主题:Andrew Marr:我们英国人——英国诗歌文学简史 -- 万年看客

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2020-06-17 22:45:38
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万年看客万年看客`28000`/bbsIMG/face/0000.gif`70`7`25625`186730`从五品上:朝请大夫|游骑将军`2008-09-25 10:28:43`
十二,靡靡之音与少数巨人1

维多利亚时代末期与爱德华时代的英国对于诗歌爱好者们来说是一段很吊诡的时期。一方面此时的英国已经普及了全面教育,英国的报纸从未像此时这样百花齐放,文章水准胜于往昔,报纸读者的数量也屡创新高;简而言之这是一个全民阅读的时代,也是文学评论大行其道的时代。但是创作于这一时期的大部分英国诗歌都有些不如人意——拖泥带水,苍白无力,亦步亦趋。这是一个动荡的时代。大英帝国正处于极盛巅峰,为英国中产阶级带来了巨大的财富,也为他们提供了前所未有的开眼看世界的机会。探险家、科学家与讲学家们将最前沿的科学知识传播到了英国各地。在政治层面上,早在一战爆发之前很久,工会与社会主义思潮的兴起就让英国街头充满了各种冲突。强大的自由党面临两面威胁,充满贵族的上议院死死捍卫着最后的阵地,爱尔兰局势也正在日益恶化。但是除去几首最平淡乏味的应景酬对诗文之外,所有这一切在诗歌当中都没能得到多少表现。当年还有一位爱德华.玛什创办了一份《乔治诗摘》(Georgian Verse)杂志,大力推送了一批所谓的乔治时代诗人,但是这些人的作品如今基本已经没人看了。这一时期最激进的文坛运动当属奥斯卡.王尔德倡导的颓废派运动,但是王尔德的诗才直到他将自己因为同性恋取向而被判入狱身败名裂的经历当做创作题材之后才真正充分地发挥出来。尽管如此,这一时期还是有几位诗人不得不提一提。

他们当中有一位鲁德亚德.吉卜林。他的名声如今依旧褒贬不一,因为他是一位铁杆帝国主义者,而他毕生极力鼓吹的大英帝国又在世界各地造成了那么多苦难。其次是托马斯.哈代,人人都知道他是英国最伟大的小说家之一,但是并非所有人都能意识到他首先是自从浪漫主义时代以来最伟大的英国诗人。接下来这话有些好说不好听,但是正所谓国家不幸诗家幸,1914年一战爆发的直接后果之一就是为英国诗人们提供了压倒一切的题材,从而一举拯救了英国诗坛。在新近拾起英格兰乡村题材的主要诗人当中有一位爱德华.托马斯死在了战场上。另一位A.E.豪斯曼是一位杰出的拉丁语学者,大半辈子都过着书斋生活,苦苦压抑着自己的性取向。

不过在介绍这几位之前,我们需要首先检视一下二十世纪初到一战爆发之间这几年风靡一时的其他诗歌。这一时期的英国诗人们面临的诸多不利因素之一在于前拉斐尔派当时正在英国大行其道,利用滔滔不绝的中世纪陈词滥调与维多利亚时代糟粕覆盖了这个国家,一方面令人目眩神迷,另一方面则钝化了文艺受众们的感官。如果哪位读者觉得笔者骂得太狠,还请稍安勿躁继续看下去。有请前拉斐尔派兄弟会的创始人、个性鲜明的但丁.加百利.罗塞蒂。他特别喜欢贵族少女的形象,他的画作里经常出现黑发披肩、地阁方圆、眼冒凶光的女性形象——所谓各花入各眼,本来也强求不得。请看《幸福女郎》(The Blessed Damozel):

The blessed damozel lean'd out

From the gold bar of Heaven;

Her eyes were deeper than the depth

Of waters still'd at even;

She had three lilies in her hand,

And the stars in her hair were seven.

幸福女郎天国居,金阑斜倚望乡闾。

灵眸深比昆池水,夜静波平云影舒。

发上明星簪七颗,手持三朵白芙蕖。

Her robe, ungirt from clasp to hem,

No wrought flowers did adorn,

But a white rose of Mary's gift,

For service meetly worn;

Her hair that lay along her back

Was yellow like ripe corn.

衣裳无带轻飘举,不绣绫花与锦羽。

襟头独佩白蔷薇,圣母见贻慰劳苦。

丝发散披覆两局,黄似丰田秋熟黍。

Herseem'd she scarce had been a day

One of God's choristers;

The wonder was not yet quite gone

From that still look of hers;

Albeit, to them she left, her day

Had counted as ten years.

羯来执役上帝前,歌队追随习管弦。

初入天宫未终日,尚留惊讶在眉端。

只于人世伤离者,此日悠悠己十年。

(To one, it is ten years of years.

…Yet now, and in this place,

Surely she lean'd o'er me—her hair

Fell all about my face….

Nothing: the autumn-fall of leaves.

The whole year sets apace.)

十年之日作年算,不及愁予一日倦。

当前此际恍见伊,丝发低垂拂予面。

惊回却是秋叶飞,忽觉催人时序变。

It was the rampart of God's house

That she was standing on:

By God built over the sheer depth

The which is Space begun;

So high, that looking downward thence

She scarce could see the sun.

伊所立兮琅玎台,旁邻帝阙银屏开。

神刀造成镇天极,从兹肇始宇宙恢。

台阙高高高几许,俯瞰不见皎日来。

It lies in Heaven, across the flood

Of ether, as a bridge.

Beneath, the tides of day and night

With flame and darkness ridge

The void, as low as where this earth

Spins like a fretful midge.

楼阁如桥空际悬,横度以太之洪川。

其下昼夜为潮汐,黑暗光明互代迁。

小千世界居最下,比似微虻自转旋。【张荫麟译】

这几句片儿汤话在笔者耳中确实像虻虫转旋一般烦人。加百利.罗塞蒂的妹妹克里斯蒂娜.罗塞蒂的诗才远远胜过兄长。她的代表作《小妖精集市》(Goblin Market)色彩鲜明,音律生动,有资格跻身于任何一部维多利亚时代诗选。但是她也无法免俗地沾染了感伤主义的娇花气质,还带有一丝遭到美化的十四世纪气息。请看《为我编织一顶风中花冠》(Twist Me a Crown of Wind-Flowers):

Twist me a crown of wind-flowers;

That I may fly away

To hear the singers at their song,

And players at their play.

Put on your crown of wind-flowers:

But whither would you go?

Beyond the surging of the sea

And the storms that blow.

Alas! your crown of wind-flowers

Can never make you fly:

I twist them in a crown to-day,

And to-night they die.

为我编织一顶风中花冠,

让我乘风飞去。

听到歌手吟唱歌声悠扬,

看到人们嬉戏。

为我编织一顶风中花冠,

可你要去何处?

越过重洋波涛汹涌不休,

还有风雨如注。

唉!你编织的风中花冠,

无法让你飞去。

我在白日编织的花冠,

入夜就凋亡消逝。

克里斯蒂娜的风格还不仅局限于感伤主义,有时还会流露出渴望死亡的病态心理,这种心理在前拉斐尔派当中很常见。接下来是她的《亲爱的,当我已经逝去》(When I am dead, my dearest):

When I am dead, my dearest,

Sing no sad songs for me;

Plant thou no roses at my head,

Nor shady cypress tree:

Be the green grass above me

With showers and dewdrops wet;

And if thou wilt, remember,

And if thou wilt, forget.

亲爱的,当我已经逝去,

别为我唱悲伤的歌曲;

我的墓前不用栽种玫瑰,

也无需柏树浓荫遮蔽:

要像那覆盖我的青草

沾着湿润的露珠雨滴;

你若有心就铭记我,

你若无意就将我忘记。

I shall not see the shadows,

I shall not feel the rain;

I shall not hear the nightingale

Sing on, as if in pain:

And dreaming through the twilight

That doth not rise nor set,

Haply I may remember,

And haply may forget.

我再也看不到树荫,

我再也感受不到雨滴;

我将无法听见夜莺

似乎痛苦的悲戚:

陷入晨昏之间的长梦,

日出日落都已是过去。

或许我还会记得你,

或许我也会忘记。

前拉斐尔派当中最积极参与社会活动的诗人是基督徒社会主义者、才华横溢的设计师威廉.莫里斯。但是就连他也一样深深陷入了中世纪风格当中。他相信唯有奉行中世纪主义才能摆脱现代市场经济社会的混乱与不幸。换言之,他不乐意直接描写身边的世界,而是喜欢一厢情愿地追忆往昔。以下是《阿塔兰忒的赛跑》(Atalanta’s Race)的开篇:

Through thick Arcadian woods a hunter went,

Following the beasts up, on a fresh spring day;

But since his horn- tipped bow but seldom bent,

Now at the noontide nought had happed to slay,

Within a vale he called his hounds away

Hearkening the echoes of his lone voice cling

About the cliffs and through the beech-trees ring.

一名猎手穿过茂密的阿卡狄亚森林,

在和煦春日,紧跟野兽毫不放过;

可是他的角弓已经许久没有绷紧,

直到正午时分都还没有任何斩获,

他在山谷里呼喊,与猎犬联络,

只能听见他自己的声音反复回荡,

穿过一片片山毛榉,落在山崖壁上。

But when they ended, still awhile he stood,

And but the sweet familiar thrush could hear,

And all the day-long noises of the wood,

And o'er the dry leaves of the vanished year

His hounds' feet pattering as they drew anear,

And heavy breathing from their heads low hung,

To see the mighty cornel bow unstrung.

但是回声消逝之后,他依然站在原地,

只能听到熟悉的鸫鸟歌喉圆润,

还有林中的各种响动终日不肯休憩。

踏着层层枯叶,来自往昔的年份,

大步快跑的猎犬们向他靠近,

纷纷直喘粗气,不敢抬头看,

它们的英武主人尚未开弓放箭。

甚至当莫里斯终于直面“英格兰的现状”这一问题时,也依然会在诗歌题材上裹一层中世纪的面纱。比方说下面这首《穷人的上帝》(The God of the Poor)——Deus est Deus pauperum——光从字面上看谁能猜出来这首诗居然创作于工业化与社会主义思潮盛行的时代呢?

HERE was a lord that hight Maltete,

Among great lords he was right great,

On poor folk trod he like the dirt,

None but God might do him hurt.

Deus est Deus pauperum.

有一位尊主名叫马尔提提,

纵然相比其他贵胄也堪称雄奇,

恣意践踏穷人好似脚底烂泥,

唯有上帝兴许能蹭破他的肉皮——

Deus est Deus pauperum。

With a grace of prayers sung loud and late

Many a widow's house he ate;

Many a poor knight at his hands

Lost his house and narrow lands.

Deus est Deus pauperum.

伴随祈祷声声响彻夜深,

他曾将多少寡妇的家产侵吞;

多少穷困骑士遭他毒手算计,

失去了家宅与一亩三分薄地——

Deus est Deus pauperum。

He burnt the harvests many a time,

He made fair houses heaps of lime;

Whatso man loved wife or maid

Of Evil-head was sore afraid.

Deus est Deus pauperum.

多少粮囤曾被他烧成黑灰,

多少房屋曾被他拆成石堆;

他曾将多少人的妻女霸占,

他那颗凶颅吓得人心惊胆战——

Deus est Deus pauperum。

He slew good men and spared the bad;

Too long a day the foul dog had,

E'en as all dogs will have their day;

But God is as strong as man, I say.

Deus est Deus pauperum.

遇到恶人他就饶过,遇到善人他就杀光,

过了太久这条凶犬还在放肆嚣张;

虽说每一条疯狗都难免一时得意,

可是依我看神并不比人更有惩恶之力——

Deus est Deus pauperum。【感谢atr网友的指正】

下面这位阿尔加侬.查尔斯.斯温伯恩倒是不属于任何运动,而且肯定不是社会主义者。奇怪的是,他的作品指向了维多利亚时代晚期英国诗歌的另一个问题。以斯温伯恩为代表的这一派诗人性情敏感,接受过深入的古典文化训练,平时局限在大学圈子里,身边全都是同类人,他们的诗文在技法层面几乎有些过于优秀——文笔圆润娴熟,音律优美与济慈一脉相承,抑扬顿挫高低起伏,足以与弗雷德里克.戴留斯的乐曲相媲美——但是归根结底算不得言之有物。以下诗文是斯温伯恩为了悼念远比他更加卓越的法国颓废派诗人夏尔.波德莱尔而创作的《送行之歌》(Ave Atque Vale)的开篇:

Shall I strew on thee rose or rue or laurel,

Brother, on this that was the veil of thee?

Or quiet sea-flower moulded by the sea,

Or simplest growth of meadow-sweet or sorrel,

Such as the summer-sleepy Dryads weave,

Waked up by snow-soft sudden rains at eve?

Or wilt thou rather, as on earth before,

Half-faded fiery blossoms, pale with heat

And full of bitter summer, but more sweet

To thee than gleanings of a northern shore

Trod by no tropic feet?

我该不该向你抛洒玫瑰、芸香或者月桂,

兄弟,将花瓣播撒在你的面纱?

或者撒几朵大海塑造的沉静海花,

或者是最单纯生长的绣线菊与酸模,

让夏日里睡眼惺忪的林间精灵织造。

夕阳时暴雨骤降如雪,惊醒了它们的懒觉?

又或者你宁愿像在世时那样,

更喜欢被烈日暴晒褪色的火红花朵

充满了夏日的苦涩,但甜蜜却更多?

胜过北岸搜集的收藏,

没有被热带的双脚踩过?

For always thee the fervid languid glories

Allured of heavier suns in mightier skies;

Thine ears knew all the wandering watery sighs

Where the sea sobs round Lesbian promontories,

The barren kiss of piteous wave to wave

That knows not where is that Leucadian grave

Which hides too deep the supreme head of song.

Ah, salt and sterile as her kisses were,

The wild sea winds her and the green gulfs bear

Hither and thither, and vex and work her wrong,

Blind gods that cannot spare.

因为你那狂热而慵懒的荣耀

永远诱惑着更沉重的太阳,在更雄伟的天空,

你的双耳知道所有游移不定的水之叹息声,

那是大海在莱斯波斯的岬角轻轻啜泣。

一道道凄凉浪花的荒芜之吻毫无用意,

不知道哪里才是投海自尽的墓地,

海水将至上之歌的开头隐藏得太深。

啊,她的吻毫无生机,唯有咸涩。

茫茫的海风吹拂着她,绿色的沟壑

伸向两边,折磨惑乱她的心,

盲目的神灵不能放过。【感谢atr网友的指正】

在这种玩意的阴影下成长起来的诗人们肯定都曾扪心自问,诗歌究竟应该写些什么——怎样的题材才算合适?颓废主义运动采用慵懒的求死之心来对抗资产阶级基督教的乐观立场,用唯美主义来对抗竞赛主义。当时的诗人肯定觉得这样做是明智之举,但是遵循这一路线的诗歌全都软弱无力并且矫揉造作。有些粗声大嗓的粗野之辈喜欢恶搞颓废派的作品,他们这么做兴许并不算毫无道理。亚瑟.西蒙斯可谓最具代表性的颓废派诗人,在当时读者众多且颇有影响力。此人对于色彩极其敏感,并且喜欢描写转瞬即逝的刹那。请看《淡紫、黝黑与玫瑰红》(Mauve, Black, and Rose):

Mauve, black, and rose,

The veils of the jewel, and she, the jewel, a rose.

淡紫、黝黑与玫瑰红,

珠宝的面纱,而她就像珠宝,玫瑰般嫣红

First, the pallor of mauve,

A soft flood flowing about the body I love.

首先是淡紫的肤色,

柔和的流水在我所爱的肉体上流过。

Then, the flush of the rose,

A hedge of roses about the mystical rose.

接下来是一阵玫瑰红,

玫瑰从中有一阵神秘升腾。

Last, the black, and at last

The feet that I love, and the way that my love has passed.

最后还要将黝黑回顾,

我爱的双脚,我的爱经过的道路。

下面这首诗干脆名叫《蜡笔画:脸与面具》(Pastel:Masks and Faces)

The light of our cigarettes

Went and came in the gloom:

It was dark in the little room.

明灭闪动的微光

在一片昏暗里,是我们的香烟:

在这个黑暗的小小房间。

Dark, and then, in the dark,

Sudden, a flash, a glow,

And a hand and a ring I know.

一片黑暗,然后在这黑暗中,

突然一道火光转瞬即逝,

照亮那只我熟悉的纤手与手上戒指。

And then, through the dark, a flush

Ruddy and vague, the grace

(A rose!) of her lyric face.

然后穿透黑暗,一阵闪亮

美貌映射着红光朦胧

(好比玫瑰!)那是她像诗一样的面容。

诚然,这两首诗并没有沉浸于中世纪。诗句紧凑动人,题材也是现代人——抽香烟的现代人。甚至就连前一首诗里提到的淡紫色都是近代化学工业的产物。西蒙斯的确找到了一条诗歌创作的新路。但是说一千道一万,有些题材毕竟更适合用油画而不是音律来表达。比方说下面这首奥斯卡.王尔德的《气球》(Les Balloons)就是个好例子:

Against these turbid turquoise skies

The light and luminous balloons

Dip and drift like satin moons

Drift like silken butterflies;

在这混浊的青绿色天空,

几个气球轻盈而又亮丽。

忽落忽起像锦缎的月宫,

丝质的蝴蝶飘来又荡去。

Reel with every windy gust,

Rise and reel like dancing girls,

Float like strange transparent pearls,

Fall and float like silver dust.

一阵风吹过不停地摇晃,

升起又摇晃像跳舞姑娘;

飘拂像奇特透明的珍珠,

银色的梦境飘落又飘拂。

Now to the low leaves they cling,

Each with coy fantastic pose,

Each a petal of a rose

Straining at a gossamer string.

一会儿它们依着矮树叶,

梦幻般的姿态不无羞怯;

红红的玫瑰娇嫩的花瓣,

细细的柔丝长长的牵绊。

Then to the tall trees they climb,

Like thin globes of amethyst,

Wandering opals keeping tryst

With the rubies of the lime.

一会儿它们爬向高树枝,

好像晶莹剔透的紫宝石;

漫游的蛋白石停了下来,

幽会着红宝石不舍依依。【袁宪军译,有修改】

无可否认的是,上述几位诗人全都才华横溢并且雄心勃勃,因此我们很难不怀疑他们所欠缺的仅仅是真正恰当的题材而已。王尔德以最糟糕的方式发现了专属于他的诗材。他因为同性恋取向而遭到监禁,被关进了条件严苛的雷丁监狱。他在人生低谷创作的《雷丁监狱之歌》(The Ballad of Reading Gaol)充满了智慧,几乎就像柯勒律治的作品一样摄人心魄:

I walked, with other souls in pain,

Within another ring,

And was wondering if the man had done

A great or little thing,

When a voice behind me whispered low,

"That fellow's got to swing."

我和其他痛苦的囚犯

走在另一个圈子里面,

正在纳闷那个人犯过

重罪还只是区区小错,

却听得有人在身后悄悄说,

“那家伙脖子上要套绳索。”

Dear Christ! the very prison walls

Suddenly seemed to reel,

And the sky above my head became

Like a casque of scorching steel;

And, though I was a soul in pain,

My pain I could not feel.

天哪!眼见那牢房的高墙

突然间似乎摇摇晃晃,

我头上那遥远的云霄,

犹如热钢铸造的盔帽;

虽然我是一个痛苦的囚犯,

我却感觉不到自己的苦难。

I only knew what hunted thought

Quickened his step, and why

He looked upon the garish day

With such a wistful eye;

The man had killed the thing he loved

And so he had to die.

我很清楚什么怪想法

加快了他灵活的步伐,

他面对这俗丽的一天

为何会这样渴望满眼;

他杀了他所爱的东西,

为此他只得以命相抵。

Yet each man kills the thing he loves

By each let this be heard,

Some do it with a bitter look,

Some with a flattering word,

The coward does it with a kiss,

The brave man with a sword!

可谁都在把所爱的杀死,

你不妨听听每人的方式

有人使用恶毒的尖眼,

有人使用阿谀的巧言,

懦夫使用轻轻的一吻,

勇汉使用尖利的刀刃!

Some kill their love when they are young,

And some when they are old;

Some strangle with the hands of Lust,

Some with the hands of Gold:

The kindest use a knife, because

The dead so soon grow cold.

有人毁所爱时还年少,

有人毁所爱时已年老;

有人用欲望之手扼杀,

有人靠金钱之手屠戮:

最心善的才使用利刀,

为的是死者快死快了。

Some love too little, some too long,

Some sell, and others buy;

Some do the deed with many tears,

And some without a sigh:

For each man kills the thing he loves,

Yet each man does not die.

有人爱得太深有人太浅,

有人用钱买有人把钱换;

有人毁所爱时泪水涟涟,

有人却用不着长吁短叹:

虽然谁都在把所爱毁掉,

却未必谁都把绞索来套。

He does not die a death of shame

On a day of dark disgrace,

Nor have a noose about his neck,

Nor a cloth upon his face,

Nor drop feet foremost through the floor

Into an empty place

在一个灰暗的羞耻之日

他死得却不是羞耻的死,

脖子上没有把绞索紧缚;

脸上也没有蒙一块黑布

双脚也无须首先垂落

在地板上设置的坑窝。【文心译】

除了蹲监狱之外,英国诗人还有其他方法可以摆脱爱德华时代颓废主义思潮的慵懒掌握。比方说有些人就在弗兰德斯的战壕里得到了解脱,另一些人——以威廉.巴特勒.叶芝为代表——的解脱方式则是最终成长起来。叶芝将会成为二十世纪最伟大的爱尔兰诗人之一,但是假如他这辈子仅仅写过《仙人歌》(A Faery Song)这种“凯尔特暮光风格”的爱德华时代应景之作,如今又有多少人还会记得他呢?

We who are old,old and gay,

O so old!

Thousands of years,thousands of years,

If all were told:

我们是年老的,老而快乐,

哦,如此年高!

数千年又数千年,

如下一切是否已说:

Give to these children ,new from the world,

Silence and love;

And the long dew-dropping hours of the night,

And the stars above:

给新生于世的孩子们,

宁静与爱;

和长夜露垂的辰光,

还有满天的星星:

Give to these children,new from the world,

Rest far from men.

Is anything better,anything better?

Tell us it then:

给新生于世的孩子们,

远离人类而安息。

还有比这更好、更好的吗?

那就告诉我们吧:

Us who are old,old and gay,

O so old!

Thousands of years,thousands of years,

If all were told.

我们这些年老的,老而快乐,

哦,如此年长!

数千年又数千年,

是否一切都已说了。【吴吟秋译】

叶芝无疑是第一流的诗人。甚至就连他在年轻时的诗作都展示了极大的潜力,尽管这些作品尚未挣脱维多利亚时代晚期与颓废派传统的桎梏。下文当中我们还要真正了解一下成熟起来的叶芝,但是就算他的早期作品也常能令人刮目相看。下面这首《茵梦湖岛》(The Lake Isle of Innisfree)早在1893年就已经问世,单论慵懒气质不亚于任何一部颓废派作品,并且同样热衷于描写细微的光影与色彩,但却丝毫不显病态。诗文当中自有一股西蒙斯乃至王尔德无法企及的魅力:

I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,

And a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made;

Nine bean-rows will I have there, a hive for the honey-bee,

And live alone in the bee-loud glade.

我就要动身走了,去茵纳斯弗岛.

搭起一个小屋子,筑起泥笆房;

支起九行云豆架.一排蜜蜂巢。

独个儿住着,荫阴下听蜂群歌唱。

And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow,

Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings;

There midnight’s all a glimmer, and noon a purple glow,

And evening full of the linnet’s wings.

我就会得到安宁,它徐徐下降,

从朝雾落到蟋蟀歌唱的地方;

午夜是一片闪亮,正午是一片紫光,

傍晚到处飞舞着红雀的翅膀。

I will arise and go now, for always night and day

I hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore;

While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements grey,

I hear it in the deep heart’s core.

我就要动身走了,因为我听到

那水声日日夜夜轻拍着湖滨;

不管我站在车行道或灰暗的人行道,

都在我心灵的深处听见这声音。【袁可嘉译】


2020-06-17 22:45:38