主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

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2019-12-25 05:14:26
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万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`238`25695`188502`正五品下:朝议大夫|宁远将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
理性时代以及奴隶与污秽等等4 1

就像德莱顿一样,蒲柏也是一名伟大的翻译——他主要翻译荷马而不是维吉尔——但是他为其他诗人留下的最重要遗赠在于彰显了恶搞英雄诗可以用来描绘几乎一切事物。恶搞英雄诗非但没有局限作者的写作范围,反而为他们打开了整个世界。蒲柏最伟大的仰慕者托马斯.格雷学到了这一课。他的《墓园挽歌》(Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard)堪称最广为人知且最具标志性的十八世纪英语诗歌。就像蒲柏一样,我们今天依然会有意无意地引用格雷的诗句。不过早在他创作这首诗之前还写过另一首远远更加接近蒲柏的搞笑精神的诗歌。这首诗让我们看到了英国国民性的另一个重要侧面,即宠爱小动物,尤其是猫。这一特质正在十八世纪迅速成型。这首诗也是一首挽歌,题为《一只心爱的猫在金鱼缸中淹死有感》(Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat, Drowned in a Tub of Goldfishes')。但凡是养猫的人都能看出诗文的描写多么栩栩如生。此外这首诗还提醒我们,贸易与物质主义的新时代正在降临英国——当时来自中国的瓷器是最炙手可热的畅销品。(还记得《卷发遇劫记》里那个从高处落下的“华丽的中国花瓶”吗?)

’Twas on a lofty vase’s side,

Where China’s gayest art had dyed

The azure flowers that blow;

Demurest of the tabby kind,

The pensive Selima, reclined,

Gazed on the lake below.

那是在一个高大的磁缸边上,

中国磁器的色彩多么绚丽明亮;

上面绘有盛开的天蓝花朵,

赛莉玛趴在缸沿思索深沉;

她这只猫最庄严最斯文,

正将脚下湖水紧紧盯着。

Her conscious tail her joy declared;

The fair round face, the snowy beard,

The velvet of her paws,

Her coat, that with the tortoise vies,

Her ears of jet, and emerald eyes,

She saw; and purred applause.

轻摇的尾巴表露出她的喜悦:

她照见漂亮的圆脸,髭须如雪,

她的四爪绒毛像天鹅绒般柔和,

她的皮毛闪着玳瑁般的光泽,

还有墨玉似的耳朵,碧玉似的眼睛;

她发出呜呜的叫声十分高兴。

Still had she gazed; but ’midst the tide

Two angel forms were seen to glide,

The genii of the stream;

Their scaly armour’s Tyrian hue

Through richest purple to the view

Betrayed a golden gleam.

她两眼盯着水面,只见水波荡漾

游荡着一双天仙似的倩影,

那模样就象是一对水妖形象,

披着紫红色的鳞甲将水波引领:

那鳞色好比用海螺浸出的染料,

在浓艳的绛紫中有金光闪耀。

The hapless nymph with wonder saw;

A whisker first and then a claw,

With many an ardent wish,

She stretched in vain to reach the prize.

What female heart can gold despise?

What cat’s averse to fish?

不幸的猫美人她越看越惊奇,

炽热的欲望在她心中升起,

她先探出胡须,又伸爪到水中,

拼命抓捞,但却枉费心机一场空。

哪个女人的心能鄙视黄金?

哪只猫的嘴巴能不馋鱼腥?

Presumptuous maid! with looks intent

Again she stretch’d, again she bent,

Nor knew the gulf between.

(Malignant Fate sat by, and smiled)

The slippery verge her feet beguiled,

She tumbled headlong in.

冒失的猫小姐呵!她两眼似火烧,

不住地探下身,不住地去抓捞;

她不知道脚下是一片深渊,

暗自狞笑的命运等在旁边;

缸沿太滑,她的立足点突然一松,

她一失足就头朝下摔进水中。

Eight times emerging from the flood

She mewed to every watery god,

Some speedy aid to send.

No dolphin came, no Nereid stirred;

Nor cruel Tom, nor Susan heard;

A Favourite has no friend!

她先后八次浮出激荡的水面,

挣扎呼叫向各位水神求援,

快来把她救出这危险;

但既不见海豚,仙女也没出现,

连狠心的汤姆和苏珊也毫无所闻,

心爱的猫啊,临危时竟没一个友人!

From hence, ye beauties, undeceived,

Know, one false step is ne’er retrieved,

And be with caution bold.

Not all that tempts your wandering eyes

And heedless hearts, is lawful prize;

Nor all that glisters, gold.

你们,还未受骗上当的美人,

从此该知道一失足将成千古恨,

你们要大胆,但更须谨慎:

那使你们流盼的秀目和轻浮的心

感到诱惑的,并非都是可取的目标,

那熠熠生辉的并非都是金子在闪耀!【顾子欣译,有修改】

格雷笔下更有名的那首挽歌创作于十八世纪四十年代,其中至少有一部分章节创作于白金汉郡斯托克珀格斯的圣贾尔斯教区教堂的周边墓地里。尽管这首诗的创作起因是一位朋友的逝世,但是诗歌的主题却是对生死关口的整体反思。诗人身处于一个睡眼惺忪、籍籍无名的英国小镇,镇子里的淳朴居民们全都注定将会被历史遗忘。针对小镇风貌的细微描写正是诗文的奇特感染力源自的来源。莎士比亚在十四行诗里不管不顾地表达了对于永世留名的渴望,而我们不妨将这首诗视作针对莎士比亚的回答:

The curfew tolls the knell of parting day,

The lowing herd wind slowly o'er the lea,

The plowman homeward plods his weary way,

And leaves the world to darkness and to me.

晚钟响起一阵阵给白昼报丧,

牛群在草原上迂回,吼声起落,

耕地人累了,回家走,脚步踉跄,

把整个世界留给了黄昏与我。

Now fades the glimm'ring landscape on the sight,

And all the air a solemn stillness holds,

Save where the beetle wheels his droning flight,

And drowsy tinklings lull the distant folds;

苍茫的景色逐渐从眼前消退,

一边肃穆的寂静盖遍了尘寰,

只听见嗡嗡的甲虫转圈子纷飞,

昏沉的铃声催眠着远处的羊栏。

Save that from yonder ivy-mantled tow'r

The moping owl does to the moon complain

Of such, as wand'ring near her secret bow'r,

Molest her ancient solitary reign.

只听见常春藤披裹的塔顶地下

一只阴郁的鸱枭向月亮诉苦,

怪人家无端走进它秘密的住家,

搅扰它这个悠久而僻静的领土。

Beneath those rugged elms, that yew-tree's shade,

Where heaves the turf in many a mould'ring heap,

Each in his narrow cell for ever laid,

The rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep.

峥嵘的榆树地下,扁柏的荫里,

草皮鼓起了许多零落的荒堆,

各自在洞窟里永远放下了身体,

小村里粗鄙的父老在那里安睡。

The breezy call of incense-breathing Morn,

The swallow twitt'ring from the straw-built shed,

The cock's shrill clarion, or the echoing horn,

No more shall rouse them from their lowly bed.

香气四溢的晨风轻松的呼召,

燕子从茅草棚子里吐出的呢喃,

公鸡的尖喇叭,使山鸣谷应的猎号

再不能唤醒他们在地下的长眠。

For them no more the blazing hearth shall burn,

Or busy housewife ply her evening care:

No children run to lisp their sire's return,

Or climb his knees the envied kiss to share.

在他们,熊熊的炉火不再会燃烧,

忙碌的管家妇不再会赶他的夜活;

孩子们不再会“牙牙”的报父亲的来到,

为一个亲吻爬到他膝上去争夺。

Oft did the harvest to their sickle yield,

Their furrow oft the stubborn glebe has broke;

How jocund did they drive their team afield!

How bow'd the woods beneath their sturdy stroke!

往常是:他们一开镰就所向披靡

顽梗的泥板让他们犁出了垄沟;

他们多么欢欣的赶牲口下地!

他们一猛砍,树木就一棵棵低头!

Let not Ambition mock their useful toil,

Their homely joys, and destiny obscure;

Nor Grandeur hear with a disdainful smile

The short and simple annals of the poor.

“雄心”别嘲讽他们使用的操劳,

家常的欢乐、默默无闻的运命;

“豪华”也不用带着轻蔑的冷笑

来听讲穷人的又短又简的生平。

The boast of heraldry, the pomp of pow'r,

And all that beauty, all that wealth e'er gave,

Awaits alike th' inevitable hour.

The paths of glory lead but to the grave.

门第的炫耀,有权有势的煊赫,

凡是美和财富所能赋予的好处,

前头都等待着不可避免的时刻:

光荣的道路无非是引导到坟墓。【卞之琳译】

上文中笔者提到,尽管亚历山大.蒲柏通常被视为文学经营与罕见的奇才,但却是他开启了描写日常生活现实的大门。他的另一位朋友——同时也是乔纳森.斯威夫特的朋友——是约翰.盖伊。今天的读者们大概最熟悉他在1728年创作的《乞丐歌剧》。此前的英国戏剧从没见识过这样的作品。当时的伦敦痴迷于奢华的意大利歌剧,其中充斥着阉人歌手与一个字都听不懂的咏叹调。盖伊的应对则是推出了一部朴实刚健的英国戏剧,配乐采用民歌曲调,对白全用英文,剧情里遍布着强盗与杀人犯,还毫不留情地讽刺了英国的第一位恐怕也是最腐败的一位首相罗伯特.沃波尔。贝尔托.布莱希特还在二十世纪改编过这部作品。回到我们当下的主题,盖伊笔下描写日常生活最到位的诗歌就是《琐事,或行走于伦敦街道的艺术》(Trivia; or The Art of Walking the Streets of London),一看标题就知道诗歌内容是什么。读者们能够通过这首诗领略一下十八世纪早期的英国城市生活。就像今天一样,上街散步首先要挑个好时候:

For ease and for dispatch, the morning's best;

No tides of passengers the street molest.

You'll see a draggled damsel, here and there,

From Billingsgate her fishy traffic bear;

On doors the sallow milk-maid chalks her gains;

Ah! how unlike the milk-maid of the plains!

Before proud gates attending asses bray,

Or arrogate with solemn pace the way;

These grave physicians with their milky cheer,

The love-sick maid and dwindling beau repair;

Here rows of drummers stand in martial file,

And with their vellum thunder shake the pile,

To greet the new-made bride. Are sounds like these

The proper prelude to a state of peace?

Now industry awakes her busy sons,

Full charg'd with news the breathless hawker runs:

Shops open, coaches roll, carts shake the ground,

And all the streets with passing cries resound.

为了轻松便利,出门最好赶在清早;

汹涌人潮尚未将街道搅扰。

一身又湿又脏的妇人三三两两,

提着鱼篮赶赴比灵门水产市场。

蜡黄脸的挤奶女工在各家门口用粉笔标记收获,

唉,她们的乡间同行可不是这番气色!

在敞亮的门口,前来出诊的毛驴嘶鸣,

它们迈着稳健的步伐占道慢行;

这些拉着长脸的医师给出乳汁甘甜,

化解怨女的相思病,将憔悴的痴男复原;*1

成排鼓手组成严整军阵,

小牛皮的鼓面声若雷震,

向新婚佳偶贺喜,耳听得鼓声不停

难道这也能预示婚后生活的和平?*2

此时各行各业都唤醒了各自人马操劳繁忙

气喘吁吁冲将过来的是传达新闻的卖报郎。

店铺开张,马车隆隆,板车震动地面,

形形色色的吆喝街头巷尾都能听见。

*1【当时英国人认为新鲜驴奶有保健功能,因此挤奶女工会将驴赶到买主家门口当场挤奶。】

*2【当时的英国婚俗,鼓乐队会在婚礼次日清晨来到婚房门口奏乐,领到钱才会离开。】

随着日上三竿,街道上越发繁忙拥挤,因此散步也越来越危险了,尤其要小心弄脏衣服:

If cloth'd in black, you tread the busy town

Or if distinguish'd by the rev'rend gown,

Three trades avoid; oft in the mingling press,

The barber's apron soils the sable dress;

Shun the perfumer's touch with cautious eye,

Nor let the baker's step advance too nigh;

Ye walkers too that youthful colours wear,

Three sullying trades avoid with equal care;

The little chimney-sweeper skulks along,

And marks with sooty stains the heedless throng;

When small-coal murmurs in the hoarser throat,

From smutty dangers guard thy threaten'd coat:

The dust-man's cart offends thy clothes and eyes,

When through the street a cloud of ashes flies;

But whether black or lighter dyes are worn,

The chandler's basket, on his shoulder borne,

With tallow spots thy coat; resign the way,

To shun the surly butcher's greasy tray,

Butcher's, whose hands are dy'd with blood's foul stain,

And always foremost in the hangman's train.

Let due civilities be strictly paid.

The wall surrender to the hooded maid;

Nor let thy sturdy elbow's hasty rage

Jostle the feeble steps of trembling age;

And when the porter bends beneath his load,

And pants for breath, clear thou the crowded road.

But, above all, the groping blind direct,

And from the pressing throng the lame protect.

You'll sometimes meet a fop, of nicest tread,

Whose mantling peruke veils his empty head;

At ev'ry step he dreads the wall to lose,

And risks, to save a coach, his red-heel'd shoes;

Him, like the miller, pass with caution by,

Lest from his shoulder clouds of powder fly.

若是你身穿黑衣来到繁忙路段,

又或者一身教士法袍,那可要小心察看

三大行当必须回避,尤其在拥挤的地方,

理发师的围裙准会将紫貂大衣弄脏;

千万别让香水师触摸你的衣服,

也不要挡住糕点师傅的去路。

你的衣衫若是青春的五彩亮色,

同样有三大行当要避让躲过;

清扫烟囱的孩童满街乱窜,

不留神的人群准得蹭一身煤烟。

一旦听见火炭在烟囱的粗喉中低声诉说,

就要保护大衣不受沾污,再小心也不多。

垃圾工的大车同时冒犯衣衫与眼目,

隆隆驶过街道,掀起一团尘土灰雾;

但是不管你的衣料颜色是浅是深,

都要将蜡烛匠肩头的篮子避让三分,

略碰一下,必然沾染一团油迹,

坏脾气屠夫的盛肉盘也同样油腻。

屠夫的双手浸透了可厌的血污,

经常率先将绞刑师的生意照顾。

话说回来,走在路上必须遵守礼貌,

要为带兜帽的女士让出内侧人行道;

切勿亮出结实的胳膊肘左推右搡,

体弱老者脚步虚浮,经不住此等鲁莽;

倘若看到直不起腰的搬运工扛着重负,

累得直喘粗气,应当主动为他开路。

但最重要的是,遇到摸索的盲人要主动指路,

要在拥挤人流当中将腿脚不便的残疾人保护。

有时你会遇见某人将最精美的假发顶在头上,

假发好似斗篷,遮住他的头顶空空荡荡。

他每走一步都存心内靠紧贴墙根,

为了赶上马车,顾不得爱惜红色鞋跟;

好比磨坊工人,他走起路来小心翼翼,

就怕扑满粉的发套离开肩膀凌空飞去。

显然这些诗文并非单纯的白描,而是包含了针对英国社会的讽刺。此外从地理角度来说这首诗还揭示了另一项有趣的现实:早在1716年本诗成篇的时候,伦敦城就已经出现了东城与西城之分:东城遍布着辛苦的劳动者,空气极其刺鼻,西城则更加高雅祥和:

Or who that rugged street would traverse o'er,

That stretches, O Fleet-ditch, from thy black shore*1

To the Tower's moated walls? Here steams ascend

That in mix'd fumes the wrinkled nose offend.

Where chandlers' cauldrons boil; where fishy prey

Hide the wet stall, long absent from the sea;

And where the cleaver chops the heifer's spoil,

And where huge hogsheads sweat with trainy oil

Thy breathing nostril bold; but how shall I

Pass, where in piles Carnavian cheeses lie;

Cheese,that the table's closing rites denies,

And bids me with th' unwilling chaplain rise?

O bear me to the paths of fair Pall-mall!

Safe are thy pavements; grateful is thy smell;

At distance rolls along the gilded coach,

Nor sturdy carmen on thy walk encroach;

No lets would bar thy ways, were chairs deny'd,

The soft supports of laziness and pride:

Shops breathe perfumes, through sashes ribbons glow,

The mutual arms of ladies and the beau.

若是有人走过这些粗粝街道之间,

这片街道起始于漆黑的舰队沟岸边,*1

通向护城河环绕的伦敦塔城墙脚下,

一路上各种秽气杂糅,令鼻子无法招架。

蜡烛匠煮开了大釜,鱼贩子摊开货物,

离海许久的水产将潮湿的摊位遮住;

大砍刀劈开了一块块硬质牛油,

大木桶壁渗出的鲸脂直往下流,

敢在这里吸气的鼻孔不得不说真有胆色,

遇见成堆的柴郡奶酪,我只得掩鼻而过;

好一堆奶酪,不去充当正餐之后的小菜,

非得逼着我像无奈的家庭牧师那样离开?*2

啊,我多想漫步在美丽的帕尔玛尔大道!

清新怡人的空气,安全放心的人行道;

远处辚辚驶过镀金马车光辉灿烂,

并不与行人争道,车夫也非粗壮莽汉。

路上没有杂乱障碍,不会妨碍坐轿,

柔软地衬托着乘客的慵懒与骄傲;*3

商铺橱窗里缎带生辉,门口飘着香气,

相互挽着臂膀的是情郎与佳丽。

*1【当时伦敦的一条排污明渠】

*2【在英国上游家庭当中,家庭牧师的地位高于仆役,但低于家庭成员与宾客。因此家庭牧师要在正餐结束后离席,没资格留下来享用奶酪之类的餐后甜点。】

*3【帕尔玛尔是步行街,车辆不得进入,但是轿子可以。】

笔者觉得约翰.盖伊的作品读起来很容易上瘾。他笔下的伦敦城如今依旧清晰可见。不过另一方面他也创作了大量乡村诗歌。以下诗文节选自他的《乡间运动:一首牧歌》(Rural Sports: A Georgic),首先是犬戏野兔:

Yet if for silvan sport thy bosom glow,

Let thy feet greyhound urge his dying foe.

With what delight the rapid course I view!

How does my eye the circling race pursue!

He snaps deceitful air with empty jaws,

The subtle hare darts swift beneath his paws;

She flies, he stretches, now with nimble bound.

Eager he presses on, but overshoots his ground;

She turns, he winds, and soon regains the way,

Then tears with goary mouth the screaming prey.

What various sport does rural life afford!

What unbought dainties heap the wholesome board!

若是你胸中涌动着林间运动的热情,

就放纵灵𤟥飞奔,去追逐亡命的敌人。

你追我赶的疾驰,看得我多么愉悦,

紧紧盯着绕圈子的竞赛激烈。

猎犬的利齿几次三番仅仅咬到骗人的空气

灵巧的兔子在利爪之间蹿来跳去。

她飞奔,他扑捉,灵活的动作真堪匹敌,

他纵身扑上去,可惜动作太大过犹不及。

她急转,他掉头,很快重新赶上进度,

张开血盆大口,咬住了尖叫的猎物。

乡间生活包含了多少娱乐花样!

健康的运动将免费的美味献上!

接下来是射猎丘鹬:

Now to the copse thy lesser spaniel take,

Teach him to range the ditch and force the brake;

Now closest coverts can protect the game:

Hark! the dog opens; take thy certain aim;

The woodcock flutters; how he wavering flies!

The wood resounds: he wheels, he drops, he dies.

体格较小的猎鹬犬,灌木丛是用武之地,

教会他跳过沟渠,冲过枝丫,径直向前去。

尽量抵近,让猎物难以逃走,

去!冲着既定目标撒出猎狗;

丘鹬扑腾腾飞起来,半空中摇摇晃晃,

一声枪响震动树林,鸟儿转着圈掉在地上。

除了上述的乡间运动之外,还有其他现代体育活动也正在显露雏形。威廉.索莫韦尔是华威郡的一位乡间士绅,在诗坛的名气相对而言不太显赫。之所以要提到此人是因为他的诗作率先描述了英国人打板球的场面。1734年他创作了一首名为《保龄绿地》(The Bowling-Green)的诗歌,首先描写了平整球场的场景:

Here every morn, while fruitful vapours feed

The swelling blade, and bless the smoking mead,

A cruel tyrant reigns: like Time, the swain

Whets his unrighteous scythe, and shaves the plain:

Beneath each stroke the peeping flowers decay,

And all the' unripen'd crop is swept away:

The heavy roller next he tugs along,

Whift's his short pipe, or rears a rural song ;

With curious eye then the press'd turf he views,

And every rising prominence subdues.

每天清晨,正当饱满的露水滋养孕育

饱满的草叶与晨雾缭绕的草地,

一位残忍的暴君,恰似时光无情,

磨利不义的镰刀,将绿地齐头削平;

每次挥动利刃,都要摧残多少鲜花,

那么多未成熟的植株都要脑袋搬家;

接下来他拖来一具沉重的辊子,

嘴里叼着烟斗,唱着村俗的曲子;

他仔细打量压平过后的草地,

看哪里还有凸起,就强行镇压下去。

接下来比赛选手们纷纷亮相,可谓涵盖了英国乡间的各色人等:

Attornies spruce, in their plate-button'd frocks,

And rosy parsons, fat and orthodox ;

Of every sect, Whigs, Papists, and Highflyers,

Cornuted aldermen and hen-peck'd squires ;

Fox-hunters, quacks, scribblers in verse and prose,

And half-pay captains, and half-witted beaus.

On the green cirque the ready racers stand,

Dispos'd in pairs, and tempt the bowler's hand ;

身穿平板纽扣大衣,律师们纷纷出动,

面色红润的教区教士,身材圆润,信仰端正;

政治派系一应俱全:辉格党,教皇派,高派教会信徒,

老婆偷汉的市议员,乡绅惧内如虎;

猎狐的士绅,二把刀的庸医,寻章摘句的字匠,

囊中羞涩的船长,多情郎的脑子不太灵光。

在绿色的环形场地里,选手们各自站好,

两两一组,等待着投球手的出招。

索莫韦尔本人的板球水平显然不错,至少很清楚这项运动有时会多么令人丧气。例如下面这位神父——诗人套用所罗门王手下大祭司的名讳,将此人称作匝多克————他的球技显然不如自己以为的那样出色。他一开始发球太靠左,后来又向右纠正得太过了:

As if he meant to regulate its course,

By power attractive and magnetic force;

Now almost in despair, he raves, he storms,

Writhes his unwieldy truck in various forms.

Unhappy Proteus! still in vain he tries

A thousand shapes, the bowl erroneous flies,

Deaf to his prayers, regardless of his cries;

His puffing cheeks with rising rage inflame,

And all his sparkling rubies glow with shame.

就好像他有意调整球的轨迹,

似乎他能释放吸引的磁力;

几乎彻底绝望,他狂呼不停,

颟顸的身材扭曲成了各种造型,

不幸的普罗透斯!千番变形全是徒劳,

错误的投球轨迹并不会矫正分毫,

听不见他的祈祷,不顾他的哭号;

他两颊如同火烧,粗气喘不止,

红宝石一般的脸色反映了心中羞耻。


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最后于2020-01-01 22:17:43改,共2次;
2019-12-25 05:14:26

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