind

Does straight its own resemblance find,

Yet it creates, transcending these,

Far other worlds, and other seas;

Annihilating all that’s made

To a green thought in a green shade.

这时心灵摒弃了感官的满足,

深深地浸沉于它自身的幸福;

对宇宙万物,海洋般的心灵

即刻能映现出它的同类对应;

但心灵还能超越物质现实,

创造出另外的海洋和陆地,

心灵的创造终使现实消隐,

化为绿色的遐想溶进绿荫。

Here at the fountain’s sliding foot,

Or at some fruit tree’s mossy root,

Casting the body’s vest aside,

My soul into the boughs does glide;

There like a bird it sits and sings,

Then whets, and combs its silver wings;

And, till prepar’d for longer flight,

Waves in its plumes the various light.

在轻轻滑动的源泉之边,

或在树根生苔的果树跟前,

把肉体之外壳抛弃在地,

我的灵魂渐渐溶进树枝;

像小鸟在枝头放声歌唱,

再用喙疏理其银色的翅膀,

直到羽毛泛出变幻彩光,

准备好朝更远的地方飞翔。

Such was that happy garden-state,

While man there walk’d without a mate;

After a place so pure and sweet,

What other help could yet be meet!

But ’twas beyond a mortal’s share

To wander solitary there:

Two paradises ’twere in one

To live in paradise alone.

那乐园曾就是这般光景,

当男人还没有女人同行;

有如此纯洁美好的去处,

还需要什么配偶的帮助!

可凡夫俗子怎有福消受

独自一人在这乐园漫游;

能独处幽居生活在乐园,

那乐园就成了两个伊甸。

How well the skillful gard’ner drew

Of flow’rs and herbs this dial new,

Where from above the milder sun

Does through a fragrant zodiac run;

And as it works, th’ industrious bee

Computes its time as well as we.

How could such sweet and wholesome hours

Be reckon’d but with herbs and flow’rs!

高明的花匠用这些花草

把新的日晷设计得多好;

透过浓郁的柔和阳光

移动在花草的黄道带上;

辛勤的蜜蜂在工作之时,

也像世人一样计算着时日,

如果不用这些花卉草叶,

焉能算出有益而美好的岁月?【曹明伦译】


最后于2019-11-27 03:23:11改,共1次;
2019-11-26 21:16:45
2019-11-28 04:15:08
4448337 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25499`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
七,复辟了个啥?讽刺与科学以及英国政坛的诞生1 1

如果说当今世界唯独教会了我们一项鲜明醒目的政治事实,那就是内战无法干脆利索地结束,从巴尔干地区到伊拉克再到北非无不如此。残肢的创口将会长期血流不止。动荡平息之后必然要拉清单。1660年查理二世国王复辟之后的英国就是这样一番情形。克伦威尔的统治将清教价值观强加在了全体英国人头上,他的议会禁止国民庆祝圣诞节与复活节。而且自从1642年9月内战正式爆发以来,剧院演出以及绝大多数公开的诗歌与音乐表演都受到了越发严格的限制。随着查理二世的复辟,压抑许久的国民情绪也发生了激烈的反弹。放纵、放荡乃至放肆的文化一时间成为了社会主流。当然这并不意味着清教与世俗贵族之间的文化战争就此偃旗息鼓。恰恰相反,这场战争还在继续。

从斯图亚特王朝的末期到汉诺威王朝的初期,英国在宗教与执政合法性的问题上始终承受着深切的分裂。在英伦三岛的某些地区,战争导致的流血还在继续。新教徒发动叛乱反抗天主教国王,天主教徒发动叛乱反抗新教国王;蒙莫斯公爵全家起兵反抗詹姆斯二世国王,最终导致了1685年的塞奇高沼战役;遭到驱逐的詹姆斯二世又在1690年的博伊恩战役当中败给了奥兰治亲王威廉;最后詹姆斯二世党人还在1715年与1745年发动了两次叛乱。但是对于这一时期大部分时间里的大多数英国人来说,党派政治与密谋已经取代了骑士冲锋与公开火刑。尽管人们都说查理国王的归来宣告了共和主义革命与英格兰联邦的最终失败,但是从长期来看反倒是清教价值观与议会的叛逆们获得了胜利。信奉天主教的王室与君权神授的理念黯然退场,对议会唯命是从的新教国王们登上了历史舞台。

与此同时,有赖于克伦威尔打造的强力海军,英国开始向海外扩张势力,大英帝国开始显现雏形。查理二世是这一时期最后一位在大海上被外国人羞辱的英国君主——他的敌人是荷兰共和国的海军。接下来的新教继任者们将会针对当时的天主教强权法国取得一连串海战胜利,并且在印度、地中海以及美洲奠定落脚点。

因此我们或许会觉得,鉴于党派政治终日耀武扬威,再加上清教审查的结束,英国诗坛将会变得更加粗粝尖刻。总体而言情况的确如此。首先出场的是罗切斯特侯爵约翰.威尔莫特,此人的诗歌走得是堂堂正正的三俗路线;其次是一位阿芙拉.贝恩,当时最有异域风情的保皇派女性剧作家与诗人;接下来约翰.德莱顿与亚历山大.蒲柏则将英语政治讽刺诗推向了空前绝后的高度;很快古典主义与“高雅口味”又发起了抵制十七世纪粗鄙与激情风气的反攻倒算——至少这是传统的英国文学史叙事套路。实际上根据近几年出品的文选,在克伦威尔共和国垮台之后与丧失北美殖民地之前的这段时间里,英国诗坛的面貌远比一般人的认识更加花样百出。当然,要说起满心狂喜的宗教诗歌,这一时期的诗人全都不能与乔治.赫伯特以及亨利.沃恩相提并论。愤世嫉俗的骑士派诗人们在查理一世时期妙笔生花,到了查理二世时期则黯淡了许多。直到这一时期即将终结之际才有一位威廉.布莱克横空出世,为我们献上了真正堪称激进的诗歌。不过在此之前,我们一路上依然会遇到许多可圈可点的诗歌。此时英国的面貌正在越发接近我们所熟悉的现当代国家,而这一时期的英国诗歌则为我们提供了各方各面的信息,从阶级到性爱,从金钱到政治,堪称无所不包。

在英国诗歌史上最华丽、最可笑且最没有诗人样子的角色就是约翰.威尔莫特。他的父亲是第一任罗切斯特侯爵,也是骑士派诗人心目中的英雄人物,此人的最显赫事迹是在伍斯特战役之后协助查理二世逃到了欧洲大陆。约翰.威尔莫特被父亲送到牛津念书,十三岁那年就赢得了“放荡堕落”的风评。新王登基之后他成为了一名廷臣,由于与一位女继承人私奔而被送进了伦敦塔,出狱之后在海上两度与荷兰人浴血交锋立下了战功,然后再度失去了国王的宠幸,然后撰写了一大堆尖刻犀利且极端粗鲁的讽刺诗,然后男扮女装兜售了一阵壮阳药与助孕药,最后在三十三岁的垂暮之年因为身患花柳而寿终正寝。他在临终之前或许因为毕生荒唐而进行了忏悔,又或许从来没有,如今我们已经不得而知了。像这样何不潇洒走一回的文风在下面这首题为《短歌》(The Song)的诗作当中得到了淋漓尽致的呈现。这首诗措辞优美且充溢着虚无主义思想,而且就笔者所知还是第一首公然宣扬断袖之好的英语诗歌:

Love a Woman! y'are an Ass,

'Tis a most insipid Passion,

To Chuse out for Happiness

The idlest part of God's Creation.

爱一个女人!你不过是个蠢物,

这份激情多么寡淡沉闷,

就算是为了寻欢作乐的缘故,

那也是上帝造物的最无用部分。

Let the Porter and the Groom,

Things design'd for Dirty Slaves,

Drudg in Fair Aurelia's Womb,

To get Supplies for Age and Graves.

不必去关心粗鄙的门房与马夫,

有些玩意天生就是肮脏的奴隶,

他们在奥蕾莉亚的子宫里进进出出,

造出下一代粗人好去填充坟地。

Farewel Woman, I intend

Henceforth ev'ry Night to sit

With my Lewd Well-natur'd Friend,

Drinking, to engender Wit.

别了,女人。我心中另有打算

从今后每晚我都不会急于安眠,

放荡且善良的朋友将我陪伴,

一起饮酒作乐,将彼此的头脑赏玩。

Then give me Health, Wealth, Mirth, and Wine,

And if busie Love intrenches,

There's a sweet soft Page of mine,

Do's the Trick worth Forty Wenches.

我只想要健康,财富,欢乐与美酒,

倘若多事的爱情还要跟我捣乱,

只需一个甜美的书童与我厮守,

四十个骚娘们我也绝不肯交换。

要是威尔莫特一辈子就只写过这种玩意儿,笔者断然不会在本书当中为他留出一席之地。但是尽管乍一看去他对于将他塑造成艺术家的人世间满怀厌恶,但是在这份玩世不恭的背后却潜藏着黑暗而又专注的严肃态度。没有人比威尔莫特本人更清楚他自己有多么放荡堕落。他在海战战场上近乎自杀的英勇表现要么暗示着他经历了存在主义危机——尽管人们往往以为这是二十世纪以来的人们特有的心态——要么意味着他在战争之后遭受了创伤后应激障碍的折磨。在下面这首《致邮差少年》(To the Postboy)当中,他毫不留情地剖析了自己的生平:

Son of a whore, God damn you, can you tell

A peerless peer the readiest way to hell?

I've out-swilled Bacchus, sworn of my own make

Oaths would fright Furies, and make Pluto quake;

I've swived more whores more ways than Sodom's walls

E'er knew, or the College of Rome's Cardinals:

Witness heroic scars, Look here, ne'er go,

Cerecloths and ulcers from the top to toe;

Frighted at my own mischiefs I have fled,

And bravely left my life's defender dead;

Broke houses to break chastity, and dyed

That floor with murder which my lust denied:

Pox on it—why do I speak of these poor things;

I have blasphemed my God and libelled kings:

The readiest way to hell—come, quick, ne'er stir—

The readiest way, my Lord, 's by Rochester.

妓女生养的贱种,天杀的混蛋,你可知道

孤零零的贵族是通向地狱的快速通道?

我比酒神更能滥饮无度,赌咒发誓一旦出口

就能吓跑复仇女神,让冥王也瑟瑟发抖。

我操翻过数不清的婊子,玩够了数不清的花样,

索多玛人甘拜下风,罗马主教团也赶我不上。

你想看光荣疤?我满身都是,不用仔细寻找,

蜡布一般的皮肉,杨梅烂疮从头到脚。

我自己的恶行吓得我都忍不住逃走,

多么英勇啊,听任我的保护者落入死神之手;

为了夺取姑娘的贞操,我害得她家破人惨,

淫欲驱使的杀戮,染红了她家的地板。

想想吧——我为何说出这些丑事供你参详?

我用恶行亵渎过上帝,我用秽语毁谤过国王。

前往地狱的捷径——快快作答,究竟是什么?

最快的捷径,我的大人,就是通过罗切斯特。

接下来这首诗或许是威尔莫特最出名的作品,《针对理性与人类的讽刺诗》(A Satyr against Reason and Mankind)。这一回威尔莫特将笔锋指向了人类本身。他对于所谓理性动物的厌恶如此真实可信,以至于这首诗乍一看去不像是出自十七世纪贵族之手,而更像是二十一世纪动物权益活动家撰写的檄文:

Were I -- who to my cost already am

One of those strange, prodigious creatures, man--

A spirit free to choose, for my own share

What case of flesh and blood I pleased to wear,

I'd be a dog, a monkey, or a bear,

Or anything but that vain animal,

Who is so proud of being rational.

倘若我——可惜如今我早已投下本钱

成为了人类,这奇怪而又高贵的生物的一员——

能够本着自由的精神挑选考量

我究竟想要怎样一副血肉皮囊,

那我宁愿当狗,或者猴子,又或者熊罴也无妨。

当什么都好,唯独不要做这虚荣的畜类,

自诩理性,趾高气扬,其实都是白费。

The senses are too gross, and he'll contrive

A sixth, to contradict the other five,

And before certain instinct, will prefer

Reason, which fifty times for one does err;

Reason, an ignis fatuus of the mind,

Which, leaving light of nature, sense, behind,

Pathless and dangerous wand'ring ways it takes

Through error's fenny bogs and thorny brakes;

Whilst the misguided follower climbs with pain

Mountains of whimseys, heaped in his own brain;

Stumbling from thought to thought, falls headlong down

Into doubt's boundless sea where, like to drown,

Books bear him up awhile, and make him try

To swim with bladders of philosophy;

In hopes still to o'ertake th' escaping light;

The vapour dances in his dazzling sight

Till, spent, it leaves him to eternal night.

Then old age and experience, hand in hand,

Lead him to death, and make him understand,

After a search so painful and so long,

That all his life he has been in the wrong.

人类的感官多么粗陋,不得不自我欺骗

瞎编出什么第六感,硬要与五感对着干。

就算本能确定无误,依然不敢与理性相违,

哪怕五十次决策只能蒙对一回。

理性无非是鬼火,将心智往歧路上引诱,

促使其将天光与感知都抛在身后,

步入无路的荒野,不顾危险四处游荡,

无视谬误的泥沼荆棘,只知道蒙头乱逛。

遭到误导的盲从者们痛苦地攀登

自家头脑堆砌起来的妄念山峰;

跌跌撞撞地在思想之间摸索,脑袋朝下地坠落

掉进了怀疑的无边大海,淹死他都不为过。

抓住书本漂浮片刻,刚喘过气来又想要

横渡汪洋,只凭若干个哲学的尿脬,

心里依然企图将那虚假之光超越,

空幻的闪烁,挑逗着他那模糊的视界,

直到最终消失,让他陷入永恒的暗夜。

到最后衰老与经验携手而来,

引领他走向死亡,也让他最终明白

尽管他毕生求索,辛劳而又漫长,

到头来却南辕北辙,无非是一场空忙。

Huddled in dirt the reasoning engine lies,

Who was so proud, so witty, and so wise.

理性的载具终于在泥土之中蜷缩,

他也曾多么骄傲明智,如今却不堪言说。

内战彻底摧毁了英国一部分有识之士的信仰,还使得他们无法遵循任何自冾的道德体系。威尔莫特本人虽然是新政权的食客,但却从不忌讳拿着恩主开涮。根据他本人的陈述,他曾经严重地冒犯过查理二世,因为国王要求他呈上一首颂圣诗,可他却鬼使神差地将另一首不登大雅之堂的讽刺诗的诗稿交了出去。这里提到的讽刺诗肯定不是下面这段他为查理二世预制的墓志铭,因为国王似乎还挺喜欢这段小诗的。查理二世承认这几行诗文戳到了他的痛处,因为他尽管可以随便发表言论,但是他在政坛的活动却完全受到各位大臣们的控制:

Here lies a great and mighty King,

Whose promise none relied on;

He never said a foolish thing,

Nor ever did a wise one.

长眠在此的国王多么伟大,

他的许诺被世人当成扯淡;

他毕生没有说过一句蠢话,

聪明事也从未干过一件。

啊不,威尔莫特针对查理二世的讽刺可远比这种程度的文字更加恶劣。下面这首《讽刺查理二世》(A Satyr on Charles II)才是他火力全开的表现。平心而论,查理二世仅仅将他驱逐出宫廷实在是涵养过人。神经敏感的读者或许应该直接跳过以下诗文:

In th' isle of Britain, long since famous grown

For breeding the best cunts in Christendom,

There reigns, and oh! long may he reign and thrive,

The easiest King and best-bred man alive.

Him no ambition moves to get renown

Like the French fool, that wanders up and down

Starving his people, hazarding his crown.

Peace is his aim, his gentleness is such,

And love he loves, for he loves fucking much.

英伦三岛长久以来都是举世闻名之地,

在基督教世界里将最出色的傻逼孕育。

傻逼当国,欧耶!愿他的统治绵延不止,

最没正形的君主,育种水平最高的男子。

可赞他全无野心,不能美名远播也挺好,

从不像法国的弱智同行那样恣意胡搞,

害得老百姓忍饥挨饿,自己的王冠也难保。

他只想海内刀兵不兴,他的脾性多么恬淡,

他只想做爱做的事——打炮,艹逼,扒了猛干。

Nor are his high desires above his strength:

His scepter and his prick are of a length;

And she may sway the one who plays with th' other,

And make him little wiser than his brother.

Poor Prince! thy prick, like thy buffoons at Court,

Will govern thee because it makes thee sport.

'Tis sure the sauciest prick that e'er did swive,

The proudest, peremptoriest prick alive.

Though safety, law, religion, life lay on 't,

'Twould break through all to make its way to cunt.

Restless he rolls about from whore to whore,

A merry monarch, scandalous and poor.

这并不能算是自不量力的抱负,

他的那话儿确实与权杖同等长度。

他最爱双杖齐下将美女消遣,

他还比他的兄弟更明智一点。

可怜的君王,您那话儿当真堪称奇葩

好比宫廷小丑,反过来当了您的家。

例数所有开过荤的话儿,您那根定是第一名,

最淋漓,最骄傲,行也得行不行也得行。

就算安全、法律、宗教与性命层层阻拦,

为了插进逼里,您那话儿总能冲破万难

在各位娼妓的门户里进进出出。

快乐的君主,囊中羞涩,声名脏污。

To Carwell, the most dear of all his dears,

The best relief of his declining years,

Oft he bewails his fortune, and her fate:

To love so well, and be beloved so late.

For though in her he settles well his tarse,

Yet his dull, graceless bollocks hang an arse.

This you'd believe, had I but time to tell ye

The pains it costs to poor, laborious Nelly,

Whilst she employs hands, fingers, mouth, and thighs,

Ere she can raise the member she enjoys.

All monarchs I hate, and the thrones they sit on,

From the hector of France to the cully of Britain.

卡薇尔*是他的挚爱心头肉,

让垂垂老年的国王把玩个没够。

他经常哀叹他们两人时运不对,

我生何早,卿生何迟,如今方才相会?

尽管他那根玩意儿整天将她顶撞,

令人没眼看的春囊在她腚后面晃荡。

若是还有工夫,我定要让你牢记

向来勤勉的奈丽*如何辛苦卖力:

双手十指,小嘴大腿,有张有弛,

好让那愉悦她的部位树立挺直。

啊,我痛恨一切君主与他们屁股下的王座,

无论他们是法国的莽夫还是英国的蠢货。

*【卡薇尔与奈丽是查理二世的两名情妇。】

相比之下,今天英国政坛的高层人物们仅仅会被《我有新闻告诉你》与《私家侦探》之类的讽刺媒体调笑两句,这样的待遇可以说已经很温和了。


最后于2019-11-28 04:40:30改,共1次;
2019-11-28 04:15:08
2019-12-03 04:37:49
4449603 复 4344063
万年看客
万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`237`25499`187009`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`0
复辟了个啥?讽刺与科学以及英国政坛的诞生2 1

随着复辟与剧院的重新开放,一大批活力十足的剧作家也纷纷涌现了出来,不过其中当真具备诗才的人物屈指可数。阿芙拉.贝恩的生平被神秘与刻意的虚假信息所笼罩。她的父亲可能是一位住在坎特伯雷附近的理发师,她本人则可能与权倾一时的西德尼家族有瓜葛。她可能前往过南美沿海,造访过小而危险的苏里南蔗糖殖民地,此行目的或许是作为一名保皇派间谍去监视当地的种植园主。然后她结了婚,丈夫大概是一名荷兰裔奴隶商人,此人大概在1666年死于伦敦瘟疫。可以肯定的是,她是荷兰国王帐下的间谍之一,化名艾斯特丽雅或者“160号密探”。丈夫病故之后她作为一名出身贫寒的寡妇(尽管极其聪慧美貌)只得艰难度日。她创作了一系列剧本,其文笔之优美吸引了约翰.德莱顿与约翰.威尔莫特等同行是关注。她在剧作当中表达的性别与性取向理念至今看来依旧咄咄逼人。贝恩是一位铁杆保皇派,一位死硬的势利眼,还是个擅长生存的人精。她或许是全世界第一位女性职业作家,完全依靠一杆笔赚取生计。在下面这首《失望》(The Disappointment)一诗当中,贝恩采用了男欢女爱的田园诗套路,可是却将这一套路掀了个底朝天,以女性视角详细描述了男性阳痿的景象:

In a lone Thicket made for Love,

Silent as yielding Maids Consent,

She with a Charming Languishment,

Permits his Force, yet gently strove ;

Her Hands his Bosom softly meet.

But not to put him back design'd.

Rather to draw 'em on inclin'd:

Whilst he lay trembling at her Feet,

Resistance 'tis in vain to show ;

She wants the pow'r to say — Ah ! what d'ye do ?

孤寂的树丛,为爱营造的小窝

心甘情愿的佳人在其中静静躺卧,

神情慵懒,着实令她充满诱惑,

许他用强,但又要他轻柔抚摸。

她的手按住他的胸口,

却并不想将他一把推开,

而是要将他拉拢过来,

他则在躺她脚边颤抖。

尽管一切抗拒都已经是虚妄,

可她还是想奋力提问——啊,你想怎样?

Her Bright Eyes sweet, and yet severe,

Where Love and Shame confus'dly strive,

Fresh Vigor to Lysander give;

And breathing faintly in his Ear,

She cry'd — Cease, Cease — your vain Desire,

Or I'll call out — What would you do ?

My Dearer Honour ev'n to You

I cannot, must not give — Retire,

Or take this Life, whose chiefest part

I gave you with the Conquest of my Heart.

她的眼神明亮甜蜜却又严格,

爱恋与羞耻在她心里纠缠对立,

赋予了拉山德全新的元气,

她吹气如兰,与他耳鬓厮磨,

哭叫道——住手啊,住手——无用的欲壑

否则我就要喊人了——你到底想做什么?

我最珍贵的荣誉,不能轻易给予

绝对不行,哪怕是给予你——

收手吧,或者要了我的命,其中最重要的一块

我已献给你,我的心已被你征服击败。

But he as much unus'd to Fear,

As he was capable of Love,

The blessed minutes to improve.

Kisses her Mouth, her Neck, her Hair;

Each Touch her new Desire Alarms,

His burning trembling Hand he prest

Upon her swelling Snowy Brest,

While she lay panting in his Arms.

All her unguarded Beauties lie

The Spoils and Trophies of the Enemy.

但他却并不习惯恐惧,

他的爱意无比强烈,

这蒙恩的时刻变得越发愉悦

亲吻她的双唇,脖颈与发际。

每一次触碰都让警报响起

他双手烫如火,微微地颤抖,

在她的雪峰上恣意游走,

她在他的怀抱里大口喘气。

她只得将不设防的美丽全然铺陈,

丰厚的战利品便宜了她的敌人。

And now without Respect or Fear,

He seeks the Object of his Vows,

His Love no Modesty allows:

His swift degrees advancing — where

His daring Hand that Altar seiz'd.

Where Gods of Love do Sacrifice:

That Awful Throne, the Paradice

Where Rage is calm'd, and Anger pleas'd;

That Fountain where Delight still flows,

And gives the Universal World Repose.

他心里既无尊重亦无恐惧,

朝向誓言指定的对象发起冲锋,

他的爱不允许适度与折衷,

只会迅速推进,毫不犹豫。

放肆的双手擎住了神圣的祭坛,

爱神在这里举行典礼,

了不得的王座,真能与天国乐园相比,

足以平复怒火,将气愤化为安然。

欢乐的泉水依然在这里流淌,

整个世界都受到泉水的滋养。

Her Balmy Lips incountring his,

Their Bodies, as their Souls, are joyn'd;

Where both in Transports Unconfin'd

Extend themselves upon the Moss.

Claris half dead and breathless lay;

Her soft Eyes cast a Humid Light,

Such as divides the Day and Night;

Or falling Stars, whose Fires decay:

And now no signs of Life she shows,

But what in short-breath'd Sighs returns & goes.

四片温暖的嘴唇触碰在一起,

他们的身体与灵魂就此交融,

两人都体验到了喜乐无穷,

在苔藓铺就的卧榻上舒展着身体。

克拉莉斯有气无力地躺卧,

温柔的眼神,朦胧而又摇曳,

恰似晨昏之间的辉光分开昼夜,

又好比火焰衰微的星辰坠落。

她全身显现不出还活着的形迹,

唯有短促的呼吸与轻声叹气。

He saw how at her Length she lay;

He saw her rising Bosom bare;

Her loose thin Robes, through which appear

A Shape design'd for Love and Play;

Abandon'd by her Pride and Shame,

She does her softest joys dispence,

Off'ring her Virgin-Innocence

A Victim to Loves Sacred Flame;

While the o'er-Ravish'd Shepherd lies

Unable to perform the Sacrifice.

他看到了她如何玉体横陈,

他看到了她高耸的酥胸赤裸,

轻薄通透的罩衣,无法包裹

可爱可玩的诱人身形。

她挽留不住自己的羞耻与骄傲

将她最柔和的喜悦发散,

将处女的童贞向他奉献,

默默忍受着爱情圣火的炙烤。

可是兴奋过头的牧人却丧失了能力,

竟然无法将爱之祭典进行完毕。

Ready to taste a thousand Joys,

The too transported hapless Swain

Found the vast Pleasure turn'd to Pain;

Pleasure which too much Love destroys:

The willing Garments by he laid,

And Heaven all open'd to his view,

Mad to possess, himself he threw

On the Defenceless Lovely Maid.

But Oh what envying God conspires

To snatch his Power, yet leaves him the Desire.

本来已经准备品尝一千重的喜悦,

不幸的情郎本已不由自主,

谁成想快感突然变成了痛苦?

愉悦现在却将爱情毁灭。

心甘情愿褪去的衣裙就放在一旁,

天堂打开了门扉让他任意观看,

疯狂的占有欲迫使他只想侵犯

孤立无援的姑娘此时毫不设防。

但是嫉妒的神灵存心将他戏弄,

欲望依旧强烈,力量却不中用。

Nature's Support, (without whose Aid

She can no Humane Being give)

It self now wants the Art to live;

Faintness its slack'ned Nerves invade:

In vain th'enraged Youth essay'd

To call its fleeting Vigor back,

No motion 'twill from Motion take;

Excess of Love his Love betray'd:

In vain he toils, in vain Commands;

The insensible fell weeping in his Hand.

自然界的支柱——要是没有这一位帮忙

她也无法让人类诞生降世——

不肯让他罢手,反倒来了兴致,

引诱他快快进犯,松弛的神经故作迷惘。

愤怒的青年徒劳地蛮干,

试图挽回不断流逝的雄风,

一连串的动作,可惜全都落空,

爱得太过火,反而将爱背叛。

徒劳地命令,同样徒劳的努力,

那冥顽的物件只会在他掌中啜泣。

In this so Amorous Cruel Strife,

Where Love and Fate were too severe,

The poor Lysander in dispair

Renounc'd his Reason with his Life:

Now all the brisk and active Fire

That should the Nobler parts inflame,

Serv'd to increase his Rage and Shame,

And left no spark for New Desire:

Not all her Naked Charms cou'd move

Or calm that Rage that had debauch'd his Love.

这场斗争多么旖旎而又残酷,

爱情与命运多么严苛,

绝望吞没了可怜的拉山德,

他以性命起誓,要将理性弃之不顾。

这迅捷而又灵动的理性火焰

本应点燃更加高贵的身体部位,

如今却烧得他越发又怒又愧,

还不留半点火星去点燃全新的欲念。

她的妩媚裸体无法动摇或者平复

败坏了他的爱情的无能狂怒。

阿芙拉.贝恩或许是复辟时期较为高调闪耀的女性诗人之一,但却并不是最有趣的一位。这一时期还有另一位保皇派女性诗人,也就是纽卡斯尔女伯爵玛格丽特.卡文迪许。她的一位兄弟是最杰出的骑士派骑兵指挥官,在战后以叛国罪名被判处死刑。在查理一世的宫廷里,玛格丽特是亨利埃塔.玛丽亚王后身边的侍女之一。但是作为一名作家来说,她的突出特点则在于对于早期启蒙运动新哲学抱有浓厚兴趣。下面这首诗题为《这个世界当中的大千世界》(Of Many Worlds in This World),她在诗中展示了例如显微镜这样的全新科学器械如何彻底改变了人们看待宇宙的方式。这首诗或许并不能算是本书当中最优美的一首,但却隐隐预示了二十一世纪的多维宇宙理念:

Just like as in a nest of boxes round,

Degrees of sizes in each box are found:

So, in this world, may many others be

Thinner and less, and less still by degree:

Although they are not subject to our sense,

A world may be no bigger than two-pence.

Nature is curious, and such works may shape,

Which our dull senses easily escape:

For creatures, small as atoms, may there be,

If every one a creature’s figure bear.

If atoms four, a world can make, then see

What several worlds might in an ear-ring be:

For, millions of those atoms may be in

The head of one small, little, single pin.

And if thus small, then ladies may well wear

A world of worlds, as pendents in each ear.

恰似一套盒子,层层承装嵌套,

每一个盒子里面的盒子都要小一号。

我们这个世界或许也将许多世界容纳,

每一个都更薄更轻,依次层层向下。

尽管我们的感官无法将这些世界觉察

这样一个世界并不比两分铜币更大。

自然奥妙无穷,像这样神奇的造物

很容易就能躲过我们的迟钝耳目。

这样的世界里或许还有小如原子的生灵,

假如原子也能采用飞禽走兽的外形。

倘若四个原子就能构成一个世界,那么你瞧

在一枚耳环里能将多少世界找着?

须知,仅仅一根细小别针的纤微针尖

原子的数目就能达到亿万百千。

倘若当真如此渺小,那么或许各位女士

也会在耳垂上悬挂无数世界作为装饰。

玛格丽特.卡文迪许创作了一大批内容相当科学的论文与诗歌。她在科学领域的兴趣极其广泛,同时代的男性诗人竟无一人能与她相提并论。在现代社会的萌芽期,早期科学开始揭开世界的表象,而卡文迪许的作品则栩栩如生地彰显了此时的人类心智如何开始费力应对表象之下令人不安的现实。请看《原子组成的世界》(A World made by Atomes):

Small Atomes of themselves a World may make,

As being subtle, and of every shape:

And as they dance about, fit places finde,

Such Formes as best agree, make every kinde.

For when we build a house of Bricke, and Stone,

We lay them even, every one by one:

And when we finde a gap that's big, or small,

We seeke out Stones, to fit that place withall.

For when not fit, too big, or little be,

They fall away, and cannot stay we see.

So Atomes, as they dance, finde places fit,

They there remaine, lye close, and fast will sticke.

Those that unfit, the rest that rove about,

Do never leave, untill they thrust them out.

Thus by their severall Motions, and their Formes,

As severall work-men serve each others turnes.

And thus, by chance, may a New World create:

Or else predestined to worke my Fate.

小小的原子,或许竟能将世界构造,

如此细微,形状各异,多么奇妙:

寻找各自合适的位置,它们翩翩起舞,

组成了世间万物,形状与位置互补。

修建房屋用的是砖瓦与石材,

将它们一块挨一块摆放,层层堆砌起来。

一旦我们找到了或大或小的空隙,

就将形状合适的石块填补进去。

若是石块尺寸太大或太小,并不合适,

就会松脱掉落,无法留在我们见到的位置。

翩翩起舞的原子将各自合适的位置寻觅,

找到空隙就靠近,然后牢牢固定进去。

至于那些不合适的原子则会继续游历,

却绝不会远离,直到将先来者排挤出去。

各种不同的运动,各种不同的形状,

就像若干名轮流接力干活的工匠。

就这样,出于运气,或许能将新世界创生,

又或者能够预先决定我的人生。

今天的科学家们或许会另有一套说法,但是玛格丽特.卡文迪许的诗作确实为我们揭示了十七世纪英国人心态的另一面。前文当中我们已经见识了这一时期的宗教狂热,但是同一时期也见证了皇家科学院的创建以及威廉.哈维、罗伯特.波义耳以及艾萨克.牛顿的降生。这些诗作水平很高吗?或许并不能这么说。但是笔者确实认为卡文迪许的诗作充溢着令人振奋的活力。而且这股活力还不仅仅体现在科学领域。比方说下面这首《猎兔记》(The Hunting of the Hare)就在许多层面上都引人入胜。首先,这是一首田园诗,而且作者对于自然科学有着敏锐的理解,也近距离观察过动物行为。其次,尽管卡文迪许出身于骑士派贵族家庭,但是这首诗却并未采取跃马扬鞭的猎人们的视角,而是从猎物的角度入手。其三,卡文迪许对于遭到追猎的野兔沃特(难免令笔者联想起罗伯特.彭斯)抱有深切的同情,使得这首诗成为了极其少见的早期动物权益文学作品。一名心智开明的男性贵族或许也能写出与她不相上下的科学诗歌,但是下面的诗文节选肯定不可能出自任何一名男性贵族之手:

Betwixt two Ridges of Plowd-land, lay Wat

Pressing his Body close to Earth lay squat.

His Nose upon his two Fore-feet close lies

Glaring obliquely with his great gray Eyes.

His Head he alwaies sets against the Wind;

If turne his Taile, his Haires blow up behind:

Which he too cold will grow, but he is wise,

And keeps his Coat still downe, so warm he lies.

Thus resting all the day, till Sun doth set

Then riseth up, his Reliefe for to get.

Walking about untill the Sun doth rise

Then back returnes, down in his Forme he lyes.

At last, Poore Wat was found, as he there lay

By Hunts-men, with their Dogs which came that way.

Seeing, gets up, and fast begins to run,

Hoping some waies the Cruell Dogs to shun.

But they by Nature have so quick a Sent,

That by their Nose they race, what way he went.

在农田的两道土垄之间,潜伏着沃特

身体紧贴地面,一动不动地趴着。

两只前腿并拢,鼻子搁在中间,

一对灰色的大眼睛扫视着两边。

他总会让脑袋的位置顶着风,

摇摇尾巴,让风将绒毛吹松。

天冷了他就会长绒毛,他可不糊涂

总会将御寒的皮毛紧紧裹住。

他趴着养精蓄锐,直到太阳落山

然后才起身开始自己的一天。

四处走来走去,直到日出之时,

这才回到窝里,采取原本的姿势。

最后可怜的沃特终于暴露了行踪,

猎人牵着猎犬向他发起了进攻。

沃特飞身跃起,拔腿拼命奔逃,

逃得越远越好,让恶犬找不着。

但是犬类天生就善于闻嗅,

在鼻子的引领下紧随其后。

……

Starting with Feare, up leapes, then doth he run,

And with such speed, the Ground scarce treades upon.

Into a great thick Wood he strait way gets,

Where underneath a broken Bough he sits.

At every Leafe that with the wind did shake,

Did bring such Terrour, made his Heart to ake.

That Place he left, to Champion Plaines he went,

Winding about, for to deceive their Sent.

And while they snuffling were, to find his Track,

Poore Wat, being weary, his swift pace did slack.

又惊又怕,连窜带蹦,飞奔只为逃避

如此飞快的速度,四足几乎不沾地。

抄小路他冲进一片灌木茂密,

在断裂的大树枝下面暂歇休息。

每一片树叶在风中的每一次抖动

都令他恐惧,令他的心脏抽痛。

他离开藏身处,朝着平原跑去,

一路上净兜圈子,混淆气味的痕迹。

猎犬们东嗅西嗅,想将沃特的去路找到

可怜的沃特却脚步减慢,体力严重消耗。

……

The great slow-Hounds, their throats did set a Base,

The Fleet swift Hounds, as Tenours next in place;

The little Beagles they a Trebble sing,

And through the Aire their Voice a round did ring.

Which made a Consort, as they ran along;

If they but words could speak, might sing a Song,

The Hornes kept time, the Hunters shout for Joy,

And valiant seeme, poore Wat for to destroy:

Spurring their Horses to a full Careere,

Swim Rivers deep, leap Ditches without feare;

Indanger Life, and Limbes, so fast will ride,

Onely to see how patiently Wat died.

For why, the Dogs so neere his Heeles did get,

That they their sharp Teeth in his Breech did set.

Then tumbling downe, did fall with weeping Eyes,

Gives up his Ghost, and thus poore Wat he dies.

Men hooping loud, such Acclamations make,

As if the Devill they did Prisoner take.

When they do but a shiftlesse Creature kill;

To hunt, there need no Valiant Souldiers skill.

大型猎犬脚步缓慢,喉咙里呜呜作响,

行动敏捷的小猎犬,发出高亢的叫嚷。

比格犬的叫声好比三重唱,

各种犬吠之声在空气里回荡。

好一支乐队,一路飞奔直冲向前,

他们定会演唱歌曲,若他们能口吐人言。

号角记录钟点,猎人欢乐地喊叫,

雄壮的阵容,只为将可怜的沃特干掉。

策马扬鞭全速向前飞奔,

越过沟渠,渡过河流,丝毫不惧水深,

跑得这么快,不顾性命与肢体的风险,

只为见证沃特慢慢地断气闭眼。

猎犬终于逼近了沃特的身后

尖利的牙齿终于刺穿了他的皮肉。

沃特翻滚倒地,圆瞪着湿润的眼睛,

放弃了魂灵,可怜的沃特终于丧命。

兴奋的猎人们炫耀夸口吵闹纷纷,

外人还以为他们活捉了魔王本尊。

其实他们仅仅将无害的小兽逼入死地,

打猎可用不着冲锋陷阵的技艺。


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最后于2019-12-18 20:56:26改,共1次;
2019-12-03 04:37:49
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好像有个大科学家叫卡文迪许——卡文迪什
2019-12-03 23:13:02
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