主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

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2020-03-25 04:40:17
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考文垂.帕特摩尔觉得是基督教信仰拯救他脱离了苦境。他在后半生与另一位罗马天主教诗人成为了密友,此人终生未婚,他的作品堪称是英语诗坛最重要的宗教诗歌,足以与亨利.沃恩以及T.S.艾略特相提并论。这位杰拉德.曼利.霍普金斯就像帕特摩尔一样出身于埃塞克斯的一户中产家庭,起初想当画家。他的父亲是一位略有名气的诗人兼记者,全家人都是虔诚的宗教信徒,尽管信得不是天主教而是圣公会。霍普金斯在牛津大学受到了盎格鲁天主教的影响,最终改换门庭并且成为了一名耶稣会神父。他的转变并非个别现象——在十九世纪五六十年代,许多严肃认真的国教会信徒都在红衣主教曼宁的引导下转向了罗马,其中就包括了负责英国议会大厦重建工作的建筑师奥古斯塔斯.普金。

霍普金斯总是具有极端苦行的倾向。根据史料分析,他几乎肯定是个一辈子都没敢出柜的男同,因此才会热切奉行守贞与甘于清贫的天主教誓言,以此缓解内心的折磨。他的诗歌节律犹如一触即发的机簧,每一行诗都具有严格数量的音步。在打头的重读音节之后必定跟着若干模糊的轻读音节,从而模仿正常说话的节律。这种节律在霍普金斯的笔下或者说口中产生了劈头盖脸动摇神智的效果。例如约翰.多恩与乔治.赫伯特这样的早期宗教诗人更关心死亡以及对于死亡的恐惧,而霍普金斯则更像沃恩,对于自然世界充满了喜悦的热情。他是一位欢庆的诗人,而不是悲悼的诗人,尽管就像其他形而上学主义者一样,偶尔他也会遭到自我怀疑与自我厌恶的纠缠。所有这一切都能用来解释为什么他在当代读者当中如此流行。在笔者看来,霍普金斯笔下天主教意味最显著的长诗——例如《德国的残骸》(The Wreck of Deutschland)——也是最难打动人心的作品。但是他的风格绝对与其他任何人都截然不同,具有专属于他本人的声音。或许正是因为如此,他在生前才未能得到更广泛受众的接纳,必须等到英国诗坛步入更激进的时代之后才能真正流行起来。请看《如翠鸟着了火》(As Kingfishers Catch Fire):

As kingfishers catch fire, dragonflies draw flame;

As tumbled over rim in roundy wells

Stones ring; like each tucked string tells, each hung bell's

Bow swung finds tongue to fling out broad its name;

Each mortal thing does one thing and the same:

Deals out that being indoors each one dwells;

Selves — goes itself; myself it speaks and spells,

Crying Whát I do is me: for that I came.

如翠鸟着火,蜻蜓划焰火;

如跌撞上圆井缘,石经鸣;

似每根拨弦之述,每只悬铃

之荡弓找舌头把名字投播;

每名朽物一件相同的事做:

分给出每位居室内的居灵;

自自我——自自己;“我自己”且拼且评,

啭叫“我所做是我:我来而为我”。

I say more: the just man justices;

Keeps grace: thát keeps all his goings graces;

Acts in God's eye what in God's eye he is —

Chríst — for Christ plays in ten thousand places,

Lovely in limbs, and lovely in eyes not his

To the Father through the features of men's faces.

我且讲更多:公正的人公正;

保持慈恩:保持他之所行慈恩;

在神眼中表现他在神眼中的诚——

基督——因基督在万方成真,

对父,通过人的面容特征

可爱在四肢,可爱在双眼,非他之身。【froCt网友译,有修改】

霍普金斯最伟大的成就就是将他对于世间美好的激动喜乐——他的诗句往往会让读者们感到他是一位观察力敏锐的画家——与虔诚的宗教信仰交织在一起,致使两者难解难分。因此即便对于笔者这样并不信教的人们来说,他的诗歌依然具有直指人心的力量。下面举两个例子。在笔者看来这两首短诗是十九世纪最出色的作品。首先是《变化的美》(Pied Beauty):

Glory be to God for dappled things –

For skies of couple-colour as a brinded cow;

For rose-moles all in stipple upon trout that swim;

Fresh-firecoal chestnut-falls; finches’ wings;

Landscape plotted and pieced – fold, fallow, and plough;

And all trades, their gear and tackle and trim.

All things counter, original, spare, strange;

Whatever is fickle, freckled (who knows how?)

With swift, slow; sweet, sour; adazzle, dim;

He fathers-forth whose beauty is past change:

Praise him.

赞美主,为他创造的变化的万物

看天空中多彩的云朵如同花斑母牛,

看水塘里游泳的鳟鱼,一身玫瑰红点,

新烤出来的红栗,金雀的翅膀

井井有条的大地,褶皱,整饬,刚被犁过,

各行各业的技艺,工具各不相同

万事万物,原件,备品,等外品,

一切易变的,都变化了(谁知道如何?)

快慢不一,酸甜不定,明暗不常

他的美就在这变化之中:

赞美主吧。【hidingdragon网友译,有修改】

再来一首《上帝荣华无上》(God's Grandeur)

The world is charged with the grandeur of God.

It will flame out, like shining from shook foil;

It gathers to a greatness, like the ooze of oil

Crushed. Why do men then now not reck his rod?

Generations have trod, have trod, have trod;

And all is seared with trade; bleared, smeared with toil;

And wears man's smudge and shares man's smell: the soil

Is bare now, nor can foot feel, being shod.

世界彰显着上帝荣华无上,

如震颤的银箔,放射华光;

如榨油渗出,流向伟大的地方。

为什么人类不敬畏他的权杖?

践踏,践踏,践踏,世世代代全都这样;

百工生麻木,苦劳生肮脏,

沾染人类的污浊气息:大地四方

如此贫瘠,脚感觉不到将鞋穿上。

And for all this, nature is never spent;

There lives the dearest freshness deep down things;

And though the last lights off the black West went

Oh, morning, at the brown brink eastward, springs —

Because the Holy Ghost over the bent

World broods with warm breast and with ah! bright wings.

尽管如此,自然不会消耗殆尽。

至爱的新奇,深层的东西,永不休止。

即便最后一线光从漆黑的西方散尽,

哦,晨光,在东方褐色的边际升起,

因为那圣灵俯身贴近

这世界,用温暖的胸膛和光明的翎羽。

以上诗文的作者一看就有绘画经验,不是吗?霍普金斯上学时的牛津是思想的温床,每一位智识过剩、情绪激动、争辩成性的年轻人们都忍不住在各个领域走得太远一点。但是在自以为伟大的高傲表象下这帮人全都玩得很开心。比方说有一位教士的儿子查理斯.道奇森,此人在牛津就读的时期与霍普金斯有重叠。尽管他也加入了宗教团体并且终身未婚,但却始终没成为天主教徒。他是一名杰出的数学家,也是摄影领域的先驱人物。今天我们当然更熟悉他的笔名刘易斯.卡罗尔,他的传世名作《爱丽丝漫游仙境》,以及他终其一生对于幼女的仰慕。道奇森年轻时写过很严肃的诗歌,也希望得到严肃对待,但是他的真正天赋却在于创作奇幻文学以及架空世界当中的颠覆性笑话。他为我们留下了许多“胡言诗”,其中最伟大的一首无疑是《炸脖龙》(Jabberwocky)。就像托尔金的中土世界植根于早期英国文学一样,这首诗也在盎撒文化当中稳稳地占据了一席之地:

'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

有(一)天臾里,那些活济济的貐子

在卫边儿尽着那么廾那么犻;

好难四儿啊,那些鹁鹊蚼子,

还有寏的猱子怄得格儿。

"Beware the Jabberwock, my son!

The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!

Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun

The frumious Bandersnatch!"

“小心那炸脖竜,我的孩子!

那咬人的牙,那抓人的爪子!

小心那诛布诛布鸟,还躲开

那符命的螌得螚子!”

He took his vorpal sword in hand:

Long time the manxome foe he sought --

So rested he by the Tumtum tree,

And stood awhile in thought

他手拿着一把佛盘剑:

他早就要找那个蛮松蟒——

他就躲在一棵屯屯树后面,

就站得那儿心里头想。

And as in uffish thought he stood,

The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,

Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,

And burbled as it came!

他正在那儿想的个鸟飞飞,

那炸脖竜,两个灯笼的眼,

且秃儿丐林子里夫雷雷

又渤波儿波儿的出来撵。

One, two! One, two! and through and through

The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!

He left it dead, and with its head

He went galumphing back.

左,右!左,右!透了又透,

那佛盘剑砍得欺哩咔碴!

他割了它喉,他拎了它头,

就一嘎隆儿的飞恩了回家。

"And hast thou slain the Jabberwock?

Come to my arms, my beamish boy!

O frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!"

He chortled in his joy.

“你果然斩了那炸脖竜了吗?

好孩子快来罢,你真比阿灭!

啊,乏比哦的日子啊,喝攸!喝喂!”

他快活的啜个得儿的飞唉。

'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

   

有(一)天臾里,那些活济济的貐子

在卫边儿尽着那么廾那么犻;

好难四儿啊,那些鹁鹊蚼子,

还有寏的猱子怄得格儿。【赵元任译,有修正】

真是一首文辞奇诡的好诗——不过大概不能让读者忍不住笑意。相比起来,下面这首《威廉师傅你这么老》(You Are Old, Father William)才是笔者本人的长年最爱,因为这首无情颠覆权威的诗歌更有卡罗尔的风格:

"You are old, Father William," the young man said,

"And your hair has become very white;

And yet you incessantly stand on your head—

Do you think, at your age, it is right?"

“威廉师傅你这么老,

你的头发白又白;

倒竖蜻蜒,你这么巧——

你想这样儿该不该?”

"In my youth," Father William replied to his son,

"I feared it might injure the brain;

But now that I'm perfectly sure I have none,

Why, I do it again and again."

先生答道,“我那时小,

怕把脑子跌去来;

现在脑子我没多少,

天天练武随便摔。”

"You are old," said the youth, "as I mentioned before,

And have grown most uncommonly fat;

Yet you turned a back-somersault in at the door—

Pray, what is the reason of that?"

“威廉师傅你这么重,

浑身长得肥又肥;

倒迁筋斗进门洞——

你这身子可危不危?”

"In my youth," said the sage, as he shook his grey locks,

"I kept all my limbs very supple

By the use of this ointment—one shilling the box—

Allow me to sell you a couple."

老头答道,“当年轻,

我就用这个油拌灰;

卖给你只算一先令,

搽了就四肢轻如飞,”

"You are old," said the youth, "and your jaws are too weak

For anything tougher than suet;

Yet you finished the goose, with the bones and the beak—

Pray, how did you manage to do it?"

“威廉师傅你这么弱,

只该喝点稀溜汤;

吃鸡带骨头还叫饿,

这样你胃口伤不伤?”

"In my youth," said his father, "I took to the law,

And argued each case with my wife;

And the muscular strength, which it gave to my jaw,

Has lasted the rest of my life."

威廉答道,“我做知县,

太太总要来帮我忙;

件件案子要拗着我辩,

所以练得我嘴这么强。”

"You are old," said the youth, "one would hardly suppose

That your eye was as steady as ever;

Yet you balanced an eel on the end of your nose—

What made you so awfully clever?"

“威廉师傅你这么晃,

你的眼睛花不花?

鳝鱼顶在鼻尖儿上,

这样能耐差不差?”

"I have answered three questions, and that is enough,"

Said his father; "don't give yourself airs!

Do you think I can listen all day to such stuff?

Be off, or I'll kick you down stairs!"

师傅怒道,“你还不够?

问了又问想干啥?

谁爱听你这咕叨咒?

滚下楼去你快回家!”【赵元任译,有修正】

笔者认为这首诗对于维多利亚时代精神的体现足以与考文垂.帕特摩尔乃至丁尼生的任何作品相提并论。今天的读者们或许不会将这段文字视为正经诗歌,但是维多利亚时代本来就充斥着各种讽刺文学——爱德华.李尔在画漫画之余撰写的五行打油诗,在家庭内部流传的荒唐诗,店铺与街头售卖的轻松歌谣,尤其还有火爆全国且性意味十足的音乐厅歌词。维多利亚时代英国人的精神风貌确实有一本正经、虔诚信教、注重阶级区分的一面,他们确实因为科学新进展而晕头转向,确实一厢情愿地相信大英帝国天命在身;但是另一方面他们也很爱笑,经常乐不可支。


最后于2020-03-27 05:13:01改,共2次;
2020-03-25 04:40:17