主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

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2020-03-20 06:20:34万年看客
十一,不列颠时代1

如果说历史上有任何一个时代可以称作“英国时代”,那么必然就是十九世纪或者说维多利亚时代——人们惯于采用在这一时期统治英国的高寿女王的名字来指代这一时期。在一段短暂的时间里,英国成为了全球第一的强权国家。凭借全世界第一场工业革命的先发优势,英国打造了一个幅员辽阔财富无数的帝国。皇家海军成为了全世界最可畏的军事力量。因此军旅与军事题材诗歌、主流正能量诗歌以及痴迷于物质财富带来的全新社会阶级的诗歌理所当然地在这一时期大行其道。但是另一方面,维多利亚时期的诗人们也在竭力应对着令人不安的全新理念,从基于自然选择的达尔文进化论到不断传播开来的无神论再到新兴的社会主义教条等等。这一时期的大部分诗歌绝非洋洋自得的夸口文字,而是走上了反躬自省自我批评的路线。诗人们热切地复兴了宗教信仰,歌颂了家庭生活,还对更广大的世界产生了越来越浓厚的兴趣。

维多利亚时代的诗歌就像维多利亚时代的建筑一样,好似一座多种文化意象拼贴而成的精灵城市。从丁尼生的《国王之歌》到勃朗宁的威尼斯与佛罗伦萨背景再到爱德华.菲兹杰拉德的波斯风情。此外这也是异域主义与东方主义大行其道的时代。以上这些内容大抵无助于我们试图通过诗歌理解本时代英国人的尝试。但是就像维多利亚时代的建筑一样,这些诗歌当中也充溢着令人着迷的活力与多样性。有些诗歌好比单一色调的宫殿,另一些则好比环绕宫殿的民宅;有些诗歌顶着十四世纪的塔尖,另一些则装饰着从意大利运河区挪用过来的花窗。仔细监视一番就会发现,看似招摇作态的维多利亚诗歌往往英国气质浓厚并且紧跟时代。

首先介绍一位菲利西娅.赫门兹。她的出身家族在很多方面都可以被视为维多利亚时代新英国的缩影。她父亲是兰开夏郡的酒类进口商,她的一位兄弟参军入伍并立下了显赫战功,另一个兄弟当上了爱尔兰警察总局局长,第三个兄弟在加拿大当了高官。她本人嫁给了一位爱尔兰军官,但是这段婚姻并未维持很久。她的第一首诗作献给了威尔士亲王,尽管如此雪莱依然十分仰慕她。她过世之后,华兹华斯为她撰写了悼文。她最出名的作品是《卡萨比安卡》(Casabianca),显然出自一位帝国国运上升时期的爱国女青年之手:

The boy stood on the burning deck

Whence all but he had fled;

The flame that lit the battle's wreck

Shone round him o'er the dead.

少年挺立在燃烧的甲板,

此时其他人都已放弃。

烧毁了战舰的熊熊火焰,

照亮了他和一片尸体。

Yet beautiful and bright he stood,

As born to rule the storm;

A creature of heroic blood,

A proud, though child-like form.

然而他依然挺立,面容清秀俊朗,

似乎生来就要统御风暴;

英雄的鲜血在他体内流淌,

尽管尚未成年,却依然满怀骄傲。

The flames rolled on–he would not go

Without his Father's word;

That father, faint in death below,

His voice no longer heard.

烈焰滚滚,他却不肯抛弃职分,

除非得到父亲的命令。

甲板以下倒卧着他的父亲,

早已牺牲,无法将他的呼唤回应。

He called aloud–'say, Father, say

If yet my task is done?'

He knew not that the chieftain lay

Unconscious of his son.

“下令啊,父亲?”他高声呼喊,

“我的任务是否已经完成?”

他不知道自己的首长已经瘫软,

听不见儿子的阵阵呼声。

'Speak, father!' once again he cried,

'If I may yet be gone!'

And but the booming shots replied,

And fast the flames rolled on.

“说话呀,父亲!”他带着哭腔喊道,

“我现在能不能撤离前线!”

回应他的只有隆隆的殉爆,

以及吞噬一切的熊熊烈焰。

Upon his brow he felt their breath,

And in his waving hair,

And looked from that lone post of death

In still yet brave despair.

他能感到烈火的阵阵呼气,

喷在他的眉毛与头发上;

他孤独地驻守在必死之地

一动不动,满脸勇敢的绝望。

And shouted but once more aloud,

'My father! must I stay?'

While o'er him fast, through sail and shroud,

The wreathing fires made way.

最后一声呼喊,比刚才嗓门更高,

“爸爸!难道我还不能撤走?”

在他背后,沿着船帆向上燃烧,

烈火缓缓张开了血盆大口。

They wrapt the ship in splendour wild,

They caught the flag on high,

And streamed above the gallant child,

Like banners in the sky.

火光灿烂,将整艘战船点亮,

终于攫住了最高处的旗帜,

招摇在英勇少年的头上,

恰似半空中的横幅烈炽。

There came a burst of thunder sound–

The boy–oh! where was he?

Ask of the winds that far around

With fragments strewed the sea!

突然一声雷鸣般的巨响——

那孩子呢?可曾有人看见?

唯有狂风呼啸吹向远方,

破碎的残骸撒满了海面!

With mast, and helm, and pennon fair,

That well had borne their part–

But the noblest thing which perished there

Was that young faithful heart.

桅杆,舵轮,与燕尾旗高高飘荡

它们全都完成了自己的使命——

但要说到何等牺牲最为高尚,

唯有这颗年轻的心最为坚定。

赫门兹的诗歌洋溢着维多利亚时代的高昂爱国主义。不幸的是,这一点也让她的作品在二十世纪沦为了无情恶搞的靶子。她的《堂皇的英格兰之家》(The Stately Homes of England)一诗自从被喜剧演员诺尔.考沃德恶搞之后就再没能恢复元气。先来看看她的原诗:

THE STATELY Homes of England,

How beautiful they stand!

Amidst their tall ancestral trees,

O’er all the pleasant land;

The deer across their greensward bound

Through shade and sunny gleam,

And the swan glides past them with the sound

Of some rejoicing stream.

堂皇的英格兰之家!

他们多么美丽!

有多少参天古树

覆盖这片优美土地!

鹿群啃食着茵茵绿草,

在斑驳树荫下徜徉,

天鹅在水面优美舞蹈,

欢乐的河流源远流长。

The merry Homes of England!

Around their hearths by night,

What gladsome looks of household love

Meet in the ruddy light.

There woman’s voice flows forth in song,

Or childish tale is told;

Or lips move tunefully along

Some glorious page of old.

欢乐的英格兰之家!

夜晚在炉旁围坐,

其乐融融的一家人,

端详着炉火闪烁。

……

The cottage Homes of England!

By thousands on her plains,

They are smiling o’er the silvery brooks,

And round the hamlet-fanes.

Through glowing orchards forth they peep,

Each from its nook of leaves;

And fearless there the lowly sleep,

As the bird beneath their eaves.

英格兰的农舍之家!

成百上千在平原坐落,

面朝粼粼溪流微笑,

组成大大小小的村落。

透过闪亮的果园窥探,

每座小屋都被层层树叶遮蔽;

无惧的人们在树下安眠,

恰似鸟儿在屋檐下休憩。

这几句诗略微肉麻了一点,但是总体而言没毛病是吧?下面是考沃德的恶搞版本:

The Stately Homes of England,

How beautiful they stand,

To prove the upper classes

Have still the upper hand;

Though the fact that they have to be rebuilt

And frequently mortgaged to the hilt

Is inclined to take the gilt

Off the gingerbread,

And certainly damps the fun

Of the eldest son-

But still we won't be beaten,

We'll scrimp and scrape and save,

The playing fields of Eton

Have made us frightfully brave。

堂皇的英格兰之家!

他们多么美丽!

为了证明掌大权的

依然是上层阶级!

他们经常被扒了重建,

还被拿来抵押贷款,

丁点不剩抹净吃干,

姜饼人的糖霜脸。

名门望族的长子,

如今少了乐子。

但我们不肯认输平躺,

哪怕勒紧裤腰活受罪,

伊顿公学的操场,

练就我们的勇猛无畏。

莫非赫门兹就只有这点本事不成?幸运的是并非如此,尽管她的诗才直到最近才刚刚得到人们的进一步认识。赫门兹可算是最早的一批女权主义诗人,或者说她至少是一位反复采用女性受压迫并且难以发声这一题材的诗人。以下是她的长诗《精神的回归》(A Spirit Returns)的开头:

Thy voice prevails - dear friend, my gentle friend!

This long-shut heart for thee shall be unsealed,

And though thy soft eye mournfully will bend

Over the troubled stream, yet once revealed

Shall its freed waters flow; then rocks must close

For evermore, above their dark repose.

这声音胜利了——亲爱的朋友,我温柔的友人!

我将要为你打开这长久关闭的心门,

尽管你那柔和又伤感的视线

将会在激流上弯成一条曲线

一旦揭露,一道道水流就会自由的流淌,

然后巨石将在黑暗水源的头顶永远合上。

自杀一直都是赫门兹作品的隐藏基调。这一倾向与燃烧甲板上与战船共存亡的少年所体现的干脆道德主义完全背道而驰。例如《萨芙的最后之歌》(The Last Song of Sappho)就描写了古希腊女诗人萨芙蹈海自尽之前的场景:

SOUND on, thou dark unslumbering sea!

My dirge is in thy moan;

My spirit finds response in thee,

To its own ceaseless cry–'Alone, alone !'

继续作响吧,你这黑暗的大海不肯宁静!

我的挽歌就是你的啜泣;

你将我的精神回应,

用你那无尽的哭喊——“孤寂,孤寂!”

Yet send me back one other word,

Ye tones that never cease !

Oh ! let your secret caves be stirr'd,

And say, dark waters! will ye give me peace?

你可敢换个字眼将我回复,

你的声调永远不停!

哦!若是搅动了你那神秘的洞府,

黑暗之水啊!你可愿容我安宁?

Away! my weary soul hath sought

In vain one echoing sigh,

One answer to consuming thought

In human hearts–and will the wave reply ?

去吧,我疲惫的灵魂一直在寻觅

应和的叹息声,但总是徒劳枉然,

我想找一个答案用来消耗思绪

在人心当中——海浪可愿与我相谈?

Sound on, thou dark, unslumbering sea!

Sound in thy scorn and pride !

I ask not, alien world, from thee,

What my own kindred earth hath still denied.

继续作响吧,你这黑暗的大海不肯安眠!

这声音是你的骄傲与轻蔑!

陌生的世界,我无意求你垂怜,

毕竟我的地上亲属也不肯将我关切。

And yet I loved that earth so well,

With all its lovely things!

–Was it for this the death-wind fell

On my rich lyre, and quench'd its living strings?

然而我对大地爱得深沉,

它是那么多可爱生灵的家园!

——莫非因此死亡之风才会降临

掀翻我的琴,打湿生命的琴弦?

——Let them lie silent at my feet !

Since broken even as they,

The heart whose music made them sweet,

Hath pour'd on desert-sands its wealth away.

让它们在我脚下安静休憩!

就算像它们这样残破,

也能因为心中的音乐变得甜蜜,

这颗心将它的财富倾倒在沙漠。

Yet glory's light hath touch'd my name,

The laurel-wreath is mine–

–With a lone heart, a weary frame–

O restless deep ! I come to make them thine !

但是荣耀的光明触碰了我的姓名,

桂叶的花冠属于我——

以及孤独的心,憔悴的体型——

哦无尽的深渊!请包容这一切的我!

Give to that crown, that burning crown,

Place in thy darkest hold!

Bury my anguish, my renown,

With hidden wrecks, lost gems, and wasted gold.

我将这一切都向燃烧的皇冠献上,

安置在你最黑暗的坚城里!

将我的痛苦与光荣全部埋葬

与隐秘的船骸、失落的金珠摆在一起

Thou sea-bird on the billow's crest,

Thou hast thy love, thy home;

They wait thee in the quiet nest,

And I, the unsought, unwatch'd-for–I too come!

你们这些海鸟在浪头上栖息,

你们享有大海的爱,分享大海的家;

它们在安稳的鸟巢里等你,

无人寻觅,无人看护的我——我也来啦!

I, with this winged nature fraught,

These visions wildly free,

This boundless love, this fiery thought–

Alone I come–oh ! give me peace, dark sea!

我满目所见都是这些生灵张开双翼,

无拘无束的自由风采,

这无尽的爱,这烈火一般的思绪——

我来了——哦!请给我安宁吧,黑暗的大海!

帖:4494688 复 4344063
2020-03-20 06:21:50万年看客
不列颠时代2

菲利西娅.赫门兹一方面全心接受了维多利亚时代的宗教与敌国热情,另一方面又抱有私密的怀疑主义。这一特点在另一位更伟大的诗人身上也有体现。此人还是她的兰开夏郡同乡。亚瑟.休.克拉夫是著名的拉格比公学的学生,这座学校不仅以基督教作为立校之本,而且洋溢着雄赳赳的气质。后来他还在一段时间里成为了热情的高派教会成员。他最出名的诗作《不要说奋斗是徒劳》(Say not the Struggle nought Availeth)慷慨激昂地号召士兵们坚持斗争,还在更广泛的层面上批驳了失败主义。这首诗措辞巧妙,行文紧凑干脆,足以与吉卜林相媲美。可见并非每一篇体训教官拿来给受训人员打气的文字都是假大空话:

Say not the struggle nought availeth,

The labour and the wounds are vain,

The enemy faints not, nor faileth,

And as things have been they remain.

不要说奋斗终是徒劳,

辛劳和创伤白费无功,

敌人尚未力竭,更未被打倒,

事物一切照旧,依然毫无变动。

If hopes were dupes, fears may be liars;

It may be, in yon smoke concealed,

Your comrades chase e'en now the fliers,

And, but for you, possess the field.

倘若希望是虚妄,恐慌则是骗徒,

你可看见远处的硝烟弥漫?

即便在此刻,战友们也在将逃敌驱逐,

若非你拖后腿,早已将敌军阵地攻占。

For while the tired waves, vainly breaking

Seem here no painful inch to gain,

Far back through creeks and inlets making,

Comes silent, flooding in, the main.

疲惫的波浪徒然拍打海滩,

仿佛再努力也无法向前一寸,

可是就在附近的河口与港湾,

大海的满潮已经无声涌进。

And not by eastern windows only,

When daylight comes, comes in the light,

In front the sun climbs slow, how slowly,

But westward, look, the land is bright.

每当白昼来到世间,

光芒不仅仅射进东窗,

在正面,太阳攀援多么迟缓,

但向西看吧,遍地洒满霞光!

要想研究维多利亚时代英国国民的精神风貌,克拉夫其人是个很有趣的研究对象。后来他背弃了建制派教会,将精力转向了海外游历。意大利革命期间他游历了罗马与威尼斯。克拉夫是一位受过彻底训练的古典主义者,格律技法出类拔萃。不过他并没有利用这套技艺去一味描写古典题材,而是更关注当代时事。1850年,克拉夫创作了《旅途之恋》(Amours de Voyage)。此前他目睹了短命的罗马共和国如何被前来支援教皇并反对朱塞佩.马志尼以及意大利爱国者们的法军击溃。这首诗是他的最伟大杰作。诗人采用了经典的六音步长诗行格式,刻画了一位有些话痨的主人公克劳德。诗文的表现形式全都是克劳德写给国内友人的信件。克劳德是一位有些缺乏干劲的英国游客,他就像绝大多数维多利亚时期的英国人一样出于本能地支持自由派立宪主义。但是国外的政治环境以及外国人的政治热情让他感到很不以为然。克拉夫借助自己笔下的主人公绘声绘色地传达了当时英国人说话的口吻,此外他对细节的捕捉能力也远超一般小说家:

WHAT do the people say, and what does the government do? - you

Ask, and I know not at all. Yet fortune will favour your hopes; and

I, who avoided it all, am fated, it seems, to describe it.

I, who nor meddle nor make in politics, - I, who sincerely

Put not my trust in leagues nor any suffrage by ballot,

Never predicted Parisian milleniums, never beheld a

New Jerusalem coming down dressed like a bride out of heaven

Right on the Place de la Concorde," - I, nevertheless, let me say it,

Could in my soul of souls, this day, with the Gaul at the gates, shed

One true tear for thee, thou poor little Roman republic!

人们说什么?政府又做什么?

——你问我,我问谁去?但是命运将会青睐你的希望;

而对这一切避之不及的我,似乎必须将其描述。

我从未掺和或者操纵过政治——我这人历来真心诚意地

从未信任过任何政治团体或者投票活动

从未预言过新时代的来临,从未见过

新耶路撒冷身着婚纱从天而降*

降落在协和广场上——尽管如此,我还是要

掏心窝子地说一句,高卢人兵临城下的这一天

我要为你流一滴真心泪,可怜的罗马共和国!

*【暗指法国二月革命后的新形势】

What, with the German restored, with Sicily safe to the Bourbon,

Not leave one poor corner for native Italian exertion?

France, it is foully done! and you, my stupid old England, -

You, who a twelve month ago said nations must choose for themselves, you

Could not, of course, interfere, - you now, when a nation has chosen

Pardon this folly! The Times will, of course, have announced the occasion,

Told you the news of today; and although it was slightly in error

When it proclaimed as a fact the Apollo was sold to a Yankee,

You may believe when it tells you the French are at Civita Vecchia.

什么?德国已经复辟,西西里也被波旁家吞下,

难道就不能为意大利人留下一个自主的偏僻角落?

法国,瞧你干的好事!还有你,我那愚蠢的英格兰——

你在十二个月之前还说国家命运应当自决,

你当然不能干预——可是现在呢?这个国家已经做出了选择!

原谅这一愚行吧!《泰晤士报》肯定已经报道了这一事件,

向你告知了今天的新闻,尽管该报此前犯过小错,

曾经信誓旦旦地声称某个美国人买下了太阳,

但你不妨相信该报关于法军打到了奇维塔韦基亚的报道。

意大利共和派的热情一时间裹挟了克劳德。就像许多英国人一样,他越是目击战争就越觉得英国应该出手干预。但是现在已经太迟了。话说回来,如果真要轮到他拿出勇气,他能拿出多少呢?没多少:

NOW supposing the French or the Neapolitan soldier

Should by some evil chance come exploring the Maison Serny,

(Where the family English are all to assemble for safety,)

Am I prepared to lay down my life for the British female?

Really, who knows? One has bowed and talked, till, little by little,

All the natural heat has escaped of the chivalrous spirit.

Oh, one conformed, of course; but one doesn't die for good manners,

Stab or shoot, or be shot, by way of a graceful attention.

假设法国兵或者来自尼泊尔的佣兵

因为邪恶的机会,闯进了瑟尼大饭店,

(英国侨民家属为了安全都在那里集合)

我是否具有为了保护英国女性而捐躯的觉悟?

这种事谁知道呢?我大概会站出来斡旋一会儿,直到

骑士精神的勇气在我心里逐渐消失殆尽。

当然,做人要老实规矩;但是讲风度并不值得搭上性命,

无论是被刀捅死还是被枪打死,只为赢得佳人一顾。

现在真正的战斗开始了,但是当地人的日常生活不知怎的还在继续。攥紧导游指南的克劳德详细描绘了此时的超现实氛围。通过这段文字可以看出他具有天生的采访报道天赋。

YES, we are fighting at last, it appears. This morning, as usual,

Murray, as usual, in hand, I enter the Caffe Nuovo;

Seating myself with a sense as it were of a change in the weather,

Not understanding, however, but thinking mostly of Murray,

And, for to day is their day, of the Campidoglio Marbles,

Caffe-latte! I call to the waiter--and Non c'e latte,

This is the answer he makes me, and this the sign of a battle.

So I sit; and truly they seem to think any one else more

Worthy than me of attention. I wait for my milkless nero,

Free to observe undistracted all sorts and sizes of persons,

Blending civilian and soldier in strangest costume, coming in, and

Gulping in hottest haste, still standing, their coffee, -withdrawing

Eagerly, jangling a sword on the steps, or jogging a musket

Slung to the shoulder behind. They are fewer, moreover, than usual,

Much, and silenter far; and so I begin to imagine

Something is really afloat. Ere I leave, the Caffe is empty,

Empty too the streets, in all its length the Corso

Empty, and empty I see to my right and my left the Condotti.

是的,我们似乎终于开战了。今天早晨,像往常一样,

我像往常一样手拿《莫里导游手册》,走进了诺沃咖啡馆;

坐下之后总感觉天气变了,

当时我还没明白过来,心里还在琢磨《手册》上的内容,

因为今天这日子特别,卡比托利欧博物馆要展览一批古玩,

来杯拿铁!——我对侍者喊道——拿铁没了!

这是他的回答,这句话是即将打仗的信号。

我干坐在那里,他们似乎觉得别人全都

比我更值得关注。我叫的不加奶黑咖啡迟迟不来,

于是我趁机专心打量起了形形色色的其他顾客们,

平民与军人一起混杂着走进来,穿着最奇怪的衣服,

来不及坐下就急不可待地将咖啡牛饮一空——

然后又急匆匆冲出门去,腰间挎着剑,肩膀后面

斜挂着毛瑟枪。此外他们的人数比平时更少,

也比平时安静了许多,于是我不禁觉得

这回真出事了。我离开之前,咖啡馆已经没人了,

街上也没人了,科索大街从头到尾

空空荡荡,康多蒂大街的左右两边也见不着人……

这是一首精彩的长诗,笔者建议读者们阅读全篇。克拉夫本人是一位纠结的自由派,日后还会成为弗洛伦斯.南丁格尔的密切合作伙伴。维多利亚时代很看重宗教信仰,宗教与不可知论以及各种怀疑之间的冲突也很激烈。克拉夫的诗歌同样反映了这一方面。下面这首《十诫新编》(The Latest Decalogue)淋漓尽致地讲解了维多利亚时代英国人对待宗教了模棱两可态度:

THOU shalt have one God only; who

Would be at the expense of two?

No graven images may be

Worshipped, except the currency.

Swear not at all; for, for thy curse

Thine enemy is none the worse.

At church on Sunday to attend

Will serve to keep the world thy friend.

Honor thy parents; that is, all

From whom advancement may befall.

Thou shalt not kill; but need’st not strive

Officiously to keep alive.

Do not adultery commit;

Advantage rarely comes of it.

Thou shalt not steal; an empty feat,

When it’s so lucrative to cheat.

Bear not false witness; let the lie

Have time on its own wings to fly.

Thou shalt not covet, but tradition

Approves all forms of competition.

你只能崇拜一个神;

拜两个的代价高得吓人。

不能崇拜任何造像,

除非印刷在钞票上。

不可诅咒起誓将人辱骂,

敌人不会因此过得更差。

周日要参与教会活动,

唯此才能得到他人尊重。

要孝敬父母,因为归根结底,

他们的家产早晚都要归你。

你不可杀人,但也不必费力

给半死之人假惺惺吊一口气。

通奸行径万万不可,

因为肯定没好结果

你不可盗窃,这倒无所谓,

撒谎骗人本来就更有油水。

不可作假见证,只需袖手旁观,

给谎言留出满天飞舞的时间。

不可贪恋他人财物,但是要谨记,

我们的传统将一切竞争形式鼓励。

光看这首诗,读者们很容易一位诗人看不起一切宗教信仰,但是情况并非如此。维多利亚时代的英国人在拿不定主意的时候最有趣,一旦拿定主意反而无趣了。请看《上帝并不存在》(There Is No God):

"There is no God," the wicked saith,

"And truly it's a blessing,

For what He might have done with us

It's better only guessing."

“上帝并不存在,”恶人这样说,

“这一点实在喜人,

不然我们实在不敢猜测

祂打算怎样收拾我们。”

"There is no God," a youngster thinks,

"or really, if there may be,

He surely did not mean a man

Always to be a baby."

“上帝并不存在,”年轻人这样想,

“退一步说,就算祂当真存在,

祂也肯定不希望人类

永远处于童稚状态。”

"There is no God, or if there is,"

The tradesman thinks, "'twere funny

If He should take it ill in me

To make a little money."

“上帝并不存在,”商人这样想,

“不过就算存在也无所谓,

我只想赚两个小钱而已,

祂老人家想必不会反对。”

"Whether there be," the rich man says,

"It matters very little,

For I and mine, thank somebody,

Are not in want of victual."

“不管有没有上帝,”富人说,

“其实都差不了太多,

鄙人一家谢天谢地,

从来都不缺吃少喝。”

Some others, also, to themselves,

Who scarce so much as doubt it,

Think there is none, when they are well,

And do not think about it.

还有其他人,在他们心里

几乎没有产生过怀疑,

平时他们想当然地认为上帝

并不存在,不去想这个问题。

But country folks who live beneath

The shadow of the steeple;

The parson and the parson's wife,

And mostly married people;

但是要说起那些乡下居民

在教堂尖顶的阴影里居住;

教区牧师与他的妻子,

还有大多数已婚夫妇。

Youths green and happy in first love,

So thankful for illusion;

And men caught out in what the world

Calls guilt, in first confusion;

陷入初恋的青葱少年

真心感谢这层幻象;

还有人因为一时糊涂

被人世间将罪名加上;

And almost everyone when age,

Disease, or sorrows strike him,

Inclines to think there is a God,

Or something very like Him.

以及几乎所有人,当他们

遭受衰老、悲恸与病恙,

都倾向于相信上帝确实存在,

至少也有某种存在与祂相像。

帖:4494689 复 4344063
2020-03-21 00:33:44
桥上
拉格比好象是橄榄球嘛

帖:4495151 复 4494689
2020-03-25 04:36:50万年看客
不列颠时代3

在本书此前涉及的各个世纪里,绝大多数英国人似乎都是基督教信徒。或许这只是社会控制的手段,或许怀疑论者、不可知论者乃至无神论者的数量从来都不少,但是显然他们一直将自己的想法藏在心里。基督教信仰是英国文化的绝对核心,公然出柜的无神论者少之又少,笔者只能想起来克里斯托弗.马洛以及一段时间里的安德鲁.马维尔。但是现在科学在地理与生物领域的新发现正在颠覆英国人对于地球历史、地球起源以及人类特殊地位的固有看法——换句话说上帝与信仰都遭到了质疑。千百万爱思考的英国人就此遭受了重创。马修.阿诺德是教育过克拉夫的拉格比公学创始人的儿子,他笔下有一首诗歌十分到位地体现了这一思潮。阿诺德的文笔机智、简练而又古典,不过丝毫打动不了笔者,唯独下面这首名至实归的佳作《多佛尔海滩》(Dover Beach)是个例外。诗人通过这部作品抒发了对于信仰在唯物主义时代信仰逐渐消失的悲恸:

The sea is calm tonight.

The tide is full, the moon lies fair

Upon the straits; on the French coast the light

Gleams and is gone; the cliffs of England stand,

Glimmering and vast, out in the tranquil bay.

Come to the window, sweet is the night-air!

Only, from the long line of spray

Where the sea meets the moon-blanched land,

Listen! you hear the grating roar

Of pebbles which the waves draw back, and fling,

At their return, up the high strand,

Begin, and cease, and then again begin,

With tremulous cadence slow, and bring

The eternal note of sadness in.

今夜大海平静,

潮水正满,月色朗朗,

临照海峡,——法国海岸上

微光渐隐,而英国的峭壁高竖,

在宁静的海湾里显出巨大模糊的身影。

到窗边来吧,晚风多么甜!

可是你听!月光漂白了的陆地

与大海相接处,那一条长长的浪花线

传来磨牙般的喧声,

这是海浪卷走卵石,然后转回头来,

又把它们抛到高高的海滩之上,

涌起,停息,再重新涌起,

以缓慢而颤动的节拍

送来永恒的悲哀的音响。

Sophocles long ago

Heard it on the ?gean, and it brought

Into his mind the turbid ebb and flow

Of human misery; we

Find also in the sound a thought,

Hearing it by this distant northern sea.

索福克勒斯很久以前

在爱琴海边听过这喧声,

在他心中引起了人类苦难的

浊浪滚滚的潮汐;

我们在此遥远的北海边聆听,

也在此声中听到了深意。

The Sea of Faith

Was once, too, at the full, and round earth’s shore

Lay like the folds of a bright girdle furled.

But now I only hear

Its melancholy, long, withdrawing roar,

Retreating, to the breath

Of the night-wind, down the vast edges drear

And naked shingles of the world.

信仰之海

也曾有过满潮,像一根灿烂的腰带,

把全球的海岸围绕。

但如今我只听得

它那忧伤的退潮的咆哮久久不息,

它退向夜风的呼吸,

退过世界广阔阴沉的边界,

只留下一滩光秃秃的卵石。

Ah, love, let us be true

To one another! for the world, which seems

To lie before us like a land of dreams,

So various, so beautiful, so new,

Hath really neither joy, nor love, nor light,

Nor certitude, nor peace, nor help for pain;

And we are here as on a darkling plain

Swept with confused alarms of struggle and flight,

Where ignorant armies clash by night.

啊,爱人,愿我们

彼此真诚!因为世界虽然

展开在我们面前如梦幻的国度,

那么多彩、美丽而新鲜,

实际上却没有欢乐,没有爱和光明,

没有肯定,没有和平,没有对痛苦的救助;

我们犹如处在黑暗的旷野,

斗争和逃跑构成一片混乱与惊怖,

无知的军队在黑夜中互相冲突。【飞白译】

维多利亚时代英国人的世界观受到了许多体制的塑造,包括君主制、国教会以及大英帝国等等。但是这其中最重要的体制还要数婚姻。婚姻意味着安全与体面,在人生赢家与不圆满的存在之间画下了分界线。皈依了罗马天主教会的考文垂.帕特摩尔是维多利亚时代最杰出的歌颂婚姻的诗人。帕特摩尔生在埃塞克斯,早年是一位画家,后来捣鼓了一阵子科学研究,最后才转向诗歌。由于他家里没钱,不得不耗费了很多年在大英博物馆做一名低级助理员。他的人生转折点出现在1847年,这一年他迎娶了一位艾米丽.安德鲁斯。他的诗歌并未一炮打响,而且日后他还要再婚两次。但是他笔下颂扬婚姻的长篇叙事诗《家中的天使》(The Angel in the House)最终受到了广泛欢迎。我们不妨将这首长诗视作一篇易于阅读的轻小说,总体而言笔调轻快,但是同时又传达了强烈的反女权信息,因此被二十世纪的知识分子们批判得狗血淋头。只需看一看以下选段就能理解本诗的主旨:

Man must be pleased; but him to please

Is woman's pleasure; down the gulf

Of his condoled necessities

She casts her best, she flings herself.

How often flings for nought, and yokes

Her heart to an icicle or whim,

Whose each impatient word provokes

Another, not from her, but him;

While she, too gentle even to force

His penitence by kind replies,

Waits by, expecting his remorse,

With pardon in her pitying eyes;

And if he once, by shame oppress'd,

A comfortable word confers,

She leans and weeps against his breast,

And seems to think the sin was hers;

男人必须被取悦,而取悦他

则是女人的愉悦;沿着他那被安抚

的必需之物的深渊向下

她投下了自己的精华,飞身将深渊填补。

飞身一跃往往只为一场空,

恣意而为的冰凌将她的心禁锢,

每一句不耐烦的话语都会挑动

另一句,并非来自她,而是由他说出。

她如此温柔,不肯将他强迫,

不肯用温和的回应迫使他悔悟

于是等在一边,期待他改过,

怜悯的眼神里充满了宽恕。

一旦他,受到羞耻新的逼迫,

说了几句贴心的话语,

她就会倚靠在他胸口,两眼泪落,

似乎认为过失都在自己。

这段诗文当中的女性形象可以说很不女权了。帕特摩尔塑造的“屈服的妻子”形象在多年以后的世代看来实在无法忍受,但却准确地体现了维多利亚时代对于理想婚姻关系的看法——这部诗作在当时极其畅销,一次能卖掉一马车。部分原因当然在于帕特摩尔传达了对于夫妻之爱的迫切、真诚且几乎有些天真的看法。他一方面要求——或者说期望——妻子能够像天使那样制约丈夫的野蛮,另一方面也留下了不少证据表明他很看好谦和互让的婚姻幸福。下面这首《离别》(Departure)描述了一个寻常日子里夫妻告别的场景:

IT was not like your great and gracious ways!

Do you, that have naught other to lament,

Never, my Love, repent

Of how, that July afternoon,

You went,

With sudden, unintelligible phrase,

And frighten'd eye,

Upon your journey of so many days

Without a single kiss, or a good-bye?

I knew, indeed, that you were parting soon;

And so we sate, within the low sun's rays,

You whispering to me, for your voice was weak,

Your harrowing praise.

Well, it was well

To hear you such things speak,

And I could tell

What made your eyes a growing gloom of love,

As a warm South-wind sombres a March grove.

And it was like your great and gracious ways

To turn your talk on daily things, my Dear,

Lifting the luminous, pathetic lash

To let the laughter flash,

Whilst I drew near,

Because you spoke so low that I could scarcely hear.

But all at once to leave me at the last,

More at the wonder than the loss aghast,

With huddled, unintelligible phrase,

And frighten'd eye,

And go your journey of all days

With not one kiss, or a good-bye,

And the only loveless look the look with which you pass'd:

'Twas all unlike your great and gracious ways.

这可不像你平时那样伟大而慈爱的风度!

你,明明不必为其他人伤心,

我的爱人,莫非你从未悔过,

你居然,在七月的那个下午

突然就离开

伴随着突兀的,听不清的言语

以及惊恐的眼神,

踏上那么多天的旅程

却不给我留下一个吻,不说一句再见?

其实,我也知道,你很快就要动身

于是我们坐下,在夕阳余晖当中,

你对我耳语道——因为你的声音微弱

——你那焦虑的赞美。

好吧,能听到

你说出这些话语,确实挺好。

我也知道

是什么让你的双眼放出爱之光辉,

恰似温暖的南风抚慰了三月的果园。

这才像你平时那样伟大而慈爱的风度,

谈一点日常小事,我的爱人,

升起你的机关,美好而又惹人怜爱

释放出你的笑声满怀,

当我靠近你身边,

因为你声音太低,我实在听不见。

但是突然你终于要离开我身边,

我与其说震惊,倒不如说思绪万千,

伴随着局促的,听不清的言语,

以及惊恐的眼神,

踏上那么多天的旅程

却不给我留下一个吻,不说一句再见?

临走之前仅仅用无爱的眼神向我一瞥:

这实在不像你平时那样伟大而慈爱的风度!

前拉斐尔派的宗教画家们将帕特摩尔当成了自己人,辛格.萨金特还为他绘制了全身像。罗马天主教则对于他的后半生意义重大。他最著名的短诗《真理至大》(Magna Est Veritas)尽管笔调轻快,但却格外动人,这也是他的一贯风格:

Here, in this little Bay,

Full of tumultuous life and great repose,

Where, twice a day,

The purposeless, glad ocean comes and goes,

Under high cliffs, and far from the huge town,

I sit me down.

For want of me the world's course will not fail:

When all its work is done, the lie shall rot;

The truth is great, and shall prevail,

When none cares whether it prevail or not.

在这里,在这小小的港湾,

熙熙攘攘的生灵在此休憩,

在这里,两次每天,

海水涨落,欢乐而没有目的,

远离城镇,在高崖之下,

我找个地方坐下。

就算少了我,世界的进程也不受扰动:

大功告成之际,谎言必将腐朽;

伟大的真理,必将大获全胜,

届时谁也不会关心它胜利与否。

有一味显而易见的解药能够从根本上化解考文垂.帕特摩尔对于婚姻的推崇,那就是乔治.梅瑞狄斯笔下令人生畏的组诗《现代爱情》(Modern Love)。这套组诗总共包括五十首十四行诗,描写了一场婚姻的解体以及男女主人公各自出轨的经过。诗人本人的婚姻生活也很不圆满。他娶了文坛同侪托马斯.洛夫.皮考克的女儿,后来妻子跟着另一个男人跑了。梅瑞狄斯的小说文笔晦涩,如今没多少人看。但是随着当代人越发熟悉婚姻生活可能带来的苦境,《现代爱情》却变得越发流行起来。帕特摩尔的乐观对应了梅瑞狄斯的绝望;帕特摩尔用水粉上色,梅瑞狄斯则用指甲在画面上划过。以下是组诗的第一首,描写了两个貌合神离的人如何躺在同一张床上相互折磨:

By this he knew she wept with waking eyes:

That, at his hand's light quiver by her head,

The strange low sobs that shook their common bed

Were called into her with a sharp surprise,

And strangled mute, like little gaping snakes,

Dreadfully venomous to him. She lay

Stone-still, and the long darkness flowed away

With muffled pulses. Then, as midnight makes

Her giant heart of Memory and Tears

Drink the pale drug of silence, and so beat

Sleep's heavy measure, they from head to feet

Were moveless, looking through their dead black years,

By vain regret scrawled over the blank wall.

Like sculptured effigies they might be seen

Upon their marriage-tomb, the sword between;

Each wishing for the sword that severs all.

他由此知道,她醒着的眼在流泪:

只因为他在她头边的手略抖了一下,

奇怪的啜泣,震颤着他们的床榻,

因为突然猛吃一惊就此被她召回,

气吁吁的小蛇一般是令人窒息的沉默,

在他听来更毒得可怕。她一动不动

好似顽石,随着压抑的脉动

长长的黑夜在流逝。当夜半时刻

使她充满回忆和泪的巨大心房

饮下这苍白的沉默苦药,

敲出睡眠的节奏,他们从头到脚

一动不动,望穿了黑色岁月的凋亡,

徒然遗憾地把空墙慢慢地扫遍。

倒也许能看见他们的雕刻肖像

中间隔着剑,在他们婚姻之墓上;

而彼此都希望这剑把一切斩断。【黄杲炘译,有修改】

接下来这首诗描写了一顿令人惊心动魄的晚宴,夫妻双方的干涩对话丝毫无法掩饰爱情已死的事实:

AT dinner she is hostess, I am host.

Went the feast ever cheerfuller? She keeps

The topic over intellectual deeps

In buoyancy afloat. They see no ghost.

With sparkling surface-eyes we ply the ball:

It is in truth a most contagious game;

HIDING THE SKELETON shall be its name.

Such play as this the devils might appall!

But here ’s the greater wonder; in that we,

Enamor’d of our acting and our wits,

Admire each other like true hypocrites.

Warm-lighted glances, Love’s Ephemerae,

Shoot gayly o’er the dishes and the wine.

We waken envy of our happy lot.

Fast, sweet, and golden, shows our marriage-knot.

Dear guests, you now have seen Love’s corpse-light shine!

在晚餐桌上她是女主人,我是客人。

还有哪顿饭吃得更加喜庆?

她将话题在智识深渊的表层圈定,

浮而不沉,他们见不到鬼魂。

我们抛球接球,表层的眼睛闪闪发光:

事实上这是一个感染力最强的游戏;

游戏的名字叫做“将尸骸藏匿”。

这游戏真能把魔鬼吓得发慌!

但是更伟大的奇迹也在此露头;

我们的演技与机智令自己叹为观止,

彼此钦佩对方才是真正的伪君子。

暖光下的一瞥,爱情的蜉蝣,

伴随着觥筹交错,卿卿我我,

我们的幸福令观者嫉妒,

我们的姻缘甜美、珍贵而坚固。

请列位见识一番爱情尸骸的鬼火!

帖:4497341 复 4344063
2020-03-25 04:40:17万年看客
不列颠时代4

考文垂.帕特摩尔觉得是基督教信仰拯救他脱离了苦境。他在后半生与另一位罗马天主教诗人成为了密友,此人终生未婚,他的作品堪称是英语诗坛最重要的宗教诗歌,足以与亨利.沃恩以及T.S.艾略特相提并论。这位杰拉德.曼利.霍普金斯就像帕特摩尔一样出身于埃塞克斯的一户中产家庭,起初想当画家。他的父亲是一位略有名气的诗人兼记者,全家人都是虔诚的宗教信徒,尽管信得不是天主教而是圣公会。霍普金斯在牛津大学受到了盎格鲁天主教的影响,最终改换门庭并且成为了一名耶稣会神父。他的转变并非个别现象——在十九世纪五六十年代,许多严肃认真的国教会信徒都在红衣主教曼宁的引导下转向了罗马,其中就包括了负责英国议会大厦重建工作的建筑师奥古斯塔斯.普金。

霍普金斯总是具有极端苦行的倾向。根据史料分析,他几乎肯定是个一辈子都没敢出柜的男同,因此才会热切奉行守贞与甘于清贫的天主教誓言,以此缓解内心的折磨。他的诗歌节律犹如一触即发的机簧,每一行诗都具有严格数量的音步。在打头的重读音节之后必定跟着若干模糊的轻读音节,从而模仿正常说话的节律。这种节律在霍普金斯的笔下或者说口中产生了劈头盖脸动摇神智的效果。例如约翰.多恩与乔治.赫伯特这样的早期宗教诗人更关心死亡以及对于死亡的恐惧,而霍普金斯则更像沃恩,对于自然世界充满了喜悦的热情。他是一位欢庆的诗人,而不是悲悼的诗人,尽管就像其他形而上学主义者一样,偶尔他也会遭到自我怀疑与自我厌恶的纠缠。所有这一切都能用来解释为什么他在当代读者当中如此流行。在笔者看来,霍普金斯笔下天主教意味最显著的长诗——例如《德国的残骸》(The Wreck of Deutschland)——也是最难打动人心的作品。但是他的风格绝对与其他任何人都截然不同,具有专属于他本人的声音。或许正是因为如此,他在生前才未能得到更广泛受众的接纳,必须等到英国诗坛步入更激进的时代之后才能真正流行起来。请看《如翠鸟着了火》(As Kingfishers Catch Fire):

As kingfishers catch fire, dragonflies draw flame;

As tumbled over rim in roundy wells

Stones ring; like each tucked string tells, each hung bell's

Bow swung finds tongue to fling out broad its name;

Each mortal thing does one thing and the same:

Deals out that being indoors each one dwells;

Selves — goes itself; myself it speaks and spells,

Crying Whát I do is me: for that I came.

如翠鸟着火,蜻蜓划焰火;

如跌撞上圆井缘,石经鸣;

似每根拨弦之述,每只悬铃

之荡弓找舌头把名字投播;

每名朽物一件相同的事做:

分给出每位居室内的居灵;

自自我——自自己;“我自己”且拼且评,

啭叫“我所做是我:我来而为我”。

I say more: the just man justices;

Keeps grace: thát keeps all his goings graces;

Acts in God's eye what in God's eye he is —

Chríst — for Christ plays in ten thousand places,

Lovely in limbs, and lovely in eyes not his

To the Father through the features of men's faces.

我且讲更多:公正的人公正;

保持慈恩:保持他之所行慈恩;

在神眼中表现他在神眼中的诚——

基督——因基督在万方成真,

对父,通过人的面容特征

可爱在四肢,可爱在双眼,非他之身。【froCt网友译,有修改】

霍普金斯最伟大的成就就是将他对于世间美好的激动喜乐——他的诗句往往会让读者们感到他是一位观察力敏锐的画家——与虔诚的宗教信仰交织在一起,致使两者难解难分。因此即便对于笔者这样并不信教的人们来说,他的诗歌依然具有直指人心的力量。下面举两个例子。在笔者看来这两首短诗是十九世纪最出色的作品。首先是《变化的美》(Pied Beauty):

Glory be to God for dappled things –

For skies of couple-colour as a brinded cow;

For rose-moles all in stipple upon trout that swim;

Fresh-firecoal chestnut-falls; finches’ wings;

Landscape plotted and pieced – fold, fallow, and plough;

And all trades, their gear and tackle and trim.

All things counter, original, spare, strange;

Whatever is fickle, freckled (who knows how?)

With swift, slow; sweet, sour; adazzle, dim;

He fathers-forth whose beauty is past change:

Praise him.

赞美主,为他创造的变化的万物

看天空中多彩的云朵如同花斑母牛,

看水塘里游泳的鳟鱼,一身玫瑰红点,

新烤出来的红栗,金雀的翅膀

井井有条的大地,褶皱,整饬,刚被犁过,

各行各业的技艺,工具各不相同

万事万物,原件,备品,等外品,

一切易变的,都变化了(谁知道如何?)

快慢不一,酸甜不定,明暗不常

他的美就在这变化之中:

赞美主吧。【hidingdragon网友译,有修改】

再来一首《上帝荣华无上》(God's Grandeur)

The world is charged with the grandeur of God.

It will flame out, like shining from shook foil;

It gathers to a greatness, like the ooze of oil

Crushed. Why do men then now not reck his rod?

Generations have trod, have trod, have trod;

And all is seared with trade; bleared, smeared with toil;

And wears man's smudge and shares man's smell: the soil

Is bare now, nor can foot feel, being shod.

世界彰显着上帝荣华无上,

如震颤的银箔,放射华光;

如榨油渗出,流向伟大的地方。

为什么人类不敬畏他的权杖?

践踏,践踏,践踏,世世代代全都这样;

百工生麻木,苦劳生肮脏,

沾染人类的污浊气息:大地四方

如此贫瘠,脚感觉不到将鞋穿上。

And for all this, nature is never spent;

There lives the dearest freshness deep down things;

And though the last lights off the black West went

Oh, morning, at the brown brink eastward, springs —

Because the Holy Ghost over the bent

World broods with warm breast and with ah! bright wings.

尽管如此,自然不会消耗殆尽。

至爱的新奇,深层的东西,永不休止。

即便最后一线光从漆黑的西方散尽,

哦,晨光,在东方褐色的边际升起,

因为那圣灵俯身贴近

这世界,用温暖的胸膛和光明的翎羽。

以上诗文的作者一看就有绘画经验,不是吗?霍普金斯上学时的牛津是思想的温床,每一位智识过剩、情绪激动、争辩成性的年轻人们都忍不住在各个领域走得太远一点。但是在自以为伟大的高傲表象下这帮人全都玩得很开心。比方说有一位教士的儿子查理斯.道奇森,此人在牛津就读的时期与霍普金斯有重叠。尽管他也加入了宗教团体并且终身未婚,但却始终没成为天主教徒。他是一名杰出的数学家,也是摄影领域的先驱人物。今天我们当然更熟悉他的笔名刘易斯.卡罗尔,他的传世名作《爱丽丝漫游仙境》,以及他终其一生对于幼女的仰慕。道奇森年轻时写过很严肃的诗歌,也希望得到严肃对待,但是他的真正天赋却在于创作奇幻文学以及架空世界当中的颠覆性笑话。他为我们留下了许多“胡言诗”,其中最伟大的一首无疑是《炸脖龙》(Jabberwocky)。就像托尔金的中土世界植根于早期英国文学一样,这首诗也在盎撒文化当中稳稳地占据了一席之地:

'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

有(一)天臾里,那些活济济的貐子

在卫边儿尽着那么廾那么犻;

好难四儿啊,那些鹁鹊蚼子,

还有寏的猱子怄得格儿。

"Beware the Jabberwock, my son!

The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!

Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun

The frumious Bandersnatch!"

“小心那炸脖竜,我的孩子!

那咬人的牙,那抓人的爪子!

小心那诛布诛布鸟,还躲开

那符命的螌得螚子!”

He took his vorpal sword in hand:

Long time the manxome foe he sought --

So rested he by the Tumtum tree,

And stood awhile in thought

他手拿着一把佛盘剑:

他早就要找那个蛮松蟒——

他就躲在一棵屯屯树后面,

就站得那儿心里头想。

And as in uffish thought he stood,

The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,

Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,

And burbled as it came!

他正在那儿想的个鸟飞飞,

那炸脖竜,两个灯笼的眼,

且秃儿丐林子里夫雷雷

又渤波儿波儿的出来撵。

One, two! One, two! and through and through

The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!

He left it dead, and with its head

He went galumphing back.

左,右!左,右!透了又透,

那佛盘剑砍得欺哩咔碴!

他割了它喉,他拎了它头,

就一嘎隆儿的飞恩了回家。

"And hast thou slain the Jabberwock?

Come to my arms, my beamish boy!

O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!"

He chortled in his joy.

“你果然斩了那炸脖竜了吗?

好孩子快来罢,你真比阿灭!

啊,乏比哦的日子啊,喝攸!喝喂!”

他快活的啜个得儿的飞唉。

'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

   

有(一)天臾里,那些活济济的貐子

在卫边儿尽着那么廾那么犻;

好难四儿啊,那些鹁鹊蚼子,

还有寏的猱子怄得格儿。【赵元任译,有修正】

真是一首文辞奇诡的好诗——不过大概不能让读者忍不住笑意。相比起来,下面这首《威廉师傅你这么老》(You Are Old, Father William)才是笔者本人的长年最爱,因为这首无情颠覆权威的诗歌更有卡罗尔的风格:

"You are old, Father William," the young man said,

"And your hair has become very white;

And yet you incessantly stand on your head—

Do you think, at your age, it is right?"

“威廉师傅你这么老,

你的头发白又白;

倒竖蜻蜒,你这么巧——

你想这样儿该不该?”

"In my youth," Father William replied to his son,

"I feared it might injure the brain;

But now that I'm perfectly sure I have none,

Why, I do it again and again."

先生答道,“我那时小,

怕把脑子跌去来;

现在脑子我没多少,

天天练武随便摔。”

"You are old," said the youth, "as I mentioned before,

And have grown most uncommonly fat;

Yet you turned a back-somersault in at the door—

Pray, what is the reason of that?"

“威廉师傅你这么重,

浑身长得肥又肥;

倒迁筋斗进门洞——

你这身子可危不危?”

"In my youth," said the sage, as he shook his grey locks,

"I kept all my limbs very supple

By the use of this ointment—one shilling the box—

Allow me to sell you a couple."

老头答道,“当年轻,

我就用这个油拌灰;

卖给你只算一先令,

搽了就四肢轻如飞,”

"You are old," said the youth, "and your jaws are too weak

For anything tougher than suet;

Yet you finished the goose, with the bones and the beak—

Pray, how did you manage to do it?"

“威廉师傅你这么弱,

只该喝点稀溜汤;

吃鸡带骨头还叫饿,

这样你胃口伤不伤?”

"In my youth," said his father, "I took to the law,

And argued each case with my wife;

And the muscular strength, which it gave to my jaw,

Has lasted the rest of my life."

威廉答道,“我做知县,

太太总要来帮我忙;

件件案子要拗着我辩,

所以练得我嘴这么强。”

"You are old," said the youth, "one would hardly suppose

That your eye was as steady as ever;

Yet you balanced an eel on the end of your nose—

What made you so awfully clever?"

“威廉师傅你这么晃,

你的眼睛花不花?

鳝鱼顶在鼻尖儿上,

这样能耐差不差?”

"I have answered three questions, and that is enough,"

Said his father; "don't give yourself airs!

Do you think I can listen all day to such stuff?

Be off, or I'll kick you down stairs!"

师傅怒道,“你还不够?

问了又问想干啥?

谁爱听你这咕叨咒?

滚下楼去你快回家!”【赵元任译,有修正】

笔者认为这首诗对于维多利亚时代精神的体现足以与考文垂.帕特摩尔乃至丁尼生的任何作品相提并论。今天的读者们或许不会将这段文字视为正经诗歌,但是维多利亚时代本来就充斥着各种讽刺文学——爱德华.李尔在画漫画之余撰写的五行打油诗,在家庭内部流传的荒唐诗,店铺与街头售卖的轻松歌谣,尤其还有火爆全国且性意味十足的音乐厅歌词。维多利亚时代英国人的精神风貌确实有一本正经、虔诚信教、注重阶级区分的一面,他们确实因为科学新进展而晕头转向,确实一厢情愿地相信大英帝国天命在身;但是另一方面他们也很爱笑,经常乐不可支。

帖:4497343 复 4344063
2020-03-27 05:09:38万年看客
不列颠时代5

要说到对于维多利亚时代阅读公众的影响力,十九世纪中期的两大巨头分别是继承了华兹华斯的桂冠诗人头衔的阿尔弗雷德.丁尼生勋爵与罗伯特.勃朗宁。丁尼生首先是一位广受欢迎的奇幻诗歌作者,例如《尤利西斯》(Odysseus)与《夏洛特女士》(The Lady Of Shalott)。此外他的作品还是凸显大英帝国海外扩张大业的官方诗文,完美契合了时代精神的特质。这其中最优秀的一首诗《轻骑兵进击》(The Charge of the Light Brigade)描写了一场既英勇又脑残的军事行动。英国军人具有某种近乎寻死的怪异士气,这种气质将会在几十年后一战期间的巴雪戴尔战役当中达到高峰。不过在十九世纪中期这种气质已经充分成型了:

Half a league, half a league,

Half a league onward,

All in the valley of Death

Rode the six hundred.

"Forward, the Light Brigade!

"Charge for the guns!" he said:

Into the valley of Death

Rode the six hundred.

半里格,半里格,

往前冲杀半里格,

骑兵六百名

冲进死亡的谷地。

“向前冲,轻骑兵!”

他说,“向炮冲击!”

骑兵六百名

冲进死亡的谷地。

"Forward, the Light Brigade!"

Was there a man dismay'd?

Not tho' the soldier knew

Someone had blunder'd:

Theirs not to make reply,

Theirs not to reason why,

Theirs but to do and die:

Into the valley of Death

Rode the six hundred.

“向前冲,轻骑兵!”

可有人丧气?没有。

尽管士兵们知道

是错误命令。

他们可不能抗命,

他们可无法弄清,

只能奉命去牺牲。

骑兵六百名

冲进死亡的谷地

Cannon to right of them,

Cannon to left of them,

Cannon in front of them

Volley'd and thunder'd;

Storm'd at with shot and shell,

Boldly they rode and well,

Into the jaws of Death,

Into the mouth of Hell

Rode the six hundred.

炮打在他们右面,

炮打在他们左面,

炮打在他们前面,

排炮在轰鸣,

冒着炮火和霰弹,

他们善骑又勇敢。

骑兵六百名

冲进地狱的大门,

冲进死神的牙关。

Flash'd all their sabres bare,

Flash'd as they turn'd in air,

Sabring the gunners there,

Charging an army, while

All the world wonder'd:

Plunged in the battery-smoke

Right thro' the line they broke;

Cossack and Russian

Reel'd from the sabre stroke

Shatter'd and sunder'd.

Then they rode back, but not

Not the six hundred.

出鞘马刀亮晃晃,

挥舞空中闪寒光,

劈下在炮手身上;

向一支大军冲击,

举世都震惊。

他们冲破了防线,

杀进炮台的硝烟;

哥萨克和俄国人

挡不住马刀猛劈,

乱掉了队形。

这时他们往回驰——

不满六百名。

Cannon to right of them,

Cannon to left of them,

Cannon behind them

Volley'd and thunder'd;

Storm'd at with shot and shell,

While horse and hero fell,

They that had fought so well

Came thro' the jaws of Death

Back from the mouth of Hell,

All that was left of them,

Left of six hundred.

炮打在他们右面,

炮打在他们左面,

炮打在他们后面,

排炮在轰鸣;

在炮火和霰弹下,

战马和英雄倒下。

打得漂亮的他们

冲出死神的牙关;

他们中的生还者,

六百人中的生者

冲出地狱门。

When can their glory fade?

O the wild charge they made!

All the world wondered.

Honor the charge they made,

Honor the Light Brigade,

Noble six hundred.

时间能湮没英名?

哦他们这次狂冲!

举世都震惊。

致敬,向这次冲锋!

致敬,向这六百名

豪迈轻骑兵!【译者不详】

这次军事行动发生在1854年10月,发动冲锋的英军死伤接近三百人,战马损失了超过三百匹。对于维多利亚时代的英国人来说,克里米亚战争的重要性在于暴露了英国在军事方面的无能与组织混乱,此时距离惠灵顿的军队被解散已经过去了一代人时间。就丁尼生而言,他在创作冲突题材的诗歌时更喜欢深入挖掘英国历史。大部分此类诗歌虽说文辞华丽动人,但是却难以帮助度射门理解十九世纪英国人的集体心态,就好像圣潘克拉斯火车站的彩绘砖难以帮助我们了解维多利亚时代的科学进展一样。一般来说,当代读者要想了解丁尼生最具文采的一面,要想了解诗人如何把握住了时代精神,真正该看的是篇幅更长且笔调更黑暗的《悼念组诗》(In Memoriam)。丁尼生在剑桥就读时结交了一位密友阿瑟.亨利.哈拉姆,此人于1833年在维也纳死于中风。接下来丁尼生花了十七年时间来创作这套组诗,在其中反思了生活、爱情、命运以及友谊等多个主题。当年弥尔顿也曾用一首《利西达斯》悼念了剑桥好友亨利.金的去世,并且在诗中超越了个人的悲恸,提出了更广泛的论点。两百多年后,丁尼生的悼亡诗作更加大胆,古典气质更淡,此后再未被超越。这些诗句让人一听就全身发凉:

DARK house, by which once more I stand

Here in the long unlovely street,

Doors, where my heart was used to beat

So quickly, waiting for a hand,

昏暗的屋边我再度站立,

站在这不可爱的长街上;

在这门前,往常我的心脏

为筹待一只手总跳得急。

A hand that can be clasp’d no more—

Behold me, for I cannot sleep,

And like a guilty thing I creep

At earliest morning to the door.

可这只手再也无从紧握--.

瞧我呀,如今已无法入睡,

却像个可怜东面负着罪,

绝早地悄悄溜到这门口。

He is not here; but far away

The noise of life begins again,

And ghastly thro’ the drizzling rain

On the bald street breaks the blank day.

他不在这里;但是听远处,

生活的嘈杂声又在响起,

而透过空街上蒙蒙细雨,

茫茫中露出苍白的初曙。【飞白译】

不过《悼念组诗》包含了多种情绪,丁尼生在另一首诗中劝说自己采取念头通达的坚忍主义来应对人生的损失,这首诗至今依然十分动人,甚至还很有用:

I envy not in any moods

The captive void of noble rage,

The linnet born within the cage,

That never knew the summer woods;

我不妒忌笼中出生的小鸟——

这缺乏高贵怒火的囚徒,

不管它自己是否觉得幸福,

它从未见过夏天森林的奇妙;

In envy not the beast that takes

His license in the field of time,

Unfetter'd by the sense of crime,

To whom a conscience never wakes;

我不妒忌为所欲为的野兽,

它在自己的期限里放纵,

不因犯罪感而约束行动,

也不因良心觉醒而发愁;

Nor, what may count itself as blest,

The heart that never plighted troth

But stagnates in the weeds of sloth:

Nor any want-begotten rest.

我不妒总从未作过盟誓的心,

尽管它可以自诩为幸福,

它只在懒惰的莠草中朽腐,

我不妒忌匮乏造成的安宁。

I hold it true, whate'er befall;

I feel it, when I sorrow most;

'T is better to have loved and lost

than never to have loved at all.

不论何事降临,我确信,

在最悲痛的时刻我觉得:

宁肯爱过而又失却,

也不愿做从未爱过的人。【飞白译】

不过诗人要如何应对基督教在他身边受到的全方位挑战呢?《造物的自然历史的遗迹》这本书今天已经没多少人记得了。但是这本书在1844年匿名出版的时候却引发了一阵轰动,就连阿尔伯特亲王都为维多利亚女王读过这本书。本书作者是苏格兰的一位记者,名叫罗伯特.钱伯斯,他试图在书中证明包括人类在内的一切生命形式都是演化改变的结果,而演化过程可以追溯到太阳系的开端。与达尔文在十四年后出版的《物种起源》相比,本书的论证远没有那么严密可靠,但是的确成为了全英国街头巷尾的谈资。丁尼生也为此赋诗一首,采用大自然的身份开了腔:

“So careful of the type?” but no.

From scarped cliff and quarried stone

She cries, ?A thousand types are gone:

I care for nothing, all shall go.

“难送我关心物种吗?”不!

自然从岩层和化石中叫喊:

“物种已绝灭了千千万万,

我全不在乎,一切都要结束。

“Thou makest thine appeal to me:

I bring to life, I bring to death:

The spirit does but mean the breath:

I know no more.” And he, shall he,

“你向我呼吁,求我仁慈;

我令万物生,我使万物死,

灵魂仅仅意昧着呼吸,

我所知道的仅止于此。”

Man, her last work, who seem’d so fair,

Such splendid purpose in his eyes,

Who roll’d the psalm to wintry skies,

Who built him fanes of fruitless prayer,

难道说,人——她最后最美的作品

眼中闪耀着目标的光芒,

建造起徒然祈祷的庙堂,

把颂歌迭上冰冷的天庭,

Who trusted God was love indeed

And love Creation’s final law —

Tho’ Nature, red in tooth and claw

With ravine, shriek’d against his creed —

他相信上帝与仁爱一体,

相信爱是造物的最终律法,

尽管自然张扬着染血的爪牙,

叫喊着反对他的教义,

Who loved, who suffer’d countless ills,

Who battled for the True, the Just,

Be blown about the desert dust,

Or seal’d within the iron hills?

他曾为真理和正义而斗争,

他爱过,也受过无穷苦难,——

难道他也将随风沙吹散,

或被封存在铁山底层?

No more? A monster then, a dream,

A discord. Dragons of the prime,

That tare each other in their slime,

Were mellow music match’d with him.

从此消灭?这是一场恶梦,

一个不和谐音。原始的巨龙

在泥沼之中互相撕裂,

与此相比也是柔美的音乐!

O life as futile, then, as frail!

O for thy voice to soothe and bless!

What hope of answer, or redress?

Behind the veil, behind the veil.

生命是多么徒劳而脆弱!

啊,但愿你的声音能安慰我!

哪儿能找到回答或补救?

唯有在通过了帷幕之后。【飞白译】

丁尼生的创作生涯很长,而且大半辈子都很出名。维多利亚时代的诗人可以享受到明星一般的待遇,思想深入且行动迅速的文学文化滋养了他们。丁尼生的存在证明了诗歌在十九世纪依然具有影响社会的力量。他的作品极其畅销,每当推出新诗都会引发新一轮讨论与分析热潮。当时的英国人想当然地认为诗人就应该关注重大社会议题,从政治到军事,从宗教到家庭生活全都是合情合理的诗歌题材。在今天的文学界,诗歌遭到五花大绑,塞进了智识生活的贫民窟里。当年的情况则远非如此。

罗伯特.勃朗宁与丁尼生可谓一时瑜亮,两人既是对手也是朋友,此外勃朗宁名声几乎与丁尼生一样显赫。他也是一位性情多变的诗人,最擅长戏剧独白诗。读者们应当将这些独白大声朗读出来,营造出历史人物(往往是意大利人)的声音,从而帮助读者们反思自己的生活。不过另一方面他也能创作十分流行的爱国主义诗歌,例如下面这首《海外乡思》(Oh, to be in England)就是他在自行流放意大利时创作的:

Oh, to be in England

Now that April's there,

And whoever wakes in England

Sees, some morning, unaware,

That the lowest boughs and the brushwood sheaf

Round the elm-tree bole are in tiny leaf,

While the chaffinch sings on the orchard bough

In England - now!!

啊,但愿此刻身在英格兰,

趁这四月天,

一个早晨醒来,

谁都会突然发现:

榆树四周低矮的枝条和灌木丛中,

小小的嫩叶已显出一片葱茏,

听那苍头燕雀正在果园里唱歌,

在英格兰啊,在此刻!

And after April, when May follows,

And the whitethroat builds, and all the swallows!

Hark, where my blossomed pear-tree in the hedge

Leans to the field and scatters on the clover

Blossoms and dewdrops - at the bent spray's edge -

That's the wise thrush; he sings each song twice over,

Lest you should think he never could recapture

The first fine careless rapture!

And though the fields look rough with hoary dew,

All will be gay when noontide wakes anew

The buttercups, the little children's dower

- Far brighter than this gaudy melon-flower!

四月过去,五月接踵来到,

燕子都在衔泥,白喉鸟在筑巢!

我园中倚向篱笆外的梨树,

把如雨的花瓣和露珠

洒满了树枝之下的苜蓿田;

聪明的鸫鸟在那儿唱,把每支歌都唱两遍,

为了免得你猜想:它不可能重新捕捉

第一遍即兴唱出的美妙欢乐!

尽管露水笼罩得田野灰白暗淡,

到中午一切又将喜气盎然,

苏醒的毛茛花是孩子们的嫁妆,

这华而俗的甜瓜花哪儿比得上它灿烂明亮!【飞白译】

勃朗宁最重要的诗作是篇幅宏大的叙事长诗《指环与书》(The Ring and the Book),题材是十七世纪发生在意大利的一起著名谋杀案。不过今天的大多数读者都更喜欢更短小的勃朗宁独白,因为这些诗歌的感染力简直就像揪住了读者的领口那样迫切。以下是《布劳拉姆主教的辩护词》(Bishop Bloughram's Apology)的开头:

No more wine? Then we'll push back chairs and talk.

A final glass for me, tho'; cool, i'faith!

We ought to have our Abbey back, you see.

It's different, preaching in basilicas,

And doing duty in some masterpiece

Like this of brother Pugin's, bless his heart!

I doubt if they're half baked, those chalk rosettes,

Ciphers and stucco-twiddlings everywhere;

It's just like breathing in a lime-kiln: eh?

These hot long ceremonies of our church

Cost us a little--oh, they pay the price,

You take me-amply pay it! Now, we'll talk.

没有酒了?那咱们推开椅子聊聊。

不过我还得再来最后一杯;哈,这是信仰!

我们得把我们的教堂夺回来,你看,

这感觉就是不一样,在大教堂里布道,

在建筑杰作当中做工。

且看普金兄弟的这座教堂,愿他的心蒙恩!

可没有偷工减料之处,那白垩的玫瑰花窗,

满墙灰泥拧着旋,花纹好像密码。

我们的教堂里法事漫长而又炎热,

好像在石灰窑里喘气一般

我们可是真够受的——嗨,他们可是遭了罪了,

你听我说——可是遭得不轻!行了,说正事。

通宝推:ccceee,
帖:4498289 复 4344063
2020-03-27 05:59:09
燕人
橄榄球起源于拉格比城

球以城名。

通宝推:桥上,
帖:4498309 复 4495151
2020-03-27 07:16:12
桥上
谢了,和那个拉格比公学有关吗?

帖:4498324 复 4498309
2020-03-27 07:31:57燕人
传说是该校一个学生首创

1823年间的事情。己方球队屡次失分,该生情急之下,一手把球抱起,快速冲向对方大门。对方球员上前拦截云云。没有确实的文字记录。估计现场有点小热闹。这基本成为默认事实。橄榄球世界杯奖杯就以此人名字William Webb Ellis命名。

说实话,这种不伤大雅的反规矩举动在一个贵族学校发生是理所必然的吧。

通宝推:桥上,
帖:4498336 复 4498324
待认可未通过。偏要看 耗株钱:1
2020-05-17 22:23:47万年看客
不列颠时代6

在勃朗宁之后,许多后来的诗人也效仿他的先例玩起了高端腹语术——埃兹拉.庞德就是个好例子——但是勃朗宁的名声也伴随着沉重的代价,具体来说就是他那位兴许比他更有才华的妻子伊丽莎白.巴雷特完全被他掩盖了下去。伊丽莎白于1806年出生在杜伦,她家颇有资财,家中产业包括农场、牙买加的甘蔗种植园以及几座磨坊。伊丽莎白具有强烈的道德观与异见宗教观,她的做人立场与她父亲的财富来源之间的紧张关系贯穿了她的一生。成人之后她成为了废止奴隶贸易的主要倡导者之一,大力主张要针对雇佣童工的工厂施加人道限制。尽管她毕生疾病缠身——几乎可以肯定是肺结核——但是在从事社会活动之余她依然创作了一大批诗歌。她的作品如此脍炙人口,以至于当初丁尼生成为桂冠诗人时很多人都认为她也有资格争一争这一头衔。她秘密地嫁给了勃朗宁,激怒了她的家庭,以至于他们与她断绝了关系。随后勃朗宁夫妇迁往意大利,她本人则于1861年在佛罗伦萨逝世。伊丽莎白从年轻时就主张女性权益,也是玛莉.渥斯顿克雷福特的热心读者。她的著名诗作《沃尔特勋爵的妻子》(Lord Walter’s Wife)彰显了真正的维多利亚人与不谙房事的古板形象之间差距多么大,在性关系当中女性甘愿被动的迷思与男性口是心非的真相被高明的诗人扎了个前所未有的透心凉:

'But where do you go?' said the lady, while both sat under the yew,

And her eyes were alive in their depth, as the kraken beneath the sea-blue.

“但你为什么要走?”女士问道,两人正坐在红豆杉下休憩,

她的双眼暗流汹涌,恰似庞然海兽正在碧波深处游弋。

'Because I fear you,' he answered; - 'because you are far too fair,

And able to strangle my soul in a mesh of your gold-coloured hair.'

“因为我害怕你,”男士答道,“因为你过于美丽,

你的满头金发如同网罗,足以将我的灵魂勒毙。”

'Oh that,' she said, 'is no reason! Such knots are quickly undone,

And too much beauty, I reckon, is nothing but too much sun.'

“哦这个啊,”她说,“这不算事!轻轻一拽满头发髻都会披散,

而且我觉得美貌不可能过分,恰如阳光不可能过于和煦温暖。”

'Yet farewell so,' he answered; - 'the sunstroke's fatal at times.

I value your husband, Lord Walter, whose gallop rings still from the limes.

“话不能这么说,”他答道;“多少人都死于暴晒中暑。

我很尊敬您的丈夫沃尔特勋爵,石板路上他的马蹄声脆清清楚楚。”

'Oh that,' she said, 'is no reason.You smell a rose through a fence:

If two should smell it what matter? who grumbles, and where's the pretense?

“哦他呀,”她说,“那又不碍事。隔着篱笆也能轻嗅玫瑰芬芳:

两人共赏一朵花有什么要紧?何必板着面孔嘟嘟囔囔?”

'But I,' he replied, 'have promised another, when love was free,

To love her alone, alone, who alone from afar loves me.'

“但是我,”他答道,“早已心有所属,舍弃了恋爱的自由,

我只会爱她一个,她心里也别无所求。”

'Why, that,' she said, 'is no reason. Love's always free I am told.

Will you vow to be safe from the headache on Tuesday, and think it will hold?

“你这是何苦,”她说,“实在没必要。我听说爱情就该无拘无束。

你要是发誓周二当天不能头疼,莫非就一定能将誓言守住?”

'But you,' he replied, 'have a daughter, a young child, who was laid

In your lap to be pure; so I leave you: the angels would make me afraid."

“但是你,”他答道,“还有个女儿,年幼的孩子,躺在你的怀里

多么纯洁,所以请容我告退,我真不敢触犯天使。”

'Oh that,' she said, 'is no reason. The angels keep out of the way;

And Dora, the child, observes nothing, although you should please me and stay.'

“哦你说她呀,”她说,“别往心里去,天使不会将我们搅扰;

朵拉还小不懂人事,不过我看你倒是应该懂得不少。”

At which he rose up in his anger, - 'Why now, you no longer are fair!

Why, now, you no longer are fatal, but ugly and hateful, I swear.'

他愤怒地陡然起身——“住口!你已经不再美丽!

我发誓你已经不再动人心魄,而是丑陋得充满恨意!”

At which she laughed out in her scorn: 'These men! Oh these men overnice,

Who are shocked if a colour not virtuous is frankly put on by a vice.'

她轻蔑地大笑道:“呵呵,男人!你们这些假殷勤当真可乐,

罪孽若是没有披上美德的伪装,就吓得你们手足无措。”

Her eyes blazed upon him - 'And you! You bring us your vices so near

That we smell them! You think in our presence a thought 'twould defame us to hear!

她眼神灼灼盯着他——“还有你!带着一身恶行接近我们,

真是恶臭不堪!眼下你心里的念头不知有多么恶心人!”

'What reason had you, and what right, - I appeal to your soul from my life, -

To find me so fair as a woman? Why, sir, I am pure, and a wife.

“我凭着性命发问,请你以灵魂作答——你有什么理由,依仗什么权利,

夸奖我是个美女?这位先生,我可是良家女子,还是他人的妻室。”

'Is the day-star too fair up above you? It burns you not. Dare you imply

I brushed you more close than the star does, when Walter had set me as high?

“高悬的金星是否也过于美丽?星光并不会将你灼伤。你竟敢以为

在沃尔特心中与星辰相当的我,比星辰更乐意与你厮混?你以为你是谁?”

'If a man finds a woman too fair, he means simply adapted too much

To use unlawful and fatal. The praise! shall I thank you for such?

“男人要是觉得女人过于美丽,他不过意味着她太过容易

遭到非法致命手段的侵害。好一句夸奖!我莫非还得谢谢你?”

'Too fair? not unless you misuse us! and surely if, once in a while,

You attain to it, straightaway you call us no longer too fair, but too vile.

“过于美丽?除非你错待我们!当然,偶尔你兴许也能得手,

然后就会立刻翻脸,之前夸我们多美,之后就骂我们多丑。”

'A moment, I pray your attention! I have a poor word in my head

I must utter, though womanly custom would set it down better unsaid.

“先等等,请你再多听片刻!有几句粗鄙之语我一定要讲,

尽管身为女性,礼数要求我应该只在心里想一想。”

'You grew, sir, pale to impertinence, once when I showed you a ring.

You kissed my fan when I dropped it. No matter! I've broken the thing.

“当初我向你展示婚戒,你的脸色冒然变得煞白,褪去了每一丝血气。

你捡起我掉落的扇子,还要先亲一口。哈!那不过是我玩坏的玩意!”

'You did me the honour, perhaps, to be moved at my side now and then

In the senses, a vice, I have heard, which is common to beasts and some men.

“或许你还真看得起我,有事没事就爱在我身边逡巡,

你这个毛病,据我所知,常见于畜生野兽与一部分男人。”

'Love's a virtue for heroes! as white as the snow on high hills,

And immortal as every great soul is that struggles, endures, and fulfils.

“爱情是英雄的美德!恰似高山巅峰的积雪洁白,

如同每一个伟大的灵魂同样不朽,正是那斗争,忍耐,满溢胸怀。”

'I love my Walter profoundly, you, Maude, though you faltered a week,

For the sake of . . . what is it, an eyebrow? or, less still, a mole on the cheek?

“我深爱我的沃尔特,至于你,毛德,我看你只会三心二意,

就为了……那什么,一道眼眉?甚至仅仅为了面颊上一颗美人痣?”

'And since, when all's said, you're too noble to stoop to the frivolous cant

About crimes irresistable, virtues that swindle, betray and supplant.

“话说至此,你过于高贵,不屑于说那些空话轻佻好似儿戏,

什么克制不住的犯罪,所谓美德无非是欺骗、背叛、始乱终弃。”

'I determined to prove to yourself that, whate'er you might dream or avow

By illusion, you wanted precisely no more of me than you have now.

“我决心向你证明,无论你做过什么梦,或者因为鬼迷心窍

发过什么誓:你满心盘算不多不少,无非眼馋我的容貌。”

'There! Look me full in the face! in the face. Understand, if you can,

That the eyes of such women as I am are clean as the palm of a man.

“很好!那就仔细端详我的脸!不管你信或不信,

我这样一位女人的双眼就像正人君子的双手一样干净。”

'Drop his hand, you insult him. Avoid us for fear we should cost you a scar,

You take us for harlots, I tell you, and not for the women we are.

“别握他的手,你这是侮辱他。今后离我们远点,否则我们非得给你留一道疤痕。

我看你只会拿我们当娼妓,而不会将我们视为本来面目的女人。”

'You wronged me: but then I considered . . . there's Walter! And so at the end

I vowed that he should not be mulcted, by me, in the hand of a friend.

“你错待了我,不过我转念一想——啊,沃尔特过来了!那咱们姑且算完,

因为我曾发誓,不会让他为了我在哪位朋友面前为难。”

'Have I hurt you indeed? We are quits then. Nay, friend of my Walter, be mine!

Come, Dora, my darling, my angel, and help me to ask him to dine.'……

“我这人说话比较直,你可别往心里去。沃尔特的朋友我都不会怠慢。

朵拉宝贝,乖,赶紧过来,帮妈妈问问这位叔叔来不来咱家吃饭?”

笔者认为这首诗精彩地描绘了一位棱角分明的杰出女性,满头金色卷发,两眼灼灼放光。作为一名废奴运动家,伊丽莎白很清楚英国国内的政治问题。她的《国家的诅咒》(A Curse For A Nation)一诗以抨击美国奴隶制为题。一名天使呼吁她去诅咒美国,但她却首先与天使争辩起来。英国的政治文化早已腐败不堪,她这个英国人哪还有资格朝着大西洋彼岸指指点点呢?

I heard an angel speak last night,

And he said 'Write!

Write a Nation's curse for me,

And send it over the Western Sea.'

昨夜听得天使说,

有件事情要我做,

写下针对一个国家的咒怨,

而后寄到大西洋的彼岸。

I faltered, taking up the word:

'Not so, my lord!

If curses must be, choose another

To send thy curse against my brother.

我满怀敬畏,声音颤抖地道出心曲:

“不要如此,我的上帝!

请另选他人吧,假如诅咒是必须,

让他把对我兄弟的诅咒寄给你。”

'For I am bound by gratitude,

By love and blood,

To brothers of mine across the sea,

Who stretch out kindly hands to me.'

“我内心充满感激,

还有爱和血缘的关系。

兄弟们虽与我隔海相望,

却曾伸出援助之手帮忙。”

'Therefore,' the voice said, 'shalt thou write

My curse to-night.

From the summits of love a curse is driven,

As lightning is from the tops of heaven.'

“那么,”这个声音说。

“今夜可否将诅咒创作?

诅咒源自爱之巅峰,

恰似道道霹雳闪出天宫。”

'Not so,' I answered. 'Evermore

My heart is sore

For my own land's sins: for little feet

Of children bleeding along the street:

“不要如此,”我回答道,

“痛苦正在我心中缠绕。

我的祖国罪孽深重,赤足的孩子

在街头巷尾血流不止。”

'For parked-up honors that gainsay

The right of way:

For almsgiving through a door that is

Not open enough for two friends to kiss:

“荣誉、声望齐集一身,

阻断往来令人愤恨。

一道细小的门缝,不肯痛快敞开

朋友对面不能相吻,只能将施舍递出来。”

'For love of freedom which abates

Beyond the Straits:

For patriot virtue starved to vice on

Self-praise, self-interest, and suspicion:

“对于自由的热爱一旦

越过海峡就踪迹不见。*

因为爱国者的美德因为饥渴而堕落,

沦为了自诩、利己与怀疑的罪恶。”

*【即直布罗陀海峡,英国在海峡对面的非洲有多处殖民地。】

'For an oligarchic parliament,

And bribes well-meant.

What curse to another land assign,

When heavy-souled for the sins of mine?'

“我们独裁的贵族政府,

善意的贿赂丑闻层出。

此时又有何颜面对别人诅咒,

眼看自己的罪恶使灵魂内疚?”

'Therefore,' the voice said, 'shalt thou write

My curse to-night.

Because thou hast strength to see and hate

A foul thing done within thy gate.'

“那么,”这个声音说。

“今夜可否将诅咒创作?

因为你敢于正视与憎恨一切恶行,

甘愿将家丑诉诸外人。”

'Not so,' I answered once again.

'To curse, choose men.

For I, a woman, have only known

How the heart melts and the tears run down.'

“不要如此,”我再次重申,

“要诅咒,去找男人。

因为我,一个女子,仅仅知晓,

心如何溶化,泪水怎样淹没微笑。”

'Therefore,' the voice said, 'shalt thou write

My curse to-night.

Some women weep and curse, I say

(And no one marvels), night and day.

“那么,”这个声音说。

“今夜可否将诅咒创作?

一些女人边诅咒边哭泣,

从夜晚到天明也无人惊奇。”

'And thou shalt take their part to-night,

Weep and write.

A curse from the depths of womanhood

Is very salt, and bitter, and good.'

“今夜你要扮演她们的角色,

哭泣并写作。

因为诅咒若是出自女人心底,

必然万分尖刻而又严厉。”

So thus I wrote, and mourned indeed,

What all may read.

And thus, as was enjoined on me,

I send it over the Western Sea.

于是我写下了诸位读到的笔记,

心中着实哀痛不已。

于是按照所吩咐的那样,

将它寄过了大西洋

这还是诗人为美国辩护时的表现。等到针对美国的诅咒全力发动之后,诗人的词锋就更加凶狠了:

The Curse

诅咒

Because ye have broken your own chain

With the strain

Of brave men climbing a Nation's height,

Yet thence bear down with brand and thong

On souls of others, -- for this wrong

This is the curse. Write.

因为你打碎了身上的枷锁,

以勇士的力量和气魄,

建立了属于自己的家国。

然而你却从此举起烙铁和皮鞭,

把别人的灵魂践踏、霸占。

这就是诅咒,写下这凶残。

Because yourselves are standing straight

In the state

Of Freedom's foremost acolyte,

Yet keep calm footing all the time

On writhing bond-slaves, -- for this crime

This is the curse. Write.

因为你扬眉吐气,

生活在属于自己的国土里,

自称是自由的头号徒弟。

然而你却如此心安理得,

长久立足于奴隶遭受的折磨。

这就是诅咒,写下这罪恶。

Because ye prosper in God's name,

With a claim

To honor in the old world's sight,

Yet do the fiend's work perfectly

In strangling martyrs, -- for this lie

This is the curse. Write.

因为你以上帝的名义富强繁荣,

于是便索要尊重,

来自旧世界的目光中。

然而你却将魔鬼的工作完美进行下去,

将无数殉道者活活勒毙。

这便是诅咒,写下这扯谎的语句。

Ye shall watch while kings conspire

Round the people's smouldering fire,

And, warm for your part,

Shall never dare -- O shame!

To utter the thought into flame

Which burns at your heart.

This is the curse. Write.

你远观诸国王相聚共谋,

民众怒火积郁,嫉恶如仇,

尽管你自己不必担心取暖——

耻辱啊!——却从来不敢

让思想的火种燃成烈焰,

哪怕它常常灼痛你的心田。

这就是诅咒,写下这无耻的嘴脸。

Ye shall watch while nations strive

With the bloodhounds, die or survive,

Drop faint from their jaws,

Or throttle them backward to death;

And only under your breath

Shall favor the cause.

This is the curse. Write.

你只远观众民族联合抗争,

与恶犬较量,全不顾生存或牺牲。

也许力竭昏厥倒在狗嘴下,

或者英勇搏击把恶犬绞杀。

然而你却从不敢将心声表白,

只会低声道出对正义的热爱。

这就是诅咒,将这份胆怯写下来。

Ye shall watch while strong men draw

The nets of feudal law

To strangle the weak;

And, counting the sin for a sin,

Your soul shall be sadder within

Than the word ye shall speak.

This is the curse. Write.

你只远观强者挥舞臂膀,

布下一张张封建的罗网,

将弱者窒息,使其命丧。

历数罪恶之罪恶,

灵魂经受的震慑

比你能述说的更多。

这就是诅咒,写下来,请记着。

When good men are praying erect

That Christ may avenge His elect

And deliver the earth,

The prayer in your ears, said low,

Shall sound like the tramp of a foe

That's driving you forth.

This is the curse. Write.

善良的人们向苍天祈祷。

请求基督为他的选民报仇,

将罪孽深重的人世间拯救。

祈祷声低低回荡耳畔,

有如敌人沉重的脚步来犯,

催你出发,驱你向前。

这就是诅咒,写下来,正如刚才那般。

When wise men give you their praise,

They shall praise in the heat of the phrase,

As if carried too far.

When ye boast your own charters kept true,

Ye shall blush; for the thing which ye do

Derides what ye are.

This is the curse. Write.

当智者对你不吝赞扬,

就在唇枪舌剑的火热现场,

或许其实是大言无当。

当你自夸严守了本国的宪章,

你一定会脸红,因为你的行为远非高尚,

你的本性罪恶昭彰。

这就是诅咒,写下来,无需粉饰和伪装。

When fools cast taunts at your gate,

Your scorn ye shall somewhat abate

As ye look o'er the wall;

For your conscience, tradition, and name

Explode with a deadlier blame

Than the worst of them all.

This is the curse. Write.

当愚者在门前大肆讥嘲,

你的轻蔑将会逐渐减少,

当你望断高墙,展望明朝。

因为你的良知、传统和名誉,

已经崩溃瓦解,随风逝去,

这致命责难都是你咎由自取。

这就是诅咒,写下来,我还要继续。

Go, wherever ill deeds shall be done,

Go, plant your flag in the sun

Beside the ill-doers!

And recoil from clenching the curse

Of God's witnessing Universe

With a curse of yours.

This is the curse. Write.

去吧,无论你在何处多行不义,

去吧,在阳光下插下你的旗帜,

在作恶者身边树立。

然而你却不敢正视这诅咒,

来自上帝主宰的四海五洲,

它只属你所有。

写下吧,这就是诅咒。【袁芳远、张清福、张玉平、董莉译,有修改】

这首源自一位激进异见者的诗歌着实看得人心惊肉跳,将残忍而不自觉的十九世纪中期维多利亚时代生活方式骂了个体无完肤。今天的读者们一想到伊丽莎白.巴雷特.勃朗宁,首先想到的往往是她那些优美动人的爱情诗歌。她的本事可绝不仅仅只有这么一点。

通宝推:桥上,
帖:4520170 复 4344063
2020-06-17 22:45:38万年看客
十二,靡靡之音与少数巨人1

维多利亚时代末期与爱德华时代的英国对于诗歌爱好者们来说是一段很吊诡的时期。一方面此时的英国已经普及了全面教育,英国的报纸从未像此时这样百花齐放,文章水准胜于往昔,报纸读者的数量也屡创新高;简而言之这是一个全民阅读的时代,也是文学评论大行其道的时代。但是创作于这一时期的大部分英国诗歌都有些不如人意——拖泥带水,苍白无力,亦步亦趋。这是一个动荡的时代。大英帝国正处于极盛巅峰,为英国中产阶级带来了巨大的财富,也为他们提供了前所未有的开眼看世界的机会。探险家、科学家与讲学家们将最前沿的科学知识传播到了英国各地。在政治层面上,早在一战爆发之前很久,工会与社会主义思潮的兴起就让英国街头充满了各种冲突。强大的自由党面临两面威胁,充满贵族的上议院死死捍卫着最后的阵地,爱尔兰局势也正在日益恶化。但是除去几首最平淡乏味的应景酬对诗文之外,所有这一切在诗歌当中都没能得到多少表现。当年还有一位爱德华.玛什创办了一份《乔治诗摘》(Georgian Verse)杂志,大力推送了一批所谓的乔治时代诗人,但是这些人的作品如今基本已经没人看了。这一时期最激进的文坛运动当属奥斯卡.王尔德倡导的颓废派运动,但是王尔德的诗才直到他将自己因为同性恋取向而被判入狱身败名裂的经历当做创作题材之后才真正充分地发挥出来。尽管如此,这一时期还是有几位诗人不得不提一提。

他们当中有一位鲁德亚德.吉卜林。他的名声如今依旧褒贬不一,因为他是一位铁杆帝国主义者,而他毕生极力鼓吹的大英帝国又在世界各地造成了那么多苦难。其次是托马斯.哈代,人人都知道他是英国最伟大的小说家之一,但是并非所有人都能意识到他首先是自从浪漫主义时代以来最伟大的英国诗人。接下来这话有些好说不好听,但是正所谓国家不幸诗家幸,1914年一战爆发的直接后果之一就是为英国诗人们提供了压倒一切的题材,从而一举拯救了英国诗坛。在新近拾起英格兰乡村题材的主要诗人当中有一位爱德华.托马斯死在了战场上。另一位A.E.豪斯曼是一位杰出的拉丁语学者,大半辈子都过着书斋生活,苦苦压抑着自己的性取向。

不过在介绍这几位之前,我们需要首先检视一下二十世纪初到一战爆发之间这几年风靡一时的其他诗歌。这一时期的英国诗人们面临的诸多不利因素之一在于前拉斐尔派当时正在英国大行其道,利用滔滔不绝的中世纪陈词滥调与维多利亚时代糟粕覆盖了这个国家,一方面令人目眩神迷,另一方面则钝化了文艺受众们的感官。如果哪位读者觉得笔者骂得太狠,还请稍安勿躁继续看下去。有请前拉斐尔派兄弟会的创始人、个性鲜明的但丁.加百利.罗塞蒂。他特别喜欢贵族少女的形象,他的画作里经常出现黑发披肩、地阁方圆、眼冒凶光的女性形象——所谓各花入各眼,本来也强求不得。请看《幸福女郎》(The Blessed Damozel):

The blessed damozel lean'd out

From the gold bar of Heaven;

Her eyes were deeper than the depth

Of waters still'd at even;

She had three lilies in her hand,

And the stars in her hair were seven.

幸福女郎天国居,金阑斜倚望乡闾。

灵眸深比昆池水,夜静波平云影舒。

发上明星簪七颗,手持三朵白芙蕖。

Her robe, ungirt from clasp to hem,

No wrought flowers did adorn,

But a white rose of Mary's gift,

For service meetly worn;

Her hair that lay along her back

Was yellow like ripe corn.

衣裳无带轻飘举,不绣绫花与锦羽。

襟头独佩白蔷薇,圣母见贻慰劳苦。

丝发散披覆两局,黄似丰田秋熟黍。

Herseem'd she scarce had been a day

One of God's choristers;

The wonder was not yet quite gone

From that still look of hers;

Albeit, to them she left, her day

Had counted as ten years.

羯来执役上帝前,歌队追随习管弦。

初入天宫未终日,尚留惊讶在眉端。

只于人世伤离者,此日悠悠己十年。

(To one, it is ten years of years.

…Yet now, and in this place,

Surely she lean'd o'er me—her hair

Fell all about my face….

Nothing: the autumn-fall of leaves.

The whole year sets apace.)

十年之日作年算,不及愁予一日倦。

当前此际恍见伊,丝发低垂拂予面。

惊回却是秋叶飞,忽觉催人时序变。

It was the rampart of God's house

That she was standing on:

By God built over the sheer depth

The which is Space begun;

So high, that looking downward thence

She scarce could see the sun.

伊所立兮琅玎台,旁邻帝阙银屏开。

神刀造成镇天极,从兹肇始宇宙恢。

台阙高高高几许,俯瞰不见皎日来。

It lies in Heaven, across the flood

Of ether, as a bridge.

Beneath, the tides of day and night

With flame and darkness ridge

The void, as low as where this earth

Spins like a fretful midge.

楼阁如桥空际悬,横度以太之洪川。

其下昼夜为潮汐,黑暗光明互代迁。

小千世界居最下,比似微虻自转旋。【张荫麟译】

这几句片儿汤话在笔者耳中确实像虻虫转旋一般烦人。加百利.罗塞蒂的妹妹克里斯蒂娜.罗塞蒂的诗才远远胜过兄长。她的代表作《小妖精集市》(Goblin Market)色彩鲜明,音律生动,有资格跻身于任何一部维多利亚时代诗选。但是她也无法免俗地沾染了感伤主义的娇花气质,还带有一丝遭到美化的十四世纪气息。请看《为我编织一顶风中花冠》(Twist Me a Crown of Wind-Flowers):

Twist me a crown of wind-flowers;

That I may fly away

To hear the singers at their song,

And players at their play.

Put on your crown of wind-flowers:

But whither would you go?

Beyond the surging of the sea

And the storms that blow.

Alas! your crown of wind-flowers

Can never make you fly:

I twist them in a crown to-day,

And to-night they die.

为我编织一顶风中花冠,

让我乘风飞去。

听到歌手吟唱歌声悠扬,

看到人们嬉戏。

为我编织一顶风中花冠,

可你要去何处?

越过重洋波涛汹涌不休,

还有风雨如注。

唉!你编织的风中花冠,

无法让你飞去。

我在白日编织的花冠,

入夜就凋亡消逝。

克里斯蒂娜的风格还不仅局限于感伤主义,有时还会流露出渴望死亡的病态心理,这种心理在前拉斐尔派当中很常见。接下来是她的《亲爱的,当我已经逝去》(When I am dead, my dearest):

When I am dead, my dearest,

Sing no sad songs for me;

Plant thou no roses at my head,

Nor shady cypress tree:

Be the green grass above me

With showers and dewdrops wet;

And if thou wilt, remember,

And if thou wilt, forget.

亲爱的,当我已经逝去,

别为我唱悲伤的歌曲;

我的墓前不用栽种玫瑰,

也无需柏树浓荫遮蔽:

要像那覆盖我的青草

沾着湿润的露珠雨滴;

你若有心就铭记我,

你若无意就将我忘记。

I shall not see the shadows,

I shall not feel the rain;

I shall not hear the nightingale

Sing on, as if in pain:

And dreaming through the twilight

That doth not rise nor set,

Haply I may remember,

And haply may forget.

我再也看不到树荫,

我再也感受不到雨滴;

我将无法听见夜莺

似乎痛苦的悲戚:

陷入晨昏之间的长梦,

日出日落都已是过去。

或许我还会记得你,

或许我也会忘记。

前拉斐尔派当中最积极参与社会活动的诗人是基督徒社会主义者、才华横溢的设计师威廉.莫里斯。但是就连他也一样深深陷入了中世纪风格当中。他相信唯有奉行中世纪主义才能摆脱现代市场经济社会的混乱与不幸。换言之,他不乐意直接描写身边的世界,而是喜欢一厢情愿地追忆往昔。以下是《阿塔兰忒的赛跑》(Atalanta’s Race)的开篇:

Through thick Arcadian woods a hunter went,

Following the beasts up, on a fresh spring day;

But since his horn- tipped bow but seldom bent,

Now at the noontide nought had happed to slay,

Within a vale he called his hounds away

Hearkening the echoes of his lone voice cling

About the cliffs and through the beech-trees ring.

一名猎手穿过茂密的阿卡狄亚森林,

在和煦春日,紧跟野兽毫不放过;

可是他的角弓已经许久没有绷紧,

直到正午时分都还没有任何斩获,

他在山谷里呼喊,与猎犬联络,

只能听见他自己的声音反复回荡,

穿过一片片山毛榉,落在山崖壁上。

But when they ended, still awhile he stood,

And but the sweet familiar thrush could hear,

And all the day-long noises of the wood,

And o'er the dry leaves of the vanished year

His hounds' feet pattering as they drew anear,

And heavy breathing from their heads low hung,

To see the mighty cornel bow unstrung.

但是回声消逝之后,他依然站在原地,

只能听到熟悉的鸫鸟歌喉圆润,

还有林中的各种响动终日不肯休憩。

踏着层层枯叶,来自往昔的年份,

大步快跑的猎犬们向他靠近,

纷纷直喘粗气,不敢抬头看,

它们的英武主人尚未开弓放箭。

甚至当莫里斯终于直面“英格兰的现状”这一问题时,也依然会在诗歌题材上裹一层中世纪的面纱。比方说下面这首《穷人的上帝》(The God of the Poor)——Deus est Deus pauperum——光从字面上看谁能猜出来这首诗居然创作于工业化与社会主义思潮盛行的时代呢?

HERE was a lord that hight Maltete,

Among great lords he was right great,

On poor folk trod he like the dirt,

None but God might do him hurt.

Deus est Deus pauperum.

有一位尊主名叫马尔提提,

纵然相比其他贵胄也堪称雄奇,

恣意践踏穷人好似脚底烂泥,

唯有上帝兴许能蹭破他的肉皮——

Deus est Deus pauperum。

With a grace of prayers sung loud and late

Many a widow's house he ate;

Many a poor knight at his hands

Lost his house and narrow lands.

Deus est Deus pauperum.

伴随祈祷声声响彻夜深,

他曾将多少寡妇的家产侵吞;

多少穷困骑士遭他毒手算计,

失去了家宅与一亩三分薄地——

Deus est Deus pauperum。

He burnt the harvests many a time,

He made fair houses heaps of lime;

Whatso man loved wife or maid

Of Evil-head was sore afraid.

Deus est Deus pauperum.

多少粮囤曾被他烧成黑灰,

多少房屋曾被他拆成石堆;

他曾将多少人的妻女霸占,

他那颗凶颅吓得人心惊胆战——

Deus est Deus pauperum。

He slew good men and spared the bad;

Too long a day the foul dog had,

E'en as all dogs will have their day;

But God is as strong as man, I say.

Deus est Deus pauperum.

遇到恶人他就饶过,遇到善人他就杀光,

过了太久这条凶犬还在放肆嚣张;

虽说每一条疯狗都难免一时得意,

可是依我看神并不比人更有惩恶之力——

Deus est Deus pauperum。【感谢atr网友的指正】

下面这位阿尔加侬.查尔斯.斯温伯恩倒是不属于任何运动,而且肯定不是社会主义者。奇怪的是,他的作品指向了维多利亚时代晚期英国诗歌的另一个问题。以斯温伯恩为代表的这一派诗人性情敏感,接受过深入的古典文化训练,平时局限在大学圈子里,身边全都是同类人,他们的诗文在技法层面几乎有些过于优秀——文笔圆润娴熟,音律优美与济慈一脉相承,抑扬顿挫高低起伏,足以与弗雷德里克.戴留斯的乐曲相媲美——但是归根结底算不得言之有物。以下诗文是斯温伯恩为了悼念远比他更加卓越的法国颓废派诗人夏尔.波德莱尔而创作的《送行之歌》(Ave Atque Vale)的开篇:

Shall I strew on thee rose or rue or laurel,

Brother, on this that was the veil of thee?

Or quiet sea-flower moulded by the sea,

Or simplest growth of meadow-sweet or sorrel,

Such as the summer-sleepy Dryads weave,

Waked up by snow-soft sudden rains at eve?

Or wilt thou rather, as on earth before,

Half-faded fiery blossoms, pale with heat

And full of bitter summer, but more sweet

To thee than gleanings of a northern shore

Trod by no tropic feet?

我该不该向你抛洒玫瑰、芸香或者月桂,

兄弟,将花瓣播撒在你的面纱?

或者撒几朵大海塑造的沉静海花,

或者是最单纯生长的绣线菊与酸模,

让夏日里睡眼惺忪的林间精灵织造。

夕阳时暴雨骤降如雪,惊醒了它们的懒觉?

又或者你宁愿像在世时那样,

更喜欢被烈日暴晒褪色的火红花朵

充满了夏日的苦涩,但甜蜜却更多?

胜过北岸搜集的收藏,

没有被热带的双脚踩过?

For always thee the fervid languid glories

Allured of heavier suns in mightier skies;

Thine ears knew all the wandering watery sighs

Where the sea sobs round Lesbian promontories,

The barren kiss of piteous wave to wave

That knows not where is that Leucadian grave

Which hides too deep the supreme head of song.

Ah, salt and sterile as her kisses were,

The wild sea winds her and the green gulfs bear

Hither and thither, and vex and work her wrong,

Blind gods that cannot spare.

因为你那狂热而慵懒的荣耀

永远诱惑着更沉重的太阳,在更雄伟的天空,

你的双耳知道所有游移不定的水之叹息声,

那是大海在莱斯波斯的岬角轻轻啜泣。

一道道凄凉浪花的荒芜之吻毫无用意,

不知道哪里才是投海自尽的墓地,

海水将至上之歌的开头隐藏得太深。

啊,她的吻毫无生机,唯有咸涩。

茫茫的海风吹拂着她,绿色的沟壑

伸向两边,折磨惑乱她的心,

盲目的神灵不能放过。【感谢atr网友的指正】

在这种玩意的阴影下成长起来的诗人们肯定都曾扪心自问,诗歌究竟应该写些什么——怎样的题材才算合适?颓废主义运动采用慵懒的求死之心来对抗资产阶级基督教的乐观立场,用唯美主义来对抗竞赛主义。当时的诗人肯定觉得这样做是明智之举,但是遵循这一路线的诗歌全都软弱无力并且矫揉造作。有些粗声大嗓的粗野之辈喜欢恶搞颓废派的作品,他们这么做兴许并不算毫无道理。亚瑟.西蒙斯可谓最具代表性的颓废派诗人,在当时读者众多且颇有影响力。此人对于色彩极其敏感,并且喜欢描写转瞬即逝的刹那。请看《淡紫、黝黑与玫瑰红》(Mauve, Black, and Rose):

Mauve, black, and rose,

The veils of the jewel, and she, the jewel, a rose.

淡紫、黝黑与玫瑰红,

珠宝的面纱,而她就像珠宝,玫瑰般嫣红

First, the pallor of mauve,

A soft flood flowing about the body I love.

首先是淡紫的肤色,

柔和的流水在我所爱的肉体上流过。

Then, the flush of the rose,

A hedge of roses about the mystical rose.

接下来是一阵玫瑰红,

玫瑰从中有一阵神秘升腾。

Last, the black, and at last

The feet that I love, and the way that my love has passed.

最后还要将黝黑回顾,

我爱的双脚,我的爱经过的道路。

下面这首诗干脆名叫《蜡笔画:脸与面具》(Pastel:Masks and Faces)

The light of our cigarettes

Went and came in the gloom:

It was dark in the little room.

明灭闪动的微光

在一片昏暗里,是我们的香烟:

在这个黑暗的小小房间。

Dark, and then, in the dark,

Sudden, a flash, a glow,

And a hand and a ring I know.

一片黑暗,然后在这黑暗中,

突然一道火光转瞬即逝,

照亮那只我熟悉的纤手与手上戒指。

And then, through the dark, a flush

Ruddy and vague, the grace

(A rose!) of her lyric face.

然后穿透黑暗,一阵闪亮

美貌映射着红光朦胧

(好比玫瑰!)那是她像诗一样的面容。

诚然,这两首诗并没有沉浸于中世纪。诗句紧凑动人,题材也是现代人——抽香烟的现代人。甚至就连前一首诗里提到的淡紫色都是近代化学工业的产物。西蒙斯的确找到了一条诗歌创作的新路。但是说一千道一万,有些题材毕竟更适合用油画而不是音律来表达。比方说下面这首奥斯卡.王尔德的《气球》(Les Balloons)就是个好例子:

Against these turbid turquoise skies

The light and luminous balloons

Dip and drift like satin moons

Drift like silken butterflies;

在这混浊的青绿色天空,

几个气球轻盈而又亮丽。

忽落忽起像锦缎的月宫,

丝质的蝴蝶飘来又荡去。

Reel with every windy gust,

Rise and reel like dancing girls,

Float like strange transparent pearls,

Fall and float like silver dust.

一阵风吹过不停地摇晃,

升起又摇晃像跳舞姑娘;

飘拂像奇特透明的珍珠,

银色的梦境飘落又飘拂。

Now to the low leaves they cling,

Each with coy fantastic pose,

Each a petal of a rose

Straining at a gossamer string.

一会儿它们依着矮树叶,

梦幻般的姿态不无羞怯;

红红的玫瑰娇嫩的花瓣,

细细的柔丝长长的牵绊。

Then to the tall trees they climb,

Like thin globes of amethyst,

Wandering opals keeping tryst

With the rubies of the lime.

一会儿它们爬向高树枝,

好像晶莹剔透的紫宝石;

漫游的蛋白石停了下来,

幽会着红宝石不舍依依。【袁宪军译,有修改】

无可否认的是,上述几位诗人全都才华横溢并且雄心勃勃,因此我们很难不怀疑他们所欠缺的仅仅是真正恰当的题材而已。王尔德以最糟糕的方式发现了专属于他的诗材。他因为同性恋取向而遭到监禁,被关进了条件严苛的雷丁监狱。他在人生低谷创作的《雷丁监狱之歌》(The Ballad of Reading Gaol)充满了智慧,几乎就像柯勒律治的作品一样摄人心魄:

I walked, with other souls in pain,

Within another ring,

And was wondering if the man had done

A great or little thing,

When a voice behind me whispered low,

"That fellow's got to swing."

我和其他痛苦的囚犯

走在另一个圈子里面,

正在纳闷那个人犯过

重罪还只是区区小错,

却听得有人在身后悄悄说,

“那家伙脖子上要套绳索。”

Dear Christ! the very prison walls

Suddenly seemed to reel,

And the sky above my head became

Like a casque of scorching steel;

And, though I was a soul in pain,

My pain I could not feel.

天哪!眼见那牢房的高墙

突然间似乎摇摇晃晃,

我头上那遥远的云霄,

犹如热钢铸造的盔帽;

虽然我是一个痛苦的囚犯,

我却感觉不到自己的苦难。

I only knew what hunted thought

Quickened his step, and why

He looked upon the garish day

With such a wistful eye;

The man had killed the thing he loved

And so he had to die.

我很清楚什么怪想法

加快了他灵活的步伐,

他面对这俗丽的一天

为何会这样渴望满眼;

他杀了他所爱的东西,

为此他只得以命相抵。

Yet each man kills the thing he loves

By each let this be heard,

Some do it with a bitter look,

Some with a flattering word,

The coward does it with a kiss,

The brave man with a sword!

可谁都在把所爱的杀死,

你不妨听听每人的方式

有人使用恶毒的尖眼,

有人使用阿谀的巧言,

懦夫使用轻轻的一吻,

勇汉使用尖利的刀刃!

Some kill their love when they are young,

And some when they are old;

Some strangle with the hands of Lust,

Some with the hands of Gold:

The kindest use a knife, because

The dead so soon grow cold.

有人毁所爱时还年少,

有人毁所爱时已年老;

有人用欲望之手扼杀,

有人靠金钱之手屠戮:

最心善的才使用利刀,

为的是死者快死快了。

Some love too little, some too long,

Some sell, and others buy;

Some do the deed with many tears,

And some without a sigh:

For each man kills the thing he loves,

Yet each man does not die.

有人爱得太深有人太浅,

有人用钱买有人把钱换;

有人毁所爱时泪水涟涟,

有人却用不着长吁短叹:

虽然谁都在把所爱毁掉,

却未必谁都把绞索来套。

He does not die a death of shame

On a day of dark disgrace,

Nor have a noose about his neck,

Nor a cloth upon his face,

Nor drop feet foremost through the floor

Into an empty place

在一个灰暗的羞耻之日

他死得却不是羞耻的死,

脖子上没有把绞索紧缚;

脸上也没有蒙一块黑布

双脚也无须首先垂落

在地板上设置的坑窝。【文心译】

除了蹲监狱之外,英国诗人还有其他方法可以摆脱爱德华时代颓废主义思潮的慵懒掌握。比方说有些人就在弗兰德斯的战壕里得到了解脱,另一些人——以威廉.巴特勒.叶芝为代表——的解脱方式则是最终成长起来。叶芝将会成为二十世纪最伟大的爱尔兰诗人之一,但是假如他这辈子仅仅写过《仙人歌》(A Faery Song)这种“凯尔特暮光风格”的爱德华时代应景之作,如今又有多少人还会记得他呢?

We who are old,old and gay,

O so old!

Thousands of years,thousands of years,

If all were told:

我们是年老的,老而快乐,

哦,如此年高!

数千年又数千年,

如下一切是否已说:

Give to these children ,new from the world,

Silence and love;

And the long dew-dropping hours of the night,

And the stars above:

给新生于世的孩子们,

宁静与爱;

和长夜露垂的辰光,

还有满天的星星:

Give to these children,new from the world,

Rest far from men.

Is anything better,anything better?

Tell us it then:

给新生于世的孩子们,

远离人类而安息。

还有比这更好、更好的吗?

那就告诉我们吧:

Us who are old,old and gay,

O so old!

Thousands of years,thousands of years,

If all were told.

我们这些年老的,老而快乐,

哦,如此年长!

数千年又数千年,

是否一切都已说了。【吴吟秋译】

叶芝无疑是第一流的诗人。甚至就连他在年轻时的诗作都展示了极大的潜力,尽管这些作品尚未挣脱维多利亚时代晚期与颓废派传统的桎梏。下文当中我们还要真正了解一下成熟起来的叶芝,但是就算他的早期作品也常能令人刮目相看。下面这首《茵梦湖岛》(The Lake Isle of Innisfree)早在1893年就已经问世,单论慵懒气质不亚于任何一部颓废派作品,并且同样热衷于描写细微的光影与色彩,但却丝毫不显病态。诗文当中自有一股西蒙斯乃至王尔德无法企及的魅力:

I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,

And a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made;

Nine bean-rows will I have there, a hive for the honey-bee,

And live alone in the bee-loud glade.

我就要动身走了,去茵纳斯弗岛.

搭起一个小屋子,筑起泥笆房;

支起九行云豆架.一排蜜蜂巢。

独个儿住着,荫阴下听蜂群歌唱。

And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow,

Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings;

There midnight’s all a glimmer, and noon a purple glow,

And evening full of the linnet’s wings.

我就会得到安宁,它徐徐下降,

从朝雾落到蟋蟀歌唱的地方;

午夜是一片闪亮,正午是一片紫光,

傍晚到处飞舞着红雀的翅膀。

I will arise and go now, for always night and day

I hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore;

While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements grey,

I hear it in the deep heart’s core.

我就要动身走了,因为我听到

那水声日日夜夜轻拍着湖滨;

不管我站在车行道或灰暗的人行道,

都在我心灵的深处听见这声音。【袁可嘉译】

帖:4529239 复 4344063
2020-06-17 22:50:33万年看客
靡靡之音与少数巨人2

以一人之力填充了众多英国诗选的叶芝当然不是英国人,但是严格来说鲁德亚德.吉卜林也不能算是英国人。他生在印度,从小学的是印地语,后来才学会了英语。童年时期他被送回英格兰中部地区,先是住在别人家里,然后又进入了寄宿学校。他非常厌恶这段经历,尽管理论上这个国家是他的“故乡”,但他在这里却总感到手足无措。成年之后他先是前往美国游历了一圈,然后在伦敦住了一阵,再然后又回到了美国。要不是因为卷入了一场激烈的政治争端,他原本很可能在美国定居终老。最终他还是会扎根在英格兰,栖身在一栋建于十七世纪的石砌住宅里。但是他在家里呆不住,动不动就会启程前往南美洲或者法国。他笔下最优秀的诗歌大多取材于英属印度。如果说年轻的吉卜林还有看上去能让他真正归属的地方,那就是英国陆军。

吉卜林毋庸置疑是大英帝国的诗人,但他也是个喜欢提问的诗人,很不耐烦明面上的简单回答。本书收录的所有诗人当中就属他的雄性气质最为浓厚。他很擅长模仿,但是只会模仿男性的声音。他的各项品质——勇气、决心与战友情谊——全都浸透了睾丸酮。他的婚姻并不算特别幸福。终其一生对他来说最重要的都是男性之间的友谊。

曾几何时,半数受过良好教育的英国家庭都会将吉卜林的作品摆在自家书架上——这些图书的版式往往不大,红皮革封皮,书脊上还烫着一个金色万字纹(这是吉卜林亲自挑选的符号,在印度是幸运的象征。还要过很久这个符号才会被德国反犹主义者们征用。等到希特勒上台掌权之后,年迈的吉卜林就要求新版作品撤掉了这个符号)。甚至直到今天他的形象依然没有从流行文化当中消失,因为迪士尼接手了他的儿童作品《丛林之书》,也因为他的名诗《如果》脍炙人口,最近刚刚被读者们投票评选为最受欢迎的英国诗歌。就连T.S.艾略特都是他的粉丝。但是自从二十世纪六十年代以来,吉卜林的人气一落千丈,被人们视为无可救药的白人至上主义者与帝国主义者。一贯毒舌的乔治.奥威尔就给吉卜林来了一记当头棒,认为他“大抵只会应付陈词滥调,不过鉴于我们生活在一个充斥着陈词滥调的世界里,他的大部分言论反而经受住了时间考验。与同时期更加‘开明’的言论相比,甚至就连他身上最糟糕的弊病看上去也没那么浅薄烦人了。”吉卜林确实挺喜欢说教,但是他也的确扩展了诗歌的取材范围,涵盖了旅行、工程学、历史、种族地理学等多个领域,这还不算他的军旅诗歌与宗教诗歌。下面这首《印度的圣诞节》(Christmas in India)是他的早期作品。笔者以为这首诗的知名度虽然不太高,但却充满了生动的观察与奔放的能量。如果我们想理解生活在英属印度是怎样的感受,这一类诗歌肯定很有帮助:

DIM dawn behind the tamarisks—the sky is saffron-yellow—

As the women in the village grind the corn,

And the parrots seek the riverside, each calling to his fellow

That the Day, the staring Eastern Day, is born.

Oh the white dust on the highway! Oh the stenches in the byway!

Oh the clammy fog that hovers over earth!

And at Home they’re making merry ’neath the white and scarlet berry—

What part have India’s exiles in their mirth?

朦亮的黎明显现在柽柳背后——藏红花一般金黄的天空,

村里的妇女们正忙着碾磨谷粒。

鹦鹉们纷纷飞向河边,每一只都发出招朋引伴的呼声,

那一天,明星高悬的东方之日,来到了这里。

哦,大路上的白尘! 哦,路边的恶臭难却!

哦,郁结在大地上空的浑浊雾气!

在本土,他们在洁白与绯红的浆果下欢呼雀跃,

客居印度之人在他们的欢笑声中可有位置?

Full day behind the tamarisks—the sky is blue and staring—

As the cattle crawl afield beneath the yoke,

And they bear One o’er the field-path, who is past all hope or caring,

To the ghat below the curling wreaths of smoke.

Call on Rama, going slowly, as ye bear a brother lowly—

Call on Rama—he may hear, perhaps, your voice!

With our hymn-books and our psalters we appeal to other altars,

And to-day we bid “good Christian men rejoice!”

柽柳树后的一整天——蔚蓝的天空将人间打量——

拉车老牛拖着重轭一步一步向前挪,

沿着田间小道,车上的远游人放弃了关切与希望,

不关心袅袅炊烟下的路程还剩几何。

向罗摩祈祷,慢慢地走,你承载着地位低下的兄弟——

向罗摩祈祷,也许祂能听到你的声音!

用我们的赞美诗书和圣歌,我们向其他祭坛呼吁,

今天我们祝愿“良善的基督徒们雀跃欢欣!”

High noon behind the tamarisks—the sun is hot above us—

As at Home the Christmas Day is breaking wan.

They will drink our healths at dinner—those who tell us how they love us,

And forget us till another year be gone!

Oh the toil that knows no breaking! Oh the Heimweh, ceaseless, aching!

Oh the black dividing Sea and alien Plain!

Youth was cheap—wherefore we sold it. Gold was good—we hoped to hold it,

And to-day we know the fulness of our gain.

柽柳树背后的正午时分——一轮烈日当头照高挂——

本土那边早已度过了圣诞当日的白昼。

晚宴时分他们会举杯祝我们健康——口口声声将我们满心牵挂,

然后在来年佳节以前都将我们抛在脑后!

哦,无止境的操劳!哦,思乡是无休止的痛苦!

哦,隔绝的黑色大海与异国的平原阡陌!

廉价的青春——我们将其售卖。宝贵的黄金——我们希望留住,

今天才知道我们的收获有多么丰硕。

Grey dusk behind the tamarisks—the parrots fly together—

As the sun is sinking slowly over Home;

And his last ray seems to mock us shackled in a lifelong tether.

That drags us back how’er so far we roam.

Hard her service, poor her payment—she in ancient, tattered raiment—

India, she the grim Stepmother of our kind.

If a year of life be lent her, if her temple’s shrine we enter,

The door is shut—we may not look behind.

灰色黄昏挂在柽柳背后,归巢的鹦鹉飞翔成群——

本土的太阳正在缓缓地落下山去,

最后一缕余晖似乎在嘲弄被毕生长索束缚的我们。

无论走得多远,都会被拖曳回到原地。

为她效力辛苦,她给的报酬微薄——她穿着古老的破旧衣衫,

印度,她是我们这类人的严苛继母。

如果我们借给她一年的生命,如果我们获准谒见她的寺庙神龛。

庙门已经关闭——回头再看也于事无补。

Black night behind the tamarisks—the owls begin their chorus —

As the conches from the temple scream and bray.

With the fruitless years behind us, and the hopeless years before us,

Let us honour, O my brother, Christmas Day!

Call a truce, then, to our labours—let us feast with friends and neighbours,

And be merry as the custom of our caste;

For if faint and forced the laughter, and if sadness follow after,

We are richer by one mocking Christmas past.

柽柳背后夜幕笼罩,猫头鹰开始了合唱呜咽

庙里传来了法螺的声嘶力竭。

身后是无果的岁月,眼前是无望的岁月,

我的兄弟,让我们庆祝圣诞节!

那么与我们的劳苦暂且休战——让我们和友邻畅享酒肉,

让欢乐成为我们的种姓的习俗。

如果笑声昏沉做作,如果悲伤紧随其后,

我们总还会因为嘲讽圣诞的过往而更加富足。

这首诗并没有多少雄赳赳气昂昂的架势,不是吗?吉卜林的同情心通常总会摆在大英帝国的实地建设者们这一边——士兵与工程师——而不是舒舒服服地待在本土的中产阶级那一边。爱德华时代的英国是个充斥着礼数的世界,但是吉卜林的诗歌却能捕捉到与礼貌二字不搭界的日常对话——例如下面这首至今读起来仍然扎人的《汤米》(Tommy):

I went into a public-'ouse to get a pint o' beer,

The publican 'e up an' sez, "We serve no red-coats here."

The girls be'ind the bar they laughed an' giggled fit to die,

I outs into the street again an' to myself sez I:

O it's Tommy this, an' Tommy that, an' "Tommy, go away";

But it's "Thank you, Mister Atkins", when the band begins to play,

The band begins to play, my boys, the band begins to play,

O it's "Thank you, Mister Atkins", when the band begins to play.

我去了一家酒馆想叫一杯啤酒滋润咽喉,

老板走过来说“穿红外套的家伙我们不伺候。”

吧台后边的姑娘们笑得差点断气,

我独自走回街头,心里暗打主意:

哦都说汤米这个,汤米那个,汤米少往跟前凑,

改口就说“感谢您阿特金斯先生”,*当军乐队开始演奏。

当军乐队开始演奏,哎呦,当军乐队开始演奏,

改口就说“感谢您阿特金斯先生”,当军乐队开始演奏。

*【汤米.阿特金斯(Tommy Atkins)是用来泛指英国陆军士兵的俚语。】

I went into a theatre as sober as could be,

They gave a drunk civilian room, but 'adn't none for me;

They sent me to the gallery or round the music-'alls,

But when it comes to fightin', Lord! they'll shove me in the stalls!

For it's Tommy this, an' Tommy that, an' "Tommy, wait outside";

But it's "Special train for Atkins" when the trooper's on the tide,

The troopship's on the tide, my boys, the troopship's on the tide,

O it's "Special train for Atkins" when the trooper's on the tide.

我走进剧院,全身不沾一丝酒气,

他们给醉汉开单间,却不让我进去。

他们说我要么买后排站票,要么就去唱曲园子取乐,

可真到打仗的时候,上帝啊!他们准得把我塞进特等座!

哦都说汤米这个,汤米那个,汤米你等在外面,

改口就说“阿特金斯的专列火车”,当运兵船即将离岸,

当运兵船即将离岸,哎呦,当运兵船即将离岸,

改口就说“阿特金斯的专列火车”,当运兵船即将离岸。

Yes, makin' mock o' uniforms that guard you while you sleep

Is cheaper than them uniforms, an' they're starvation cheap;

An' hustlin' drunken soldiers when they're goin' large a bit

Is five times better business than paradin' in full kit.

Then it's Tommy this, an' Tommy that, an' "Tommy, 'ow's yer soul?"

But it's "Thin red line of 'eroes" when the drums begin to roll,

The drums begin to roll, my boys, the drums begin to roll,

O it's "Thin red line of 'eroes" when the drums begin to roll.

行吧,笑话穿军装的人们——尽管他们保护你们安睡——

总比自己穿军装容易,同样容易的是让他们挨饿受罪。

冲着酒后失态的士兵大肆讥讽起哄,

五倍更胜于列队行进全副披挂沉重。

哦都说汤米这个,汤米那个,汤米你灵魂安不安?*

改口就说“纤细红线上的英雄”,*一旦战鼓敲得欢。

一旦战鼓敲得欢,哎呦,一旦战鼓敲得欢,

改口就说“纤细红线上的英雄”,一旦战鼓敲得欢。

*【“灵魂安不安”(How is your soul)是基督教福音派成员——尤其是救世军成员——在酒馆劝人戒酒时的开场白。】

*【典出1854年克里米亚战争期间的巴拉克拉瓦之战(Battle of Balaclava),战斗当中英军指挥官将部队排成两列队形而非常规的四列队形,故有“纤细”一说。】

We aren't no thin red 'eroes, nor we aren't no blackguards too,

But single men in barricks, most remarkable like you;

An' if sometimes our conduck isn't all your fancy paints,

Why, single men in barricks don't grow into plaster saints;

While it's Tommy this, an' Tommy that, an' "Tommy, fall be'ind",

But it's "Please to walk in front, sir", when there's trouble in the wind,

There's trouble in the wind, my boys, there's trouble in the wind,

O it's "Please to walk in front, sir", when there's trouble in the wind.

我们不是纤细红线上的英雄,也不是黑袍黑心的恶棍,

只是军营里的无数个人,并不比你们更容易辨认。

如果说我们的言行偶尔让一厢情愿的你们失望,

总不见得军营里的每个人都能化身圣徒的塑像;

哦都说汤米这个,汤米那个,汤米你往后面让让,

改口就说“先生请您先走”,一旦听说要打仗。

一旦听说要打仗,哎呦,一旦听说要打仗,

改口就说“先生请您先走”,一旦听说要打仗。

You talk o' better food for us, an' schools, an' fires, an' all:

We'll wait for extry rations if you treat us rational.

Don't mess about the cook-room slops, but prove it to our face

The Widow's Uniform is not the soldier-man's disgrace.

For it's Tommy this, an' Tommy that, an' "Chuck him out, the brute!"

But it's "Saviour of 'is country" when the guns begin to shoot;

An' it's Tommy this, an' Tommy that, an' anything you please;

An' Tommy ain't a bloomin' fool -- you bet that Tommy sees!

你们说什么要为我们、为学校、为消防队改善伙食,*

我们等着加餐那天,假如你们态度诚恳老实;

别去扒拉伙房泔水,有意见当面提又不跌份,

当兵之人身穿寡妇的制服凭啥要觉得寒碜?*

哦都说汤米这个,汤米那个,把这个粗汉扔出门!

改口就说“国家的救星”,一旦枪炮横飞不认人。

哦都说汤米这个,汤米那个,反正爱说啥你们随便,

可是别以为汤米缺心眼——汤米什么都看得见!

*【曾任战争大臣的爱德华.卡德维尔(Edward Cardwell)在本诗创作之前十年曾推行过改善士兵伙食与住宿待遇的改革,但并不彻底。1890年《汤米》发表时士兵待遇依然是社会热议话题。】

*【“寡妇”即维多利亚女王,因在阿尔伯特亲王去世后长期服丧而得此称呼。吉卜林另有讽刺诗《温莎的寡妇》(The Widow at Windsor)。】

这首诗以及描写军队里执行军法处决的《丹尼.迪福》(Danny Deever)都是广受欢迎的好诗。但是吉卜林的想象世界十分宽广,不仅涵盖了他自己所处的时代,还深切追溯了历史。在下面这首《麦克安德鲁的礼赞》(McAndrew's Hymn)当中,吉卜林则将航海工程师当成了主人公。麦克安德鲁先生是一位苏格兰加尔文派信徒,诗文内容是他在锅炉房里的沉思。诗人一方面采用了大量技术细节,另一方面又娴熟地保持了诗歌的格律形式:

Lord, Thou hast made this world below the shadow of a dream,

An', taught by time, I tak' it so---exceptin' always Steam.

From coupler-flange to spindle-guide I see Thy Hand, O God---

Predestination in the stride o' yon connectin'-rod.

John Calvin might ha' forged the same---enorrmous, certain, slow---

Ay, wrought it in the furnace-flame---my "Institutio."

I cannot get my sleep to-night; old bones are hard to please;

I'll stand the middle watch up here---alone wi' God an' these

My engines, after ninety days o' rase an' rack an' strain

Through all the seas of all Thy world, slam-bangin' home again.

Slam-bang too much---they knock a wee---the crosshead-gibs are loose,

But thirty thousand mile o' sea has gied them fair excuse....

主啊,你创造的世界受到梦境阴影的遮蔽。

多年来我也如此认为……只不过我的世界充满蒸汽。

从耦合法兰到主轴导轨,上帝啊,我看到了您的操纵——

所谓命运就是连接杆的大踏步传送。

巨大,坚定,缓慢——约翰.加尔文可能也是如此铸就,

是啊,出自这熔炉烈焰——属于我的“机构”。

今晚我注定无眠,这些老骨头很难满意。

我要在午夜时分值守——陪伴我的只有上帝。

我的引擎,经过九十天的煎熬磨练,

穿越您的世界里的全部海域,轰隆作响地回到家门前面。

碰撞得太猛——碰撞得有点松动——需要紧一紧十字头扁栓。

但是这点小毛病无伤大雅,毕竟三万里航行之后依然平安……

帖:4529240 复 4344063
2020-06-17 22:51:21万年看客
靡靡之音与少数巨人2-1

英国在十九世纪的海上优势吹胀了一个幅员几千万平方英里的帝国,其中居住着四亿新附臣民。在帝国的正式疆域之外,世界各地从阿根廷到中国的大片地区也在经济层面上受到了英国的实际主宰。这样一份其兴也忽焉的功业必然伴随着代价,代价之一就是志得意满的种族主义在英国国民当中广泛传播了开来。英国人开始认为自己是高人一等的族裔,比起其他民族更成熟且更有道德。下面这首吉卜林代表作《白人的负担》(The White Man’s Burden)——创作于1899年,为的是庆祝美军占领菲律宾——似乎彰显了这种文化与种族优越感。今天这段诗文读起来确实很冒犯人,但是仔细品味一下就会发现诗人的态度远非兴高采烈:

Take up the White Man's burden—

Send forth the best ye breed—

Go bind your sons to exile

To serve your captives' need;

To wait in heavy harness,

On fluttered folk and wild—

Your new-caught, sullen peoples,

Half-devil and half-child.

肩负起白人的重担——

派出你们最优秀的后裔——

打发你们的子孙远赴异邦,

将手下俘虏的需求服侍;

身上套着沉重的挽具,

等待急躁而凶恶的蛮子,

刚被你擒获,满面阴沉,

恶魔一般刁猾,孩童一般幼稚。

Take up the White Man's burden—

In patience to abide,

To veil the threat of terror

And check the show of pride;

By open speech and simple,

An hundred times made plain,

To seek another's profit,

And work another's gain.

肩负起白人的重担——

保持耐心不急不躁,

掩饰好恐怖的威胁,

克制住表面的骄傲;

用公开而简单的语言,

不惜重复百遍讲清楚,

为他们的利益而寻觅,

为他们的收获而劳碌。

Take up the White Man's burden—

The savage wars of peace—

Fill full the mouth of Famine

And bid the sickness cease;

And when your goal is nearest

The end for others sought,

Watch Sloth and heathen Folly

Bring all your hope to nought.

肩负起白人的重担——

平息野蛮人的战乱——

填饱饥荒的血盆大口,

奋力将瘟疫驱散;

当你的目标即将实现,

为他人的工作将告终,

小心懒惰愚昧的异教徒

使你所有的希望落空。

Take up the White Man's burden—

No tawdry rule of kings,

But toil of serf and sweeper—

The tale of common things.

The ports ye shall not enter,

The roads ye shall not tread,

Go make them with your living,

And mark them with your dead.

肩负起白人的重担——

不能靠庸碌的国王,

而要靠农奴和清道夫——

日复一日的操劳奔忙。

你永无机会进入那些港口,

你永无机会踏上那些道路,

用你的毕生将它们建造,

用你的死亡为它们标注。

Take up the White Man's burden—

And reap his old reward:

The blame of those ye better,

The hate of those ye guard—

The cry of hosts ye humour

(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:—

"Why brought ye us from bondage,

Our loved Egyptian night?"

肩负起白人的重担——

获得那古老的报酬;

不如你们的人将你们责怪,

被守护的人视你们为仇雠——

你们哄着成群的愚氓

(啊,慢慢来!)朝着光明移动——

他们却哭喊“干嘛要解脱我们的束缚?

我们热爱埃及的夜幕沉重。”

Take up the White Man's burden—

Ye dare not stoop to less—

Nor call too loud on Freedom

To cloak your weariness;

By all ye cry or whisper,

By all ye leave or do,

The silent, sullen peoples

Shall weigh your Gods and you.

肩负起白人的重担——

绝不能放松标准偷懒怕累,

也不要大声呼唤自由,

借此掩盖你的厌倦疲惫;

你的每一声高呼低语,

你的所作所为,你留下的印迹,

那些沉默、阴郁的人们

将会用来衡量你与你的上帝。

Take up the White Man's burden—

Have done with childish days—

The lightly proffered laurel,

The easy, ungrudged praise.

Comes now, to search your manhood

Through all the thankless years,

Cold, edged with dear-bought wisdom,

The judgment of your peers!

肩负起白人的重担——

童稚的日子已经过去——

再没有轻松献上的桂冠,

再没有口服心服的赞誉。

来吧,唤起你的男子汉气概

挺过那些得不到感谢的年岁,

忍受寒冷与教训深刻的经验,

还有对你评头论足的同辈!【参考了企鹅君网友的译文】

吉卜林是一位宗教层面上的悲观主义者,因此没有陷入头脑简单的军国主义窠臼。最明显的例子就是下面这首《曲终人散》(Recessional),创作于1897年维多利亚女王登基六十周年。如此举国欢庆的时刻呼唤着雄赳赳气昂昂、不要过于复杂的作品。可是吉卜林偏不乐意从命:

God of our fathers, known of old,

Lord of our far-flung battle-line,

Beneath whose awful hand we hold

Dominion over palm and pine —

Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,

Lest we forget — lest we forget!

我们先祖自古信奉的上帝,

我们迤远战线的主,

祂那可畏的巨手覆压下去,

从棕榈到寒松的疆土;

主万军之神啊,暂且莫要将我们舍弃,

恐怕我们忘记——恐怕我们忘记!

The tumult and the shouting dies;

The captains and the kings depart;

Still stands Thine ancient sacrifice,

An humble and a contrite heart.

Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,

Lest we forget—lest we forget!

喧嚣和呼喊都已静隐;

首领和君王全部消亡;

您所喜悦的古老祭品

依然是谦卑痛悔的心房。

主万军之神啊,暂且莫要将我们舍弃,

恐怕我们忘记——恐怕我们忘记!

Far-called, our navies melt away;

On dune and headland sinks the fire:

Lo, all our pomp of yesterday

Is one with Nineveh and Tyre!

Judge of nations, spare us yet,

Lest we forget—lest we forget!

远去了,我们的军舰渐渐隐没;

海嵎和沙丘上的火光黯淡;

啊,我们昨天所有的一时烜赫

与尼尼微和推罗同归幽暗!

万国的审判者,还求饶恕我们的罪孽,

恐怕我们忘却——恐怕我们忘却!

If, drunk with sight of power, we loose

Wild tongues that have not Thee in awe,

Such boasting as the Gentiles use,

Or lesser breeds without the law—

Lord God of Hosts, be with us yet,

Lest we forget—lest we forget!

如果我们沉醉于眼前的权力,

对您失去敬畏,口舌放肆如飞,

就像外邦人那样胡吹大气,

又好像那些没有律法的贱胚 —

主万军之神啊,暂且莫要将我们舍弃,

恐怕我们忘记——恐怕我们忘记!

For heathen heart that puts her trust

In reeking tube and iron shard —

All valiant dust that builds on dust,

And guarding, calls not Thee to guard —

For frantic boast and foolish word.

Thy mercy on Thy people, Lord!

因为外邦人的心只会托付

给呛人的烟囱与钢铁甲壳,

在尘土上卖力兴建尘土的造物,

然后终日提防,却不求您照料——

太多愚昧话语,还有疯狂夸耀,

求您怜悯,主啊!您的子民向您求告!【译者不详,有修改】

假使吉卜林当真是个军国主义者,那么第一次世界大战——他本人全心投入了战争努力,自愿成为了英国政府的宣传员——可谓一场可怖的惩罚。他心爱的儿子杰克自愿参军,不过因为视力不佳而被拒绝。在老父亲的安排下,杰克加入了爱尔兰卫队,然后就在1915年十八岁生日过后不久死在了卢斯之战的战场上,死状极其可怖,满脸血肉糜烂。吉卜林的《我的男孩杰克》(My Boy Jack)可能正是为了抒发自己对于儿子的结局的悲恸与悔恨(这首诗的悼念对象也有可能只是一位泛指的坠海水手)。不过到了战争结束时,吉卜林又创作了一首《死床》(A Death Bed)。这首诗体现了全能的国家权力——在诗中由德国皇帝来体现——导致了怎样毁灭性的后果,具体来说就是战场上的各种惨状。自从这首诗问世以后,我们再谈到伟大的英国战争诗人就必须算上吉卜林。他在诗歌当中设想了德皇身患喉癌奄奄一息的场景:

"This is the State above the Law.

The State exists for the State alone."

[This is a gland at the back of the jaw,

And an answering lump by the collar-bone.]

“国家凌驾于一切法律之上,

国家仅仅为国家自身而存在。”*

(这是一个腺体,在下颌背面生长,

在锁骨附近相应地凸起一个硬块。)

*【尽管德皇如此宣称自己掌握绝对权力,但是在1918年11月停战日之前两天的9号他就被迫退位了。】

Some die shouting in gas or fire;

Some die silent, by shell and shot.

Some die desperate, caught on the wire;

Some die suddenly. This will not.

有人死于炮弹枪弹,死得安安静静,

有人死于毒气烈火,死得惨叫不断,

有人进退不得,挂在铁丝网上送命,

有人死得突兀。而这一位死得麻烦。

"Regis suprema voluntas Lex"

[It will follow the regular course of—throats.]

Some die pinned by the broken decks,

Some die sobbing between the boats.

“君主的意志就是最高的法典”

(按照一般进程——将会从咽喉扩散)

有人惨遭刺穿,死于破碎的甲板,

有人死在船与船之间,被海水泡烂。

Some die eloquent, pressed to death

By the sliding trench as their friends can hear.

Some die wholly in half a breath.

Some—give trouble for half a year.

有人被迫走向死亡,死前壮语豪言,

在战壕里穿梭的朋友们都听到消息,

有人在半次呼吸之间就迎来永眠,

有人——折腾了别人半年还不肯咽气。

"There is neither Evil nor Good in life.

Except as the needs of the State ordain."

[Since it is rather too late for the knife,

All we can do is mask the pain.]

“在生命之中无所谓善良邪恶,

全看是否听命于国家采取行动。”

(即便现在开刀也实在太迟了,

我们能做的只剩下掩饰疼痛。)

Some die saintly in faith and hope—

Some die thus in a prison-yard—

Some die broken by rape or the rope;

Some die easily. This dies hard.

有人死时宛如圣徒,胸怀信与望——

有人确实就这样死在监狱庭院——

有人死时残破不堪,惨遭强暴捆绑,

有人死得轻松,此人死得实在麻烦。

"I will dash to pieces who bar my way.

Woe to the traitor!Woe to the weak!"

[Let him write what he wishes to say.

It tires him out if he tries to speak.]

“我要把挡我去路的人撞成碎块。

叛徒活该悲惨!弱者活该啜泣!”

(让他把他想说的话写下来。

勉强讲话只会使他空耗体力。)

Some die quietly.Some abound

In loud self-pity.Others spread

Bad morale through the cots around . . .

This is a type that is better dead.

有人死得平静。有人喉头塞满

自怨自怜。也有人在临死之际

恶声恶气,将病榻四周侵染……

这种人死了反而更有裨益。

"The war was forced on me by my foes.

All that I sought was the right to live."

[Don't be afraid of a triple dose;

The pain will neutralize half we give.

“我的敌人将这场战争强加给我,

我所追求的仅仅是生存的权利。”

(三倍剂量而已,没什么大不了的;

疼痛将会抵消一半麻药的效力。)

Here are the needles.See that he dies

While the effects of the drug endure . . .

What is the question he asks with his eyes?—

Yes, All-Highest, to God, be sure.

(针管在这里,直到他死去那一刻

麻醉药的效果都要一直持续……

看,他正用眼神示意,想要问什么?——

是的陛下,您一定能见到上帝。)【黎幺译,有修改】

但是我们肯定就这样告别吉卜林而不提到他的最著名作品《如果》(If)。任何关于英国国民性的描述都必定会提到这首洋溢着基督教坚忍主义的作品——正是这首诗传达的理念或者说品性建立了大英帝国。这首诗原创于1910年,原本描写的是一位莽撞的雇佣兵林德尔.斯塔尔.詹姆森。吉卜林很欣赏此人,不过布尔战争的爆发也有他从中挑衅的责任。尽管如此,这首诗依然打动了全世界千百万读者,印度人甚至认为这首诗完美体现了《博伽梵歌》的精神。诗歌的体例是一位父亲向儿子提出建议:

If you can keep your head when all about you

Are losing theirs and blaming it on you;

If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you,

But make allowance for their doubting too;

If you can wait and not be tired by waiting,

Or being lied about, don’t deal in lies,

Or being hated don’t give way to hating,

And yet don’t look too good, nor talk too wise;

If you can dream—and not make dreams your master;

If you can think—and not make thoughts your aim;

If you can meet with Triumph and Disaster

And treat those two impostors just the same;

If you can bear to hear the truth you’ve spoken

Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools,

Or watch the things you gave your life to, broken,

And stoop and build’ em up with worn out tools;

If you can make one heap of all your winnings

And risk it on one turn of pitch and toss

And lose, and start again at your beginnings

And never breathe a word about your loss;

If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew

To serve your turn long after they are gone,

And so hold on when there is nothing in you

Except the Will which says to them: “Hold on!”

If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue,

Or walk with Kings—nor lose the common touch;

If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you;

If all men count with you, but none too much;

If you can fill the unforgiving minute

With sixty seconds’ worth of distance run——

Yours is the Earth and everything that’s in it,

And—which is more—you’ll be a Man, my son!

如果你能保持理性,当你

身边所有人都已昏乱,并为此指责你;

如果你能信任自我,当所有人都质疑你——

但还要给他人的质疑留下余地;

如果你能等待,且不会倦于等待,

即使被谎言包围,也不亲口炮制谎言,

即使受人憎恨,也不让憎恨侵入胸怀。

还有,切勿故作姿态,尤忌出口皆箴言。

如果你能做梦,且不受梦的支使,

如果你能思想,且不止步于思想,

如果你能在功名与不幸到来时,

将两者同样视为虚妄的幻象,

如果你能承受,你说出的真相被

卑鄙地扭曲,借以诱使愚人中计,

或者目睹你置于生命中心的事物遭到粉碎,

只会默然躬身,操着残破的工具重新建立。

如果你能留住每一次你赢得的,积少成多,

也能冒险孤注一掷,押上所有积蓄,

输了就重新开始,一次次反复来过,

呼吸之间,从未流露有关失败的语句;

如果你能驱策你的心,你的神经和体力,

坚守你的岗位,当人们早已离去,

一直守着,直到所有一切都将你遗弃,

除了你的意志一直告诉它们:“坚持下去!”

如果你能与平民聊天,而不降低你的品格,

或者与君王同行,也不丢失你的本色,

如果无论敌人或是亲密的朋友,都不能伤你分毫,

如果所有人对于你都有价值,但没有谁过于重要;

如果你对无情飞逝的每一分钟,

都报以六十秒的长跑步伐,绝不袖手闲站,

那么这世界将属于你,万事万物都在其中,

而且——更重要的是——我的孩子,你将成为一名男子汉!【黎幺译,有修改】

帖:4529241 复 4344063
2020-07-13 06:10:35万年看客
靡靡之音与少数巨人3

与其他大多数乔治王时代的英国诗人不同,吉卜林将目光转向了紧接地气的街头口语,因此他的作品才如此清新。不过他并不是唯一这么做的诗人。出身苏格兰的约翰.戴维森是一名福音派教士的儿子,在格林诺克的高地人学院接受了理科教育,早年在苏格兰教书,后来搬到了伦敦。他的政治立场几乎与吉卜林完全相反,他对于科学的兴趣也赋予了他不同寻常的见解——他描写雪与天气的诗歌与其他同类型诗歌迥然不同——他与吉卜林的相同之处则在于两人都具有撰写歌谣的本能,也都听到了十九世纪末期英国民众的实际说话方式。以下是他的代表作《每周三十先令》(Thirty Bob a Week),诗中悲叹了一位伦敦小职员的日常生活。毋庸置疑,狄更斯笔下的一干人物正是此人的祖辈。像他这样的小人物在当时的小说里倒是很常见,可是在诗歌当中露面的机会就很少了。主人公慨叹自己既无天赋也无财富,只能终日蹉跎。他的形象像极了百余年后终日加班的九九六一族,但是内心却依然潜藏着几分傲气:

I couldn't touch a stop and turn a screw,

And set the blooming world a-work for me,

Like such as cut their teeth -- I hope, like you --

On the handle of a skeleton gold key;

I cut mine on a leek, which I eat it every week:

I'm a clerk at thirty bob as you can see.

我不能随意扭转通止开关

就让着繁华世界为我运作周旋;

有些人生来——希望你也是如此这般——

就叼着金质万能钥匙,不用操心金钱;

我生来就叼着洋葱,我每周的饭餐,

因为我是个周薪三十先令的文员。

But I don't allow it's luck and all a toss;

There's no such thing as being starred and crossed;

It's just the power of some to be a boss,

And the bally power of others to be bossed;

I face the music, sir; you bet I ain't a cur;

Strike me lucky if I don't believe I'm lost!

但我不允许抛硬币将命运决定,

不存在什么时运不济命犯星象;

有些人凭借能力发号施令,

当差卖力则是其他人的力量;

我不是杂种劣犬,我要直面困境,

我不相信失败,日后必然兴旺。

For like a mole I journey in the dark,

A-travelling along the underground

From my Pillar'd Halls and broad Suburbean Park,

To come the daily dull official round;

And home again at night with my pipe all alight,

A-scheming how to count ten bob a pound.

就像鼹鼠,我在黑暗中往来,

穿梭在地下每天两次;

从我那位于市郊的豪宅

每天来到沉闷的办公室;

夜晚下班叼着烟斗一路苦捱,

盘算着如何将一先令掰成两半度日。

And it's often very cold and very wet,

And my misses stitches towels for a hunks;

And the Pillar'd Halls is half of it to let--

Three rooms about the size of travelling trunks.

And we cough, my wife and I, to dislocate a sigh,

When the noisy little kids are in their bunks.

天气总是冰冷又湿漉漉,

给可怜鬼缝毛巾的是我婆娘;

我家宅邸与另一户合租,

旅行箱大小的是我家三间房;

老婆和我假装咳嗽,不肯将叹息发出,

乱叫唤的小家伙们已经上床。

But you never hear her do a growl or whine,

For she's made of flint and roses, very odd;

And I've got to cut my meaning rather fine,

Or I'd blubber, for I'm made of greens and sod:

So p'r'haps we are in Hell for all that I can tell,

And lost and damn'd and served up hot to God.

但是你从来不会听到她怨天怨地,

她是由燧石与玫瑰共同造就;

我也要平静地将各项开销减去,

否则就要乱说,因为我是由蔬菜与泥土拼凑;

所以就我看来我们似乎身在地狱,

趁热被端到上帝面前,失落且身负诅咒。

I ain't blaspheming, Mr. Silver-tongue;

I'm saying things a bit beyond your art:

Of all the rummy starts you ever sprung,

Thirty bob a week's the rummiest start!

With your science and your books and your the'ries about spooks,

Did you ever hear of looking in your heart?

我可没有亵渎神灵,您巧舌如白银,

对于您的技艺而言我可能话说得太宽;

您遇到过的所有困苦艰辛,

都不如只拿三十先令就得干满七天;

纵然您懂科学,您博览群书,您还会做法召魂,

但是您可曾检视过自己的心肝?

I didn't mean your pocket, Mr., no:

I mean that having children and a wife,

With thirty bob on which to come and go,

Isn't dancing to the tabor and the fife:

When it doesn't make you drink, by Heaven! it makes you think,

And notice curious items about life.

我可没说困难在于您的钱包,您只会说不,

我是说问题在于要养活孩子与老婆;

拿着区区三十先令开支用度,

可不比随着小鼓笛子起舞婀娜;

借酒浇愁之余,天哪,您一定会搜肠刮肚,

注意到贫困日常当中的各种没辙。

I step into my heart and there I meet

A god-almighty devil singing small,

Who would like to shout and whistle in the street,

And squelch the passers flat against the wall;

If the whole world was a cake he had the power to take,

He would take it, ask for more, and eat them all.

我步入我的心中,在那里遇到

一位强大如同神灵的魔鬼正在唱歌;

它肯定很乐意上街狂呼乱叫吹口哨,

将过路人拍成肉泥往墙上泼;

假如全世界是个蛋糕,它必定抢走吞掉,

倘若它有这力量,吃完了还要更多。

And I meet a sort of simpleton beside,

The kind that life is always giving beans;

With thirty bob a week to keep a bride

He fell in love and married in his teens:

At thirty bob he stuck; but he knows it isn't luck:

He knows the seas are deeper than tureens.

我还在魔鬼身边看到一个白痴傻兮兮,

生活曾经三番两次将他教训;

凭着每周三十先令他居然也敢娶妻,

少年时就忙不迭地恋爱结婚;

从此与三十先令为伍,但他知道这不是运气,

他知道大海要比盛满饭菜的汤盆更深。

And the god-almighty devil and the fool

That meet me in the High Street on the strike,

When I walk about my heart a-gathering wool,

Are my good and evil angels if you like.

And both of them together in every kind of weather

Ride me like a double-seated bike.

大能的魔鬼与白痴傻呵呵,

在大马路上拦住了忙着赚钱的我,

当时我正在白日梦游迷迷瞪瞪。

他们是我的善恶天使,倒不妨说

他们俩通力合作,无论下雨刮风,

驾驭我好像蹬一辆双人自行车。

That's rough a bit and needs its meaning curled.

But I have a high old hot un in my mind --

A most engrugious notion of the world,

That leaves your lightning 'rithmetic behind:

I give it at a glance when I say 'There ain't no chance,

Nor nothing of the lucky-lottery kind.'

上文有点粗糙,需要提炼一下意义,

但是我还有另一个有趣的想法——

可谓是全世界最夸张的主意,

远远抛开你那飞快的算法:

我瞥一眼就说“根本就谈不到运气,

谁相信机会谁就是在犯傻。”

And it's this way that I make it out to be:

No fathers, mothers, countres, climates -- none;

Not Adam was responsible for me,

Nor society, nor systems, nary one:

A little sleeping seed, I woke -- I did, indeed --

A million years before the blooming sun.

在我看来就是这样的情况,

无论父亲,母亲,国家、气候——一概与我无缘,

亚当从未将对于我的责任扛在身上,

无论社会,无论体制,与我全无牵连:

我这颗沉睡种子刚刚苏醒——确实是这样——

早在太阳发光之前一百万年。

I woke because I thought the time had come;

Beyond my will there was no other cause;

And everywhere I found myself at home,

Because I chose to be the thing I was;

And in whatever shape of mollusc or of ape

I always went according to the laws.

我醒来是因为时辰已至,

并无其他原因在我的意愿之外;

无论在哪里我都感觉自在惬意,

因为我决定自己是怎样的存在;

无论成为何等猿猴或者蛤蜊,

我的行为都不会将律法败坏。

I was the love that chose my mother out;

I joined two lives and from the union burst;

My weakness and my strength without a doubt

Are mine alone for ever from the first:

It's just the very same with a difference in the name

As 'Thy will be done.' You say it if you durst!

我就是母爱,从万千人中选中我的母亲,

是我让两条生命交汇,我的爆发源自两者结合;

我的弱点与我的力量全都毫无疑问

从永久的开端就都由我自己选择;

改换称谓之后的同一句经文,

“愿您意旨得行”,我看你可敢妄动口舌!

They say it daily up and down the land

As easy as you take a drink, it's true;

But the difficultest go to understand,

And the difficultest job a man can do,

Is to come it brave and meek with thirty bob a week,

And feel that that's the proper thing for you.

他们说每天来去往返步履平定

就像小酌一杯那样简单,这倒没错;

但是最难以理解的人生路径

与人所能承担的最困难工作,

就是勇敢或温顺地只拿每周三十先令,

并且真心觉得日子就该这么过。

It's a naked child against a hungry wolf;

It's playing bowls upon a splitting wreck;

It's walking on a string across a gulf

With millstones fore-and-aft about your neck;

But the thing is daily done by many and many a one;

And we fall, face forward, fighting, on the deck.

就好比赤裸的婴儿面对饿狼凶恶,

又好比打保龄球,哪怕球道大张裂口;

还好比胸前背后各自挂着一盘石磨,

不顾脚下深渊万丈也要在钢丝上行走;

但是许多人日复一日都这么做,

于是我们面朝前倒在甲板上,刀枪死不离手。

在全诗结尾,我们再次回到了威廉.布莱克的领域,不过缺少了他的超自然体系——戴维森主张得是心肠刚硬的唯物坚忍主义。只要多看几首他的诗作,读者们想必不会对他投水自尽的结局感到惊讶。二十世纪苏格兰诗人休.麦克迪米德曾经写过一段极其动人的诗文来纪念戴维森。奉行不可知论并且对科学兴趣浓厚的戴维森是日后诸多英国诗坛潮流的先驱。就像吉卜林一样,他的观察力也很敏锐。以下诗文节选自他的《流浪者》(A Loafer):

I hang about the streets all day,

At night I hang about;

I sleep a little when I may,

But rise betimes the morning's scout;

For through the year I always hear

Afar, aloft, a ghostly shout.

我整天在游走在街头巷尾,

晚上也在街头游荡;

有机会就睡一小会

然后就起身,一旦晨光放亮;

一年到头我都能听见

鬼魂似的喊叫来自高天之上。

My clothes are worn to threads and loops;

My skin shows here and there ;

About my face like seaweed droops

My tangled beard, my tangled hair;

From cavernous and shaggy brows

My stony eyes untroubled stare.

褴褛破烂是我的衣服,

这里那里都露着皮肉;

宛如水草垂落遮蔽面目,

一缕缕须发满是污垢;

我眼窝深陷,眉头纠结,

但眼神却坚定而又通透。

I move from eastern wretchedness

Through Fleet Street and the Strand;

And as the pleasant people press

I touch them softly with my hand,

Perhaps I know that still I go

Alive about a living land.

我从惨淡的城市东部

将舰队街与斯特兰大道穿过;

好人们督促我赶快开路,

我抚摸他们,动作多么柔弱;

或许我知道我还能前行

在生活的土地上姑且活着。

戴维森与同时代诗人的最大不同在于他坚持采用科学视角看待世界,而爱德华时代也确实是科学知识首次面向公众普及的时代。维多利亚时代的技术突破、基础物理定律以及进化与化学领域的知识通过中学与大学课堂广泛传播。走在前面的人们——例如H.G.威尔斯这样的流行小说家——都认为科学知识是充分教育的基础。但是对于此时依然躺在中世纪田园牧歌当中打滚的英国诗坛主流来说,科学究竟会造成什么影响呢?戴维森的《咏雪》(Snow)仅就文学价值而言不算特别成功,但却是以全新视角观察自然界的一次精彩尝试:

Who affirms that crystals are alive?'

I affirm it, let who will deny:

Crystals are engendered, wax and thrive,

Wane and wither; I have seen them die.

晶体是否活着,谁能肯定?

我能肯定,看谁能说个不字:

晶体孕育而生,绽放生命

以及衰落枯萎,我见过它们死去。

Trust me, masters, crystals have their day,

Eager to attain the perfect norm,

Lit with purpose, potent to display

Facet, angle, colour, beauty, form.

相信我,先生们,晶体也曾一时光耀,

坚决要遵循完美的规格,

被目的点亮,彰显自然奇妙,

美丽的琢面、角度、形态、色泽。

Water-crystals need for flower and root

Sixty clear degrees, no less, no more;

Snow, so fickle, still in this acute

Angle thinks, and learns no other lore:

水的结晶需要绽放花瓣,

固守六十度角,不少不多;

雪花虽然性情飞扬多变,

依然念想这一锐角,不容分说

Such its life, and such its pleasure is,

Such its art and traffic, such its gain,

Evermore in new conjunctions this

Admirable angle to maintain.

这就是它的生活,这就是它的愉悦

这就是它的交通、收获与艺术,

越来越多地与六十度角相接,

维持这最可钦佩的角度。

Crystalcraft in every flower and flake

Snow exhibits, of the welkin free:

Crystalline are crystals for the sake,

All and singular, of crystalry.

每一片雪花的结晶技艺

都由摆脱天空的落雪呈现:

所有的晶体全都透亮清丽,

无论是全部还是单独每一片。

Yet does every crystal of the snow

Individualize, a seedling sown

Broadcast, but instinct with power to grow

Beautiful in beauty of its own.

然而是否漫天飞雪当中的每一片晶体

单独挑出来都是种子,被播撒下去

四方散布,独具特色地生生不已,

每一片都有属于自己的美丽。

Every flake with all its prongs and dints

Burns ecstatic as a new-lit star:

Men are not more diverse, finger prints

More dissimilar than snow-flakes are.

每一片雪花都凹凸有致

好比星辰点亮光芒无穷:

恰与世间千人千面相似,

就像指纹那样互不相同。

Worlds of men and snow endure, increase,

Woven of power and passion to defy

Time and travail: only races cease,

Individual men and crystals die.

人与雪的世界忍耐与增生,

编织了力量与激情,以此悖逆

时间与辛劳:唯有种族才会告终,

唯有单独的人与晶体才会逝去。

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